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Family Amaranthaceae
Achyranthes aspera L.
Tu niu xi

Scientific names  Common names 
Achyranthes acuminata E.Mey. ex Cooke & Wright Angud (Pamp.) 
Achyranthes aspera L. Deket-deket (Ilk.) 
Achyranthes asperoides Pires de Lima Dokot-dokot (Tag.)
Achyranthes australis R.Br. Garem (Ilk.) 
Achyranthes canescens R.Br. Guela (Neg.)
Achyranthes daito-insularis Tawada Hangod (Tag.)
Achyranthes ellipticifolia Stokes Hangor (Tag.)
Achyranthes fruiticosa Desf. Hangot  (Tag.)
Achyranthes grandiflora Moq. Higad-higad (Ilk.)
Achyranthes obovatifolia Stokes Libay (Tag.)
Achyranthes okinawensis Tawada Lopo-lopo (Bis.) 
Achyranthes robusta C.H.Wright Niknikitan (Bon.)
Achyranthes sicula Roth Ragragadi (Ilk.)     
Candelaria punctata Raf. Saramo (Bis.)
Centrostachys aspera (L.) Standl. Aparmarga (India) 
Centrostachys aspera (L.) Standl. Chaff flower (Engl.)
Centrostachys australis (R.Br.) Standl. Devil's horsewhip (Engl.)
Centrostachys canescens (R.Br.) Standl. Prickly chaff flower (Engl.) 
Centrostachys grandifolia (Moq.) Standl.  
Centrostachys indica (L.) Standl.  
Stachyarpagophora aspera (L.) M.Gómez  
Achyranthes aspera L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Dao gou cao, Dao geng cao, He ye tu niu xi, Tu niu xi.
HINDI: Latkana, Latjira, Chirchita.
PAKISTANI: Puthkanda.
SANSKRIT: Apamarga.
TAMIL: Naayuruvi, Naayuruvi vaer.

Hangod is a coarse, rambling or erect, distantly branched annual herb, 0.5 to 2 meters high. Leaves are oblong-ovate to elliptic or obovate, 6 to 15 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, more or less hairy, though often nearly smooth. Spikes are rigid, elongated and 10 to 15 centimeters long. Flowers are green and about 5 millimeters in length. Sepals 4 or 5, filaments connate at the base, the stamens and staminodes square toothed or fimbricate, pale purplish. Buds point upwards but when the flowers open, they spread out from the sides. Seeds are oblong, brown, 2 to 3 millimeters long. Fruits utricles are oblong or ovoid, indehiscent.

- Weed found throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes, in open, waste places.
- Pantropic weed, probably introduced into the Philippines.

• Phytochemical screening of an ethanol extract yielded triterpenoids, saponins, alkaloids (betaine, achyranthine) and steroids and major constituents. (29)
• Contains triterpenoid and saponins.

• Fruit contains a large percentage of alkaline ash containing potash.
• Seeds contain saponins A and B, glycosides of oleanolic acid.
• Study yielded bioactive compounds: alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, and tannins.

• Plant is rich in metals Fe, Cu, Ca and Na. (28)
• Study of powdered air-dried seeds yielded the presence of alkaloids, saponins, glycosides (especially C-glycosides), flavonoids, proteins, amino acids and terpenoids. (38)
• Methanolic extract of roots and leaves showed an oleanolic acid content of 0.37% and 0.13% w/w respectively. (43)
- Methanol extract of leaves (L), inflorescence (I), stem (S), and roots (R) yielded tannin (SR), alkaloid (LISR), flavonoid (LI), saponin (IS), and coumarin (LISR), with absence of steroid, terpenoid and phenol. (50)
• Phytochemical screening of seed extract yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, lipids, and terpenoids. (see study below) (59)
- Phytochemical screening of methanol extract of leaves yielded alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, anthraquiones, cardiac glycosides and terpenes. (see study below) (63)

• According to Ayurveda, bitter, pungent, heating laxative, stomachic, carminative.
• Considered slightly cooling, antipyretic-diuretic.
• Aids lymphatic circulation, strengthens musculature, improves blood circulation
• Seeds and leaves considered emetic.
• Studies have reported antibacterial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, abortifacient, antidepressant, anxiolytic, and antinociceptive properties.

Parts utilized
Entire plant.
Collect from May to October.
Rinse, macerate, sun-dry.

Edibility / Culinary / Nutrition
- Leaves and seeds are edible.
- Leaf used as potherb.
- Seeds rich in protein.
• In the Philippines, decoction of roots and leaves used as diuretic.
• Sap said to be useful in dissipating corneal opacities.
• Used for cold with fever, heat stoke with headache, malaria, dysentery.
• Used for urinary tract lithiasis, chronic nephritis, edema, and rheumatic arthralgia (joint pain).
• Ash, with honey, used to relieve coughs.
