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Family Annonaceae
Hilagak
Uvaria rufa
Blume
CARABAO'S TEATS
Xiao hua zi yu pan

Scientific names  Common names 
Uvaria rufa Blume Allagat (Ilk.)
  Banawak (Ati negrito)
  Batag-kabalang (Bik.)
  Hilagak (Tag.)
  Hinlalagak (Tag.)
  Iniu (Sbl.)
  Pedped (Ilk.)
` Susung-damulag (Pamp.)
  Susung-kabayo (Tag.)
  Susung-kalabau (Tag.)
  Carabao's teats (Engl.)
Susung-kalabau is a local name shared by (1) Hilagak, Uvaria rufa, and (2) Susong-damulog, Artabotrys suaveolens.
Uvaria rufa Blume is an accepted name. No synonyms are recorded for the name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Xiao hua zi yu pan.
FRENCH: Uvaria rouge.
LAOTIAN: Phil phouan.
THAI: Nom kwai.

Botany
Hilagak is a woody climbing shrub, 5 to 6 meters high. The younger and lower surfaces of the leaves are rather hairy, with stellately arranged, rusty short hairs. Leaves are borne on very short stalks, oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 8 to 16 centimeters long, with pointed tip and rounded or heart-shaped base. Flowers are extra-axillary, solitary, two or three in depauperate cymes, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter. Fruit is fleshy and red when mature.

Distribution
- In thickets in low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao.
- Also occurs in the Malaysia, Laos, Indonesia, India, Cambodia and Thailand.

Constituents
• The bark contains an alkaloid. The active principle is parasympathetic of the atropine group with activity similar to artabotrine of Marañon.
• Study yielded an oil rich in sesquiterpenes in which the principal component was alpha-humulene (50%). Also, benzyl benzoate (5%).

• Bioassay-guided purification of crude methanolic extract isolated a mixture of 1:1 of flavanols kaempferol (1) and quercetrin (2). (see study below) (9)
• Study of essental oils hydrodistilled from leaves yielded main constituents of δ-3-carene (12.8 %), n-hexadecanoic acid (9.1 %), β- caryophyllene (5.9 %), (Z)-β-ocimene (5.7 %) and γ-terpinene (5.4 %); the stem oil yielded germacrene D (38.4 %), benzyl benzoate (18.1 %) and n-eicosane (5.5 %). (11)
• Study of stem bark yielded seven compounds: benzyl benzoate (1), caryophyllene oxide (2), glutinol (3), 5-hydroxy-7- methoxyflavone (4), 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone (5), 2,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (6) and 5,7-dihydroxyflavanone (7). (12)
- Study of CHCl and butanolic extract of roots yielded 15 known compounds. The CHCl crude extract yielded six flavonoids, 2,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxy flavanone (1), tectochrysin (2), 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy flavanone (3), 6,7-O,O-dimethylbaicalein (6), 7-O-methylwogonine (7) and 2,5-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy flavanone (8), together with two aromatic compounds, benzoyl benzoate (4) and 2-methoxybenzyl benzoate (5). Butanolic crude extract yielded seven alkaloids, liriodenine (9), lanuginosine (10), oxoanolobine (11), roemerine (12), anonaine (13), xylopine (14) and roemeroline (15). (see study below) (14)

Properties
- Studies have suggested anti-diabetic, anti-tubercular, antioxidant properties.

Parts utilized
Roots

Uses
Edibility
- Fruits are edible, with a tart and sweet flavor.
Folkloric
- Alcoholic tincture of the roots used as an ecbolic (promoting labor by increasing uterine contractions.
- Ati Negritos use decoction of dried stems for hemorrhage. Also, decoction of dried stems used postpartum as wash or external application. (15)
- In Thailand, Uvaria rufa is macerated and mixed with Corvus macrorhynchus, Xanthophyllum glaucum, and Oryza sativa with potable water, and taken orally for skin allergy (rash and redness). (8) Decoction of wood drunk for fever.   (16) Root decoction drunk during pregnancy. (17)

Others
- Handicraft: Wood used as substitute for rattan in making furniture and handicrafts.


