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Family Asteraceae
Hagonoi-tsina
Wedelia chinensis Osbeck
CHINESE WEDELIA

Scientific names Common names
Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. Hagonoi-tsina (Tag.)
Wedelia calendulacea Less Chinese wedelia (Engl.)
Wedelia prostata Hemsl.  
Verbesina calendulacea L.  
Solidago chinensis Osbeck  
Peng qi ju (Chin.)  

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Bhimra
HINDI: Pilabhamgara, Bhringraj
KANNADA: Gargari, Kalsarji
MALAYALAM: , Mannakkannunni
SANSKRIT: Pitabhrnga, Pitabhrngarajah
THAILAND: Ka meng tua phuu, horn kieo kham.
VIETNAM: S[af]i d[aas]t, ng[oor] n[us]i, hoa m[us]c.

Botany
Hagonoi-tsina is a slender, spreading, and hairy herb, with the branches usually less than 50 centimeters long. Leaves are oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 2 to 4.5 centimeters in length, and narrowed at both ends; the margins entire or obscurely toothed; and both surfaces covered with sharp-pointed, appressed, straight, and stiff hairs. Heads are stalked, about 1 centimeter in diameter, and yellow. Involucral bracts are oblong-ovate. Ray flowers are 8 to 12, spreading, about equal to the bracts, and broad; the disk flowers number about 20, are short, narrow and pointed. Achenes are nearly cylindric, and hairy.

Distribution
- In open waste places at sea level.
- A casual introduction.
- Also occurs in India to China.

Constituents
- Studies yield presence of saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroid, flavonoids.
- Plant yields coumestans derivatives: wedelolactone and demethylwedelolactone.
- Methanol and acetone extracts yielded saponins, pholabatannins, resins, lipids and fats, steroids, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, reducing sugars, phenols, carbohydrates, anthraquinone, catchol, sterols, and flavonoids.
- Study of leaf extracts yield major constituents of 2-Tridecanone (CAS) (4.51%), n-(methoxyphenylmethylene) carbamic acid ethyl ester (1.65%), and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z) (13.68%). (See study below) (18)

Properties
Leaves considered tonic, alterative.
Considered astringent, bitter, acrid, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, vulnerary.

Parts used
Leaves, seeds, flowers.

Uses

Folkloric
- Leaves are used to dyeing grey hair and in promoting hair growth.
- Used for coughs, cephalalgia, skin diseases and alopecia.
- Juice of leaves used as snuff in cephalalgia.
- Decoction of seeds and flowers, as well as leaves, at half a teacup twice daily, used as deobstruent.
- Plant decoction used for uterine hemorrhage and menorrhagia.
- In Indian indigenous sytems of medicine, juice of tender leaves used for jaundice, crushed leaves used for helminthiasis. Fresh juice from leaves use externally for skin problems.
- Extracts from dried or fresh leaves of plants applied as paste on wounds.
- In Bangladesh, used for cancer and alopecia.
- In Siddha medicine, used as hair growth stimulant and hair dyeing.
Others
- Dye: / Tattooing: Leaf juice used for tattooing with its deep indelible blue black color. Root is pounded to produce a black dye with salts of iron.