• In India roots macerated in water, are applied to relieve the pain of scorpion stings.
• Juice of leaves used for dysentery.
• Infusion of root used as mild astringent for bowel complaints.
• Seeds and leaves used as emetic.
• In Ayurveda, used for treating vomiting, bronchitis, heart problems, hemorrhoids itching, abdominal pains, ascites, etc.
• Yunani healers have used stems, leaves, and fruits for piles, dropsy, pneumonia, kidney stones, snake bites, gonorrhea, dysentery.
• In India, used as abortifacient. Also, used as stomachic and laxative. Used by various tribes as purgative, diuretic, for piles, boils, skin eruptions and treating snake bites.
• In Western India, juice of plant applied to relieve toothache. Ashes with honey given to relive cough. Root given at bedtime to relieve night blindness, and rubbed into a pasted with water and used as eye salve for corneal opacities. (24)
• In Western Ghats, seeds used for treating jaundice
• Used in piles, inflammation of the internal organs and enlarged cervical glands.
• Juice is applied to relieve toothache.
• Decoction of leaves used in treatment of diarrhea and dysentery.
• Poultice of leaves used for rabies, hysteria, insect and snake bites.
• In Western Uttar Pradesh, India, plant used by healers for treatment of asthma, bleeding, facilitating delivery, boils, bronchitis, colds and cough, colic, debility, dropsy, dog bites, dysentery, headache, leucoderma, pneumonia, renal complications, scorpion bites and snake bites, etc. (2)
• In India, used as diuretic in renal dropsies and general anasarca; for treatment of beriberi, pneumonia, cough, toothache. Roots used for menstrual disorders and leprosy; as stomachic and digestive. Leaves used for gonorrhea and syphilitic sores, piles, and dysentery.. Raw seeds taken with water as brain tonic, expectorant, and for bleeding piles. Flowers used as poultice for snakes and reptile bites. (52)
• Ash from burnt plant, mixed with mustard oil and pinch of salt, and used as powder for cleaning teeth.
• Dried twigs or fresh piece of root used as toothbrush.
• Ash is a rich source of potash. Used for washing clothes.

Ethnomedicinal Gynecological Use in Uttar Pradesh, India: The study records the ethno-medicinal use of A. aspera in rural areas in India: abortion, inducing labor pains, expelling dead fetus, expelling placental remains, stopping excessive bleeding, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, etc. (2)
Antifertility / Abortifacient: Methanolic leaves extract of AA showed significant abortifacient activity and increased, pituitary and uterine weights in ovariectimized rats. Its anti-fertility activity presents a potential option for population explosion. (4)
Nephroprotective: Study evaluating the nephroprotective role of the methanolic extract of A aspera against lead acetate-induced nephrotoxicity in rats showed complete amelioration of the lead-induced renal damage. (11)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract fractions on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Results showed various fractions with anti-inflammatory activity, with the ethyl acetate fraction showing most potent activity. (37)
Post-coital antifertility activity of Achyranthes aspera Linn. root: Study suggests the ethanol extract possess both anti-implantation and abortifacient activity. It also exhibited estrogenic activity. (5)
Larvicidal activity: All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects against A aegypti and C quinquefasciatus. It investigates the potential of crude extracts of medicinal herbs as a measure to control the vector of dengue and lymphatic filariasis. (6)
Immunomodulatory Activity: Extract of AA was found to enhance the induction of ovalbumin-specific humoral antibody response in mice on intraperitoneal extract injection along with OVA. Results confirm the immunostimulatory properties of A aspera. (7)
Anti-Inflammatory activity: Study results demonstrate promising anti-inflammatory activity against both acute and chronic inflammation. Also, inhibition of prostaglandins and bradykinins may play a role.
Wound Healing / Antioxidant: Study showed the ethanol and aqueous extracts of Achyranthes aspera showed wound healing activity in the wound models used and also exhibited good antioxidant effect by the prevention of free radicals. Results justify the inclusion of the plant in the management of cuts and wound healing. (12)
Antimicrobial / Anti-Inflammatory: Study showed inhibition of S aureus, B subtilis, E coli and Aspergillus terreus.
Antiviral / Anti-carcinogenic: Study showed significant inhibitory effects on the Epstein-Barr virus antigen induced by a tumor-promoter in Raji cells. In the in vivo two stage mouse skin carcinogenesis test, the methanolic extract exhibited a pronounced anticarcinogenic effect.