Studies
Essential Oil / Sesquiterpene:
Uvaria rufa yielded an oil rich in sesquiterpene, in which the principle component as [alpha]-humulene (50%). Benzyl benzoate was also present at 5%. (1)
Flavonoid Glycosides / Advanced Glycation End-Products Inhibition / Anti-Diabetic: Study yielded five flavonol glycosides: rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol 3-O-ß-galactopyranoside, astragalin, isoquercitrin-6-acetate. 2 of the compounds showed an ability to inhibit the formation of AGEs in the bovine serum albumin-glucose assay. AGEs contribute to the development and progression of diabetic complications and aging. (3)
Polyoxygenated Cyclohexene Derivatives: Study yielded four new polyoxygenated cyclohexene derivatives, uvarirufone A, uvarirufols A-C, along with 10 known compounds from the aerial parts of Uvaria rufa. (4)
Antitubercular: Study evaluated various extracts, fractions, and secondary metabolites against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv. Results demonstrated a potential source of compounds with promising antitubercular activity. Also, polar pigments enhanced inhibition against M. tuberculosis H(37)Rv. (6)
Roots / Alkaloids: Study for alkaloidal compounds from the roots yielded compounds including oxoanolobine, lanuginosine, and roemeroline. (7)
• Flavanol Derivatives / Anti-tubercular: Study yielded a mixture of 1:1 flavonols kaempferol and quercetrin. Microplate Alamar Blue Assay showed moderately strong antitubercular activity fo these flavonol derivatives. (9)
• Attenuation of Prostatic Hyperplasia: Study evaluated the therapeutic potential of Uvaria rufa on BPH using in vitro and in ivo models.
UR-EtOAc exhibited highest potency of inhibition of 5aR and possessed potent antioxidants rich in phenolic and flavonoid contents. The active compound by HPLC analysis was ß-sitosterol. UR-Et)Ac and finasteride treated groups showed increased prostatic and serum testosterone levels. At all treatment doses used, no toxic effects were observied on vital organs and serum biochemical parameters. (10)
• Antibacterial / Twigs: In a study of 31 samples of crude extracts from 24 species of mangrove and beach forest plants, Uvaria rufa (twigs) was one ofb ten plants that showed potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. (13)
• Antioxidant / Roots: In a study of of 40 Thai medicinal plants for antioxidant activity using DPPH as stable radical, CHCl and butanolic extracts of Uvaria rufa roots showed promising activity. Chromatographic separation of the two extracts isolated 15 known compounds. Compound 8 (2,5-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy flavanone) showed the highest scavenging activity on DPPH and superoxide radicals with IC50 of 0.16 and 1.03 mg/mL, respectively. (see constituents above) (14)

Availability
Wild-crafted. 

Last Update December 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo Flower Close up / Annonaceae : Uvaria rufa det. Derek Cabactulan 2-Sep-12 / Flower / Copyright © 2012 by Michael Castrence (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL54655] / click on image to go to source page / PhytoImages.siu.edu
Photo / Leaves © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photograph / Fruits / Uvaria rufa / click on image to go to source page / Polynesian Produce Stand
GRAPHIC: Digitally modified image from Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / Wild Food Plants of the Philippines / William H Brown / Figure 26 / Uvaria rufa (susung-kalabau) / 1920

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Essential Oils from the Leaves of Some Queensland Annonaceae / by Brophy, Joseph, Goldsack, Robert, Forster, Paul / Journal of Essential Oil Research • Mar/Apr 2004
(2)
Highly oxygenated cyclohexene metabolites from Uvaria rufa
/ Florie A. Tudla et al / Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Volume 35, Issue 1, January 2007, Pages 45-47 / doi:10.1016/j.bse.2006.08.006
(3)
Flavonoid glycosides from the leaves of Uvaria rufa withadvanced glycation end-products inhibitory activity / Khanittha Deepra et al / Thai J. Pharm. Sci. 33 (2009) 84-90