Studies
Anti-Prostate Cancer:
Study in mice showed oral administration of W. chinensis extract impeded prostate cancer tumorigenesis. Exposure of prostate cancer cells induced apoptosis selectively in androgen receptor (AR)-positive prostate cancer cells. The anticancer action of the WC extract was correlated with the accumulation of the principle active compounds wedelolactone, luteolin and apigenin in vivo. (1)
Anti-Cancer: Study of ethanolic extract showed inhibition of growth of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma.
Phytochemicals / Wedelosin / Complement Inhibition: Study yielded a series of caffeic acid derivatives and the new compound, wedelosin, as well as three known flavonoid glycosides (quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-β-apiosyl-(1-2)-β-glucoside, and astragalin or kaempferol 3-O-β-glucoside. Wedelosin showed an inhibitory activity on both the classical and the alternative activation pathway of the complement system.
Hepatoprotective / Wedelosin / Complement Inhibition: Study on hepatotoxin-induced acute hepatitis in rats showed a hepatoprotective effect against liver injuries on WC treated rats. (3)
Anti-Stress Activity: Study evaluating the effect of alcoholic extracts of Costus speciosus rhizomes and Wedelia chinensis leaves on albino rats showed normalizing activity against cold immobilization stress induced changes in NE, DA, 5HT, 5-HIAA and MAO. Results showed biochemical evidence for antistress activity of tested extracts.
Antifungal / Anti-Inflammatory: Study showed the leaf extract of W chinensis contains the major phytoconstituents - carvocrol (46%) and trans-caryophyllene (14%) - which may be responsible for its anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory properties in a mice model. (6)
Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study in animal models showed potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and therapeutic efficacy of WC extract comparable with those of standard drugs like aspirin, morphine and indomethacin. (7)
CNS Depressant Activity: Study of ethanol extract of whole plant of WC on albino and Wistar rats revealed CNS depressant activity with significant reduction of spontaneous activity, exploratory behavioral patter, muscle relaxant activity and significantly potentiated sodium-induced sleeping time. (8)
Antibacterial Activity: Study analyzed the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activities of T procumbens, Wedelia chinensis and P amboinicus against different bacterial strains.
Acute and Subacute Toxicity Study: Study showed the plant seems to show no toxic effects in mice in both acute and subacute models of testing.
Antitumor Active Fraction: Study W. chinensis was sequentially extracted by various extracts and each examined for bioactivity in cancer cell lines to identify the most active fraction and most sensitive cell line. The MTT assay showed the 70% ethanol extract exhibited the highest degree of cytotoxicity than others. The EA showed the most potent antiproliferative activity than others.
Melanogenesis of B16 Melanoma Cells: EEW can directly stimulate melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells,which may be mediated by promoting cell proliferation and increasing expression of tyrosinase and MITF. (17 )
Bioactive Components: Study of leaf extracts yield major constituents of 2-Tridecanone (CAS) (4.51%), n-(methoxyphenylmethylene) carbamic acid ethyl ester (1.65%), and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z) (13.68%). Some identified compounds possess biologic activities: (1) 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z) (RT 25.18) possesses anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, cancer preventive, hepatoprotective, nematicide insectifuge, antihistaminic antieczemic, antiacne, antiandrogenic, antiarthritic, anticoronary and insectifuge properties. 9(Z),12(Z),15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, also known as α- linolenic acid methyl ester known to inhibit proliferation of ER-positive and ER- negative breast cancer cells [19]. It is a potent antiangiogenic agent in colorectal cancer and in HUVEC cells. (18)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antimicrobial / Essential Oil: Study of essential oil of Wedelia chinensis in a Swiss albino rat model showed anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity attributed of many major compounds. Major compounds identified were Carvocrol and trans-Caryophyllene. (19)
Antibacterial / Leaves / Bacillus cereus: Study showed the methanol extract of W. chinensis may be an effective antibacterial agent to treat infectious diseases caused by a range of pathogenic bacteria. The antibacterial mechanism may bet attributed to the presence of major phytochemicals such as flavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. (20)
Anticonvulsant : Study evaluated the anticonvulsant activity of various extracts of whole plant of Wedelia chinensis in mice models using MED and PTZ methods. Results showed anticonvulsant activity in both models comparable to that of phenytoin. (21)
Phytocompounds Synergistically Suppressing Androgen Activity and Growth in Prostate Cancer Cells: Study reports four anti-proliferative phytocompounds (indole-3-carboxylaldehyde, wedelolactone, luteolin and apigenin) and identified their ability to modulate androgen receptor (AR) activation of transcription from prostate-specific antigen promoter in PCa cells. identified synergistic effects of active compounds in W. chinensis and showed a potential for prostate cancer prevention and therapy. (22)
Amelioration of DSS-Induced Acute Colitis: Study shows W. chinensis is non-toxic and can actively ameliorate DSS (dextran sulfate sodium)-induced acute colitis in mice. (23)
Anticandidal Activity / Leaves / C. albicans: Tested against four pathogenic C. albicans strains, a methanol extract of leaves exhibited favorable anticandidal activity. (24)
Hepatoprotective / Cadmium induced Liver Toxicity: An aqueous extract of leaves from Wedelia chinensis showed hepatoprotective activity in cadmium chloride-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The hepatoprotective activity may be due to the antioxidant effect exerted by flavonoids present in the leaves.(25)
Larvicidal / Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus: Various extracts of Wedelia chinensis were tested for larvicidal activity against early fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Methanol and acetone solvent samples showed higher toxic potential. Results suggest W. chinensis is an ideal larvicide against AA and CQ, an ecofriendly alternative for control of the dengue vector and lymphatic filariasis vector. (26)
Inhibition of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma CNE-1 Cell Growth: Study evaluated various extracts of WC for bioactivity in vitro via MTT assay in five human cancer cell lines. Results showed one subfraction of the EA extract was cytotoxic to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) CNE-1 cells, with significant G2/M cell cycle arrest and modest apoptosis. Results suggest Chk1 is a novel molecular target of EA6 in NPC cells and also suggest an intervention strategy for NPC. (27)