Antioxidant / Antibacterial: Study of various extracts of root, stem, leaf, and inflorescence was evaluated by DPPH assay and antibacterial activity against E. coli and Staph aureus. All extracts exhibited antioxidant and antibacterial activities which were concentration and time dependent. Study yielded bioactive compounds: alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, and tannins. (15)
Diuretic: A methanolic extract exhibited significant diuretic activity, with less effect than furosemide. Results support its ethnopharmacologic use as a diuretic. (16) Study evaluated aqueous and alcoholic extracts of leaves of A. aspera in rats. The extract at 100 mg/kbw showed increase in urine volume, cation, and anion excretion. Furosemide was used as reference diuretic. (64)
Spermatotoxicity / 58-kDa Protein / Roots: A 58-kDa protein was isolated from the roots and studied for spermatotoxic effects. Treated mice showed significant spermatotoxicity, exhibiting spermicidal activity even after proteolysis. (17)
Antiobesity / Seed: Study evaluated the antiobesity effect of an ethanol extract in in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed inhibition of pancreatic amylase and lipase activity. There was suppression in body, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, and liver weights, and reduction in serum parameters, viz. total cholesterol, total triglycerides, and LDL. The antiobesity effects may be partly mediated by a delay of intestinal absorption of dietary fat through the inhibition of pancreatic amylase and lipase activity. (18)
Nephrolithiasis / Nephroprotective: Study evaluated the efficacy of A. aspera in preventing and reducing the growth of calcium oxalate stones in an ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiatic model in hyperoxaluria-induced rats. Treatment showed A. aspera maintained renal functioning and reducing renal injury, with reduced changes in renal architecture and decrease in size of crystals. (19)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves and Whole Plant: Aqueous extracts of leaves and whole plant of A. aspera exhibited promising anti-inflammatory activity attributed to flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids phytoconstituents. (20)
Hepatoprotective: Study an ethanolic extract from seeds showed a hepatoprotective effect in carbon-tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. Data was comparable to silymarin. (21)
Wound Healing / Protein Impact: Study evaluated the comparative protein profile of granulation tissues of burn, diabetic, and immunocompromised patients treated with an ointment of A. aspera methanol extract. A. aspera treatment induced expression of a particular protein in diabetic and immunocompromised wound models suggesting the protein could play a key role in A aspera mediated wound healing in the two models. (22)
Antibacterial / Multi-Drug Resistant Isolates: Study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of crude extracts on clinical isolates of multidrug resistant bacteria. Results conclude A. aspera might be useful against multidrug resistance in pathogens of clinical importance. (23)
Anti-Proliferative and Anti-Cancer / Pancreatic Cancer: Study evaluated a methanol leaf extract on human cancer cells in vitro. The leaf extract exhibited time and dose-dependent cytotoxicity on several tumor cells, with the pancreatic cells showed more sensitivity. The extract selectively suppressed the transcription of metalloproteases, inhibitors of MMPs, and angiogenic factors. Results suggest potent antiproliferative constituents with specific activity against pancreatic cancer. (25)
Antipyretic / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanol extract of leaves for anti-pyretic activity in experimental animal models. The extract exhibited significant anti-pyretic activity in all test doses compared to the control group. (26)
Antifungal: An ethanol extract of leaves showed elevated antifungal activity against C. kefyr, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. A methanol extract showed higher activity against C. neoformans and A. flavus. (27) A study on methanol extract of seeds of Achyranthes aspera showed 95% inhibition of growth of Aspergillus niger. (34)
Antidepressant / Anxiolytic: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of A. aspera for depressant effects on the central nervous system and behavioral effects. Phytoanalysis yielded triterpenoids, saponins, alkaloids (betane, achyranthine) and steroids as major constituents. Results showed decreased locomotor activity, production of muscle relaxation, and anxiolytic activity. The CNS depressant effect and anxiolytic activity were comparable to diazepam. (29)
Anticariogenic / Antibiofilm Preventive Medicine: Study evaluated A. aspera for its potential to inhibit growth and biofilm formation by cariogenic isolate Streptococcus mutans as an alternative means of caries management by quorum quenching (QQ). Study yielded anticaries bioactive compounds with possible QQ ability and a potential for use as anticaries drug leads and antibiofilm preventive medicine. (30)
Antibacterial / Leaf and Stem: Study evaluated organic extracts of both leaf and stem parts for antibacterial activities against multi-drug resistance organisms, viz., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Enterococcus faecalis. (31)
Anti-Cancer Activity : Study evaluated the anticancer efficiency of A. aspera in mineral oil induced cancer in Swiss albino mice. Results showed the ether extract at 3 mg/ml concentration is very effective in reducing cancer symptoms. (32)
Prevention of Diarrhea in Piglets : Study showed "co xuoc" supplementation to sows decreased diarrhea prevalence in piglets, increased their growth rate but decreased litter size, with no apparent effect on the immune response or gut microbial flora. (33)