(4)
Polyoxygenated Cyclohexene Derivatives from Uvaria rufa / Chuan-Rui Zhang, Sheng-Ping Yang et al / Helvetica Chimica Acta, Vol 89, Issue 7, pages 1408–1416, July 2006 / DOI: 10.1002/hlca.200690140
(5)
Uvaria rufa Blume (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(6)
Antitubercular activity of the semi-polar extractives of Uvaria rufa. / Macabeo AP, Tudla FA, Krohn K, Franzblau SG. / Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012 Oct;5(10):777-80. doi: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60142-4.
(7)
Chemical constituents from the roots of Uvaria rufa / Tip-pyang, Santi; Payakarintarungkul, Kanogporn; Sichaem, Jirapast; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha / Chemistry of Natural Compounds; Jul2011, Vol. 47 Issue 3, p 474
(8)
The Therapeutic and Clinical Drug Review of Thai Traditional Herbal Remedies Extracted from Ancient Thai Medicinal Manuscript Volume No. 3 of Palm Leaf Scriptures / Buavaroon Srichaikul1, Supachai Samappito; Gordon Bakker; Sunthorn Dejchai; Kittiphong Boonsong; Alisa Thongkong; Sathaporn Japa / Advances in Natural Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2012, pp. 29-36 / DOI:10.3968/j.ans.1715787020120501.1037
(9)
Anti-Tubercular Flavonol Derivatives from Uvaria rufa / Erickson M Paragas, Dietmar Gehle, Karsten Krohn, Scott G Franzblau, and Allan Patrick G Macabeo / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 5(6): 2014
(10)
Uvaria rufa Blume attenuates benign prostatic hyperplasia via inhibiting 5α-reductase and enhancing antioxidant status. /
Buncharoen W, Saenphet K, Saenphet S, Titaram C / J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Oct 9. pii: S0378-8741(16)31238-7. / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.10.036.
(11)
Constituents of Essential Oils from the Leaves and Stem Barks of Uvaria rufa and Uvaria cordata (Annonaceae) from Vietnam / Tran D. Thang, Hoang V. Luu, Nguyen N. Tuan, Nguyen H. Hung, Do N. Dai & Isiaka A. Ogunwande / Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, Volume 17, Issue 3, 2014
(12)
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOUNDS FROM THE STEM BARK OF UVARIA RUFA (ANNONACEAE) / Andi R. Rosandy, Laily B. Din, W .A. Yaacob*, Nik Idris Yusoff, I. Sahidin, Jalifah Latip, Syarul Nataqain, Normah Mohd Noor / The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, Vol 17 No 1 (2013): 50 - 58
(13)
Biological Activities of Medicinal Plants from Mangrove and Beach Forests / N. Soonthornchareonnon*, C. Wiwat, and W. Chuakul / Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 2012; 39 (1), 9-18
(14)
Antioxidants from Uvaria rufa Blume roots / Kanogporn Payakarintarungkul
(15)
Ati Negrito medicinal plants and phytotherapies for female reproductive healthcare / Herbal Therapies and Social-Health Policies / Hindawi ECam Journal
(16)
A survey of medicinal plants in mangrove and beach forests from sating Phra Peninsula, Songkhla Province, Thailand / Oratai Neamsuvan*, Patcharin Singdam, Kornkanok Yingcharoen and Narumon Sengnon / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6(12), pp. 2421-2437, 30 March, 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR11.1395
(17)
Medicinal Plants in Tropical Rain Forest from Hua Khao Subdistrict, Singha Nakhon District, Songkhla Province, Thailand / Oratai Neamsuvan, Narumon Sengnon, Umad Haddee, Wittawat Mard-E and Warunyu Sae-Tang / American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 8(5), April, Pages: 1-11

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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