Availability
Wild-crafted.


Last Update July 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / Wedelia chinensis / © Ayurvedam Today / Ayurvedam Today is a monthly Magazine in Tamil published by Ayurvedham Dr S Senthil Kumar from Chennai India / click on photo to see source image./ Pinterest
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: A Sphagneticola calendulacea flower in CUHK, Hong Kong / File:Wedelia chinensis.jpg / 30 March 2006 / Lorenzarius / GNU Free Documnetation License / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Herbal Extract of Wedelia chinensis Attenuates Androgen Receptor Activity and Orthotopic Growth of Prostate Cancer in Nude Mice / Chin-Hsien Tsai, Feng-Min Lin et al / (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(17) :OF1–10) / doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-0298
(2)
Characterisation of new oligoglycosidic compounds in two Chinese medicinal herbs / S. Apers, Y. Huang, at al / Phytochem. Anal., 2002, 13(4), 202-206 / DOI:10.1002/pca.642
(3)
Hepatoprotective effects of Taiwan folk medicine: wedelia chinensis on three hepatotoxin-induced hepatotoxicity / S C Lin, C C Lin et al / The American journal of Chinese medicine. 02/1994; 22(2):155-68.
(4)
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES OF THE PLANT WEDELIA CHINENSIS (OSBECK) MERR. / R Mohan Kumar et al / IJPRD/2011/PUB/ARTI/VOV-2/ISSUE-11/JAN/007
(5)
Effect of Costus speciosus and Wedelia chinensis on Brain Neurotransmitters and Enzyme Monoamine Oxidase Following Cold Immobilization Stress / /Nitin Verma and R L Khosa /J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol.1(2), 2009,22-25
(6)
Evaluation of antifungal and anti-inflammatory effect on methanolic extract of Wedelia chinensis leaves / A. Manjamalai, Shahna Abdul Shukoor et al / Int J Pharm Biomed Res 2011, 2(1), 30-37
(7)
Investigating the Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activity of Leaves of Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. In Standard Experimental Animal / Shanmugam Sureshkumar, Thangavel Sivakumar et al / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2006) 2: 123-129
(8)
CNS Activity of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia chinensis in Experimental Animals
/ V Suresh, RM Kumar et al / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Nanotechnology, Vol 3 • Issue 1 • April – June 2010
(9)
Acute and subacute toxicity of the hydroalcoholic extract from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae) in mice / Cristiani Bürger, Doris R aquel Fischer et al /
J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci, 8(2):370-373, 2005
(10)
Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(11)
Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. / Chinese name / Catalogue of Life, China
(12)
Chinese wedalia / Common names / Flowers of India
(13)
Pharmacological and Phytochemical Evidences for the Plants of Wedelia Genus– A Review
/ AK Meena, MM Rao, RP Meena P Panda and Renu / Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2011; Vol. 1: Issue 1, Pg 07-12
(14)
Analysis of Phytochemical Constituents and Anti-Microbial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants in Tamilnadu, India / A. Manjamalai, R. Sardar Sathyajith Singh, C.Guruvayoorappan and V M Berlin Grace / Global Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry 5(2):120-128, 2010.
(15)