Antiobesity / Seeds: Study evaluated the antiobesity effect of ethanol extract of Achyranthes aspera seed in in vivo and in vitro models. Results showed antiobesity effects of EAA in high-fat diet treated mice which may be partly mediated through delaying of intestinal absorption of dietary fat by inhibition of pancreatic amylase and lipase activity. (35)
Anti-Urolithiasis: Study evaluated the efficacy of AA extract of roots in preventing and reducing the growth of calcium oxalate stones in ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiatic model in rats. Results showed decrease changes in the architecture of renal tissue and also decreased size of crystals resulting in quick expulsion. (36)
Anti-Herpes / Oleanolic Acid: Study evaluated the antiviral potential of a methanolic extract of A. aspera and one of its pure compound oleanolic acid (OA) against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. Results showed the ME to have weak anti-herpes virus activity while the OA exhibited potent antiherpes virus activity against both HSV 1 and HSV 2. (39)
Hypolipidemic: Study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic effect of an aqueous extract of A. aspera in experimental rats fed with an atherogenic diet containing sesame oil. Results showed amelioration of hypercholesterolemia probably through decrease of exogenous cholesterol absorption and increasing the endogenous cholesterol conversion to bile acid. (40)
Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial: Study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using A. aspera plant extract embedded in chitosan (CS) biopolymer. The biologically synthesized nanoparticles exhibited tremendous antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. (41)
Anti-Proliferative and Anti-Cancer Properties/ Inhibitory Activity against Pancreatic Cancer Cells: Study investigated the anti-proliferative properties of methanol extract of A. aspera leaves on human cancer cells in vitro. The LE showed time and dose dependent cytotoxicity on several tumor cells. Compared to colon, breast, lung, and prostate cancer cells, pancreatic cancer cells significantly showed more sensitivity. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggested LE selectively suppressed the transcription of metalloproteases, inhibitors of MMPs and angiogenic factors. (42)
• Antinociceptive / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of leaves for antinociceptive activity by peripheral/non-narcotic model of nociception and induced writhing syndrome test and central/narcotic models like hot plate and tail flick tests. Results showed significant antinociceptive property as evidenced in all the animal models of nociception. Activity could attributed to the presence of steroids, alkaloids, and triterpene in the methanol extract of leaves. (46)
• Induction of Human Colon Cancer Cell Death / Mitochondrial Apoptosis / Roots: Study evaluated the antitumor effect of ethanolic (EAA) and aqueous (AAA) root extracts on growth of colon cancer COLO-205 cells. The AAA extract chowed greater cytotoxic activity against COLO-205 cells. Apoptotic results revealed loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation in AAA treated cells to a greater extent. Overall results suggest a promising therapeutic candidate against cancer. (47)
• Potent Immunostimulating and Resuscitative Plant / Review: Study and review reports on Achyranthes aspera as a resuscitative plant due to its large number of medicinal properties and medicinally important chemicals like ecdysterone, n-hexacos-17-enoic, spinasterol, achyranthine, betaine, pentatriaontane, hexatriacontane, tritriacontane, Hydroquinone, p-benzoquinone, spathulenol, nerol, asarone, and essential fatty acids (EFAs). Plant also shows many pharmacological activities like spermicidal, anti-allergic, cardiovascular, nephroprotective, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, analgesic, hepatoprotective potency, inhibit leukocyte infiltration (particularly eosinophils and neutrophils), antiperiodic, antimicrobial, purgative, antipyretic and are used in various types of gastric disorders. (48)
Antibacterial / Wound Healing / Phenolic Compounds / Leaves: Study evaluated leaf extracts of A. aspera for antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic activities and characterized the functional phenolic acids as well as protein binding capacity of extracts from two different geographical areas. The protein-precipitating capacity of phenolic compounds was presented as a model for wound healing. A. aspera extracts exhibited moderate to high affinity for protein binding. Wound healing is a complex process with overlapping stages that include inflammation, formation of granulation tissue, exclusion of bacterial and fungal infections, along with epithelization, extracellular matrix formation and remodeling. Phenolic compounds have been shown to enhance tissue regeneration in superficial wounds and burn healing. (49)
Antidiabetic Potential / Ursolic Acid and Oleonolic Acid / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic potential of an ethanol extract of A. aspera leaves in STZ models in Sprague Dawley rats. A chloroform fraction was the active fraction of the ethanol extract. Purification of the fraction isolated pure compounds i.e., ursolic acid, oleonolic acid, sitosterol, and triacontane. Of those, only ursolic acid and oleonolic acid showed potent anti-diabetic effect. (51)
• Toxicity Evaluation of Gold Nanoparticles / Leaves: Study evaluated the cytotoxicity of herbal gold nanoparticles (HGNPs synthesized using leaf extract of A. aspera. The protocol dealt with stability of HGNPs in pH dependent manner. The 100 µg/ml HGNPs concentration was found nontoxic to cultured spleenocyte cells. The study reports synthesis of HGNPs that is easy, quick,of good quality and long epoch stability at pH 10. The nontoxic dose presents potential for nanomedicine and wide applicability for human health. (53)