Studies on Separation of Antitumor Active Fraction Extracted from Wedelia Chinensis and Its Related Mechanisms / Posted in: Chinese Herbology > Chinese Traditional Medicinal Chemistry > 2012-04-26 Medical Information Center
(16)
Medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners in three villages of Natore and Rajshahi districts, Bangladesh / Mohammed Rahmatullah et al / Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4(2): 132-138, 2010
(17)
The effect and mechanism of ethanol extract from Wedelia chinensis on melanogenesis of B16 melanoma cells / MEI Han-fang,LIN Mi,ZHU Jia-yong / Journal of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, 2012-02
(18)
GC-MS determination of bioactive components of Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merrill / *H. Rehana Banu and N. Nagarajan / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2013, 5(4):279-285 /
(19)
STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF WEDELIA CHINENSIS (OSBECK) AGAINST MICROBES AND INFLAMMATION / A.MANJAMALAI, G.J. JIFLIN and V.M. BERLIN GRACE * / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 5, Issue 2, 2012
(20)
Effects of Methanol Extract of Wedelia chinensis Osbeck (Asteraceae) Leaves against Pathogenic Bacteria with Emphasise on Bacillus cereus / I. Darah, S. H. Lim, and K. Nithianantham / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2013 Sept-Oct; 75(5): 533-539
(21)
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF WEDELIA CHINENSIS / Pradip Singh et al / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Research 01/2011; 2:39-43.
(22)
Compounds from Wedelia chinensis synergistically suppress androgen activity and growth in prostate cancer cells / Feng-Min Lin, Li-Ru Chen, En-Hau Lin, Ferng-Chun Ke, Hsin-Yi Chen, Meng-Jen Tsai and Pei-Wen Hsiao* / Carcinogenesis (2007) 28 (12): 2521-2529. / doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgm137
(23)
Dietary Uptake of Wedelia chinensis Extract Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice / Huang Y-T, Wen C-C, Chen Y-H, Huang W-C, Huang L-T, et al. / / PLoS ONE 8(5): e64152. / doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064152
(24)
POTENT ANTICANDIDAL ACTIVITY OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF WEDELIA CHINENSIS LEAVES (OSBECK) AGAINST PATHOGENIC CANDIDA ALBICANS / DARAH IBRAHIM, LIM SHEH HONG* AND NINTHIANANTHAM KUPPAN / Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2013 Oct; 4(4): (P) 120 - 130
(25)
Hepatoprotective Activity of Wedelia Chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. on Cadmium induced Liver Toxicity in
Albino rats
/ Venkata Naveen K.*, Swathi Sree k. / Journal of Scientific Research in Pharmacy 2012, 1(3)
(26)
Larvicidal activity of Wedelia chinensis (Asteraceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus / Arumugam Durga, Syed Mohammed Imthiyaz Begum, Berchmans Scholastica Mary Vithiya, and Rathinasamy Regina Mary / INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH, Vol 4, Issue 7, July 2014.
(27)
Wedelia chinensis Inhibits Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma CNE-1 Cell Growth by Inducing G2/M Arrest in a Chk1-Dependent Pathway / Manyu Liu, Weizhang Wang, Xiaobo Li, Dayu Shi. Hanfang Mei, Xiaobao Jin, Jiayong Zhu / Am. J. Chin. Med. 41, 1153 (2013). DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1350078X

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