• Molluscicidal / Leaves: Study evaluated the molluscicidal effect of Acyranthes aspera aqueous leaf extract on adult snails of Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis. Results showed the plant's molluscicidal effect on the two snail species, with 24h LC50 and LC90 of 69.5 and 93.9 ppm against L natalensis, and 24h LC50 and LC90 of 96.5 and 92.8 ppm against B. pfeifferi. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of saponins. (54)
• Anti-Allergy: Study evaluated the activity of A. aspera against allergy caused by heavy metal potassium dichromate in albino mice. After allergy induction the mice received PE, chloroform, and methanolic extracts of A. aspera. Serum analysis of IgM and IgG was done to determine the effect of extracts on serum titer of mice blood. (55)
• Gut Modulatory and Bronchodilator Effect: Study evaluated a crude extract of A. aspera for gut modulatory and bronchodilatory activities. The crude extract increased fecal output, similar to castor oil. It protected against castor oil induced diarrhea in mice. The crude extract caused spasmogenic effect on rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum preparations. The extract inhibited CCh-induced bronchospasm in rats, similar to aminophylline. Results suggest the presence of dose-specific laxative and antidiarrheal effects possibly mediated through cyproheptadine-sensitive receptors and dual cholinergic and calcium channel blockade, respectively. (56)
• Efficacy of Drug Delivery Gel Formulation for Chronic Periodontitis / Clinical Study: Study evaluated the efficacy of a local drug delivery of A. aspera gel in the management of chronic periodontitis. Patients were categorized in two groups of scaling and root planing, one with A. aspera gel and the other with placebo gel. Results showed A. aspera gel when delivered locally with scaling and root planing provided a beneficial effect. A. aspera gel as a non-surgical local drug delivery system had no side effects in the management of periodontitis. It has strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. (57)
• Flavonoids / Anti-Inflammatory in Ova-Induced Asthma / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of an 80% ethanol extract of A. aspera leaves on the treatment of asthma in female BALB/c mice sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of OVA in alum. The extract attenuated the infiltration of neutrophils and the production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-a and IL-5 in the lung. The anti-asthmatic effect may be due to the presence of flavonoids that inhibit the NF-kB pathway. (58)
• Wound Healing / Various Wound Models / Seeds: Study evaluated the in vivo healing properties of A. aspera seeds in excision, incision, dead space and burn wound models on Wistar rats. Parameters were wound closure and period of epithelization for excision and thermal burn wound model; breaking strength in incision wound model; and hydroxyproline content and granulation tissue antioxidant enzymes like SOD and CAT in dead space wound model. Results showed potent wound healing properties with a reasonable safety profile. (59)
• Antioxidant / Sesame Oil Induced Lipid Peroxidation: Study evaluated the effect of Achyranthes aspera on lipid peroxidation in rats fed with sesame oil. Increase in levels of LPO in sesame oil treated group returned towards normalcy in extract treated group suggesting the antioxidant potential of the plant. (60)
Diuretic: Study evaluated the diuretic activity and acute toxicity profile of crude aqueous extract using animal models. Results showed significant diuretic (p<0.001), natriuretic (p<0.001) and kaliuretic (p<0.001) effects At a dose of 50 mg/kg, the crude extract showed 46% diuretic activity as compared with furosemide. The crude extract increased urine volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes in a dose dependent manner. No toxic effects were noted among albino mice even at higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. (61)
Antimicrobial Polyherbal Gel: Study formulated and evaluated a polyherbal gel for antimicrobial activity. Gel formulation consisted of hydroalcoholic extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Achyranthes aspera, and Aegle marmelos. The mixture was tested against Streptococcus mutans, Proteus mirabilis, and Candida albicans. The formulations were found to be very efficacious in all parameters and overall showed to bean effective polyherbal gel. (62)
Haemostatic Effects / Subacute Toxicity Testing / Leaves: Study evaluated the toxicological and haemostatic effects of leaves of A. aspera in adult Wistar albino rats and Swiss mice using experimental models. Intraperitoneal LD50 was 1224.7 mg/kg. There was no evidence of skin irritation. Oral administration to test animals for 21 days caused significant (p=0.05) decrease in clotting and bleeding times. Results show a haemostatic effect with potential to arrest bleeding. (see constituents above) (63)
Anti-Urolithiatic / Leaves: Study investigated the inhibition of in-vitro calcium oxalate crystal formation by Achyranthes aspera and Bryophyllum pinnatum using nucleation assay on different concentrations. Results showed % inhibition for calcium oxalate formation was directly proportional to the increase in extract concentration. A. aspera showed maximum inhibition of 60.06 ± 0.19% at 1000 mg/ml compared to B. pinnatum at 49.93%. (65)


Updated February 2020 / March 2017 / January 2015

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Close-up Image / Achyranthes aspera growing in Puntallana, La Palma, Canary Islands / File:Achyranthes aspera (Puntallana) 04 ies.jpg / Frank Vincentz / Aug 2, 2008 / Creative Commons Attribution / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Chirchita or Onga (Achyranthes aspera var. perphyristachya Hook. F.) / Pankaj Oudhia
Achyranthes aspera - L. / Devil's Horsewhip / Plants For A Future
Effect of achyranthes aspera L. on fetal abortion, uterine and pituitary weights, serum lipids and hormones / Workineh Shibeshi et al / Afr Health Sci. 2006 June; 6(2): 108–112.
Post-coital antifertility activity of Achyranthes aspera Linn. root
/ VASUDEVA Neeru et al / Journal of ethnopharmacology • 2006, vol. 107, no2, pp. 179-181
Larvicidal activity of saponin from Achyranthes aspera against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus / Bagavan, A et al / arasitology Research, Volume 103, Number 1, June 2008 , pp. 223-229(7) / DOI: 10.1007/s00436-008-0962-z
Immunomodulatory Activity of Achyranthes aspera on the Elicitation of Antigen-Specific Murine Antibody Response / Rao Y. Vasudeva et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, Volume 40, Issue 3 May 2002 , pages 175 - 178 / DOI: 10.1076/phbi.
Effect of alcohol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on acute and subacute inflammation / T. Vetrichelvan et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 17 Issue 1, Pages 77 - 79 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.1070
Anti-inflammatory activity of roots of Achyranthes aspera
/ S Vijaya Kumar et al / Summary
Pharmaceutical Biology, October 2009, Vol. 47, No. 10: pp 973-975 /
Achyranthes aspera elevates thyroid hormone levels and decreases hepatic lipid peroxidation in male rats / P.Tahiliani / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 71, Issue 3, Pages 527-532
Experimental Studies of Achyranthes aspera Preventing Nephrotoxicity Induced by Lead in Albino Rats /
Thangavel Jayakumar et al / Journal of Health Science, 55(5), 701-708 (2009)
Wound Healing and Antioxidant Activity of Achyranthes aspera
/ S Edwin et al / Summary
Pharmaceutical Biology, 2008;
Vol 46, No12: pp 824-828
Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae) /
Achyranthes aspera L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Achyranthes aspera : An in vitro study / Abi Beaulah G, Mohamed Sadiq A and Jaya Santhi R* / Annals of Biological Research, 2011, 2 (5) :662-670
Diuretic activity of whole plant extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn / Saurabh Srivastav, Pradeep Singh, K. K. Jha, Garima Mishra, Shruti Srivastava, M.S. Karchuli and R. L. Khosa / European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2011, 1 (2):97-102
Spermatotoxicity of a protein isolated from the root of Achyranthes aspera: a comparative study with gossypol / Mohanan Nair Mohana Kumari Anuja, Ramachandran Nair Saraswathy Amma Nithya, Chellam Rajamanickam, Indira Madambath / Contraception, Oct 2010; Volume 82, Issue 4: pp 385-390
Assessment of Antiobesity Potential of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Seed / Neerja Rani, Surendra Kumar Sharma, and Neeru Vasudeva / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012) / doi:10.1155/2012/715912
Preventive and curative effects of Achyranthes aspera Linn. extract in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis / Anshu Aggarwal, Chanderdeep Tandon et al / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 50, March 2012, pp 201-208.
Effect of aqueous extracts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on experimental animal model for inflammation / Uma A Bhosale, Radha Yegnanarayan, Prachi Pophale, Rahul Somani /Ancient Sci Life, 2012; 31: pp 202-206 / DOI: 10.4103/0257-7941.107362
Hepatoprotective Potency of Achyranthes aspera: An In-vivo Study
/ Manjunatha BK*, Abhilash 2, Vinay Hegde, Suchitra M N, Vidya S M / Int.J.Pharm.Phytopharmacol.Res. 2012, 1(6): 387-390
Impact of Achyranthes aspera L. on Protein Profile in Impaired Wound Models / C C Barua*, A Talukdar, S A Begum, A K Handique, G K Handique, J D Roy, B Buragohain / Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2011, Vol 1, Issue 1: Page No. 13-24
Studies on Antibacterial Effect of Apamarga (A. aspera) on Multi-Drug Resistant Clinical Isolates / Patil Usha and Sharma Mahesh Chandra / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 4(2), Mar-Apr 2013
Study on Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of Some Herbal Extracts / S.S. Maw, M. M. Mon, Z .K .Oo / World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 51 2011
Anti-proliferative and anti-cancer properties of Achyranthes aspers: specific inhibitory activity against pancreatic cancer cells / Subbayan Pochi, Melancha Sarkar, Stephania Impellizzeri, Francisco Raymo et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2010; 13(1): pp 78-82.
/ EK. ELUMALAI, N. CHANDRASEKARAN, T.THIRUMALAI, C.SIVAKUMAR, S.VIVIYAN THERASA, E DAVID /International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.1, No.4, pp 1576-1579, Oct-Dec 2009
Evaluation of some minerals and trace elements in Achyranthes aspera Linn. / Aparna Saraf* and Aruna Samant / International Journal of Pharma Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 3 (2013): 229-233
Study of central nervous system depressant and behavioral activity of an ethanol extract of Achyranthes aspera (Agadha) in different animal models / Uma A Bhosale, Radha Yegnanarayan, Prachi D Pophale, Mandar R Zambare, Rahul S Somani / Int J App Basic Med Res 2011;1:104-8 / DOI: 10.4103/2229-516X.91154
Antibiofilm and quorum sensing inhibitory activity of Achyranthes aspera on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro and in silico study / K. Murugan, K. Sekar, S. Sangeetha, S. Ranjitha, and S. A. Sohaibani / Pharmaceutical Biology, June 2013, Vol. 51, No. 6 , Pages 728-736 / (doi:10.3109/13880209.2013.764330)
Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Plants against Pathogens from Extracts of Achyranthes Aspera /
R Pandey*, Sambasivarao Y and Gurumurthy / Med Aromat Plants 2:135 / doi: 10.4172/2167-0412.1000135
Screening the Anti-Cancerous Efficacy of Achyranthes aspera Linn. using Animal Model Swiss Albino Mice /
Geetha. P, Narayanan. K.R* and A.G. Murugesan / J Biomed Sci and Res., Vol 2 (4), 2010,231-235
Preliminary research results on application of a local medicinal herb (Achyranthes aspera) as dietary supplement to sows to prevent diarrhea in piglets / Pham Hong Son, Pham Quang Trung, Tran Quang Vui and Dinh Thi Bich Lan / Livestock Research for Rural Development 15 (7) 2003
Investigation of Antifungal Activity of Puthkanda Achyranthes aspera: A wild medicinal Herb of Pakistan / Saba Riaz, Laiba Tehreem, Sana Khalid / Investigation of Antifungal Activity of Puthkanda Achyranthes aspera (Paperback)
Assessment of Antiobesity Potential of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Seed / Neerja Rani, Surendra Kumar Sharma, and Neeru Vasudeva / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 (2012) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/715912
Preventive and curative effects of Achyranthes aspera Linn. extract in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis / Anshu Aggarwal, Surinder K Singla, Manish Gandhi and Chanderdeep Tandon / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 50, March 2012, pp 201-208
Antiinflammatory activity of fractionated extracts of Achyranthes aspera Linn leaves / Amrutia Jay N, Jagir patel, Moses Rajan Semuel and Shabaraya A. R. / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2011; 1(8): pp 188-190
Phytochemical investigation of seeds of Achyranthes aspera Linn. / Dinesh Reddy Somagari, Karisetty Basappa, Srikanth Rolla, Pothuganti Jithendar, Rajashekar. B / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2014; 3 (1): 190-193
Anti-herpes virus activities of Achyranthes aspera: An Indian ethnomedicine, and its triterpene acid /
Hemanta Mukherjee, Durbadal Ojha, Paromita Bag, Himanshu Singh Chandel, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Tapan K. Chatterjee, Pulok K. Mukherjee, Sekhar Chakraborti, Debprasad Chattopadhyay / Microbiological Research, Volume 168, Issue 4, 6 May 2013, Pages 238–244
Hypolipidemic Efficacy of Achyranthes aspera on Lipid Profile in Sesame oil fed Rats / Dr. S. Krishnakumari, Priya. K / Ancient Science of Lif, January-June 2006; 25(3&4)
Green synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Achyranthes Aspera Plant Extract in Chitosan Matrix and Evaluation of their Antimicrobial Activities / V. Durga Praveena*, K. Vijaya Kumar / Indian Journal of Advances in Chemical Science 2 (3) (2014)171-177
Anti-proliferative and anti-cancer properties of Achyranthes aspera: specific inhibitory activity against pancreatic cancer cells. / Pochi R Subbarayan, Malancha Sarkar, Stefania Impellizzeri, Francisco Raymo, Balakrishna L Lokeshwar, Pradeep Kumar, Ram P Agarwal, Bach Ardalan / J Ethnopharmacol 2010 Aug 9;131(1):78-82.
Achyranthes aspera / Synonyms / The Plant List
(Review) PHARMACOLOGICAL AND MEDICINAL USES OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA / Saba Hasan / International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, 2014; Vol. 3, No 1: pp 123 – 129 / ISSN 2278-3687 (O)
Antinociceptive Activity of Methanolic Extract of Leaves of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) in Animal Models of Nociception / Chandana C. Barua et al / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 48, Aug 2010, pp 817-821
Achyranthes aspera Root Extracts Induce Human Colon Cancer Cell (COLO-205) Death by Triggering the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway and S Phase Cell Cycle Arrest / Shagun Arora and Simran Tandon / The Scientific World Journal, Vol 2014, Article ID 129697  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/129697
ACHYRANTHES ASPERA: A POTENT IMMUNOSTIMULATING PLANT FOR TRADITIONAL MEDICINE / Praveen Kumar Srivastava / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2018
Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic Activities and Characterisation of Functional Phenolic Acids of Achyranthes aspera Linn: A Medicinal Plant Used for Treatment of Wounds and Ringworm in East Africa / Ashwell R Ndhlala, Habteab M Ghebrehiwot, Bhekumthetho Ncube et al / Frontiers in Pharmacology, 23 Nov 2015 / https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2015.00274
Phytochemical analysis of different parts of Achyranthes Aspera / Prachi Tiwari, Pooja Gond and Satyendra Koshale / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2018; SP2: pp 60-62
Antidiabetic Potential of Achyranthes Aspera Leaves in Rats / Vijai Lakshmi, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Vaibhav Mishra and Santosh Kumar Agarwal / Journal of Biopharmaceutics and Therapeutic Challenges, 2018; 2(1): pp 1-3.
Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Chirchira): A Magic Herb in Folk Medicine / Dwivedi, Sumeet, Dubey, Raghvendra and Mehta, Kushagra / Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 2008;12: pp 670-676
Toxicity evaluation of pH dependent stable Achyranthes aspera herbal gold nanoparticles / Alok Tripatho, Sarika Kumari, Arvind Kumar / Applied Nanoscience, 2016; 6: pp 61-69 / https://doi.org/10.1007/s13204-015-0414-x
Molluscicidal effect of Achyranthes asperaL. (Amaranthaceae) aqueous extract on adult snails of Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis / Belayhun Mandefro, Seid Tiku Mereta, Yinebeb Tariku, and Argaw Ambelu /  Infect Dis Poverty, 2017; 6133 / https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-017-0349-4
Anti allergy activity of Achyranthes aspera / Abhaykumar Kamble / World Scientific News, 2018; 106: pp 24-45
Pharmacological Evaluation of Gut Modulatory and Bronchodilator Activities of Achyranthes aspera Linn. / Hafiz Muhammad Abdur Rahman, Samra Bashir, Safur Rehman Mandukhail, Sohaib Huda / Phytotherapy Research / https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5907
Efficacy of local drug delivery of Achyranthes aspera gel in the management of chronic periodontitis: A clinical study / Boyapati R, Gojja P, Chintalapani S, Nagubandi K, Ramisetti A, Salavadhi SS. / J Indian Soc Periodontol, 2017; 21: pp 46-49 / DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_130_17
Flavonoid-Rich Alcoholic Extract of Leaves of Achyranthes Aspera Reduces Inflammation in a Murine Model of Ova-Induced Asthma / R Kandasamy, G R Hellermann, S S Mohapatra, R F Lockey / The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Feb 2012; 129(2) Suppl / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2011.12.614
Evaluation of Healing Potential of Achyranthes aspera L. (Amaranthaceae) seeds in excision, incision, dead space and burn wound model-An in-vivo Study / Sumanta Mondal, Debjit Ghosh, Seru Ganapaty, Motati Sushrutha Reddy, Karipeddi Ramakrishna / Pharmacognosy Journal, 2016; 8(3): pp 300-306 / DOI:10.5530/pj.2016.3.20
Phytochemical analysis of Achyranthes aspera and its activity on sesame oil induced lipid peroxidation. / Priya K, Krishnakumari S / Anc Sci Life, 2007; 27(1): pp 6-10 / PubMed ID 22557252
Diuretic Activity of Achyranthes aspera Linn Crude Aqueous Extract in Albino Rats / Muhammad Asif, Qaiser Jabeen, Muhammad Atif, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid and Muhammad Qamar-Uz-Zaman / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Dec 2014; 13(12): pp 2039-2045 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v13i12.14
Formulation And Evaluation of Anti-Microbial Polyherbal Gel / Brijyoga, Anup Maiti, Laliteshwar Pratap Singh / Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Science, 2017; 3(8): pp 11-14
An Evaluation of the Sub Acute Toxicity and Haemostatic Effects of Leaves Extract of Achyranthes aspera in Mice and Albino Rats / Bassey Emmanuel Okon, Essien Ettienne Essien, Ching Fidelis Poh and Mbagwu Herbert Orji / European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2015; 7(1): pp 16-25 / DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/7043
DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA LEAVES EXTRACT / Sutar Niranjan, Dash Kumar Alok, Mishra Kiran Soumya, Goyal Priyanka, Mishra Sangita Susri / International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2012; 3(4): pp 216-218
In-vitro Calcium Oxalate Crystallization Inhibition by Achyranthes aspera L. and Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam / Kumkum Agarwal and Ranjana Varma / British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2015; 5(2): pp 146-152 / DOI:10.9734/BJPR/2015/14042

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