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Family Lecythidaceae
Himbabalod
Barringtonia acutangula Linn.
CUT NUT

Scientific names  Common names
Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. Apaling (Ig.)
Barringtonia alba Kostel. [Invalid] Himbabalod (P. Bis.)
Barringtonia balansae R.Knuth Kalambudya (Ilk.)
Barringtonia bicolor Craib Latuba (Ibn.)
Barringtonia coccinea (Lour.) Kostel. Putad (Tag.)
Barringtonia costata (Bllume) Miq. Putat (Tag., Pamp., Bik.)
Barringtonia demissa (Miers) R.Knuth Sako (Mbo.)
Barringtonia denticulata (Miers) R.Knuth Saku (Mbo.)
Barringtonia edaphocarpa var. ladellii Craib Topuk (Mag.)
Barringtonia gracilis (Miers) R.Knurth Tuba (Tag., Ibn.)
Barringtonia kedahensis R.Knuth Barringtonia (Engl.)
Barringtonia kermodei C.E.C.Fischer Cut nut (Engl.)
Barringtonia luzonensis (C.Presl) Vidal Fresh water mangrove (Engl.)
Barringtonia martensii R.Knuth Indian oak (Engl.)
Barringtonia merguiensis R.Knuth Indian putat (Engl.)
Barringtonia micrantha Gagnep. Wild almond (Engl.)
Barringtonia mltiflora (Eberh. & Dubard) Guillaumin  
Barringtonia nitida Miq.  
Barringtonia pedicellata Ridl.  
Barringtonia pubescens (Miers) R.Knuth  
Barringtonia rubra Baill. ex Laness. [Illegitimate]  
Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Hendol, Hinyol, Pani amra.
BENGALI: Hijal.
HINDI: Samundarphal.
KANNADA: Mavinkubia, Niruganigily, Dhatripala.
MALAYALAM: Attampu, Attupelu, Nir perzha.
MARATHI: Tiwar, Newar, Sathaphala, Samudraphala.
ORIYA: Hinjala, Hinjal, Nijhira.
SANSKRIT: Dhatriphal, Abdhiphala, Ambudhiphala, Ambuja.
TAMIL: Aram, Kadambu, Kadappai, Samudra pazham.
TELUGU: Kurpa.
THAI: Chik, Chik Na, Chik Nam.
URDU: Samandarphal.

Botany
Himbabalod is an evergreen, smooth, medium-sized tree growing to a height of 12 meters. Bark is dark brown, rough, 10 to 13 millimeters thick. Leaves are somewhat crowded at the end of the branches, oblong-obovate, 6 to 14 centimeters long, pointed at the ends, the young leaves finely toothed at the margins. Flowers are dark scarlet, numerous, axillary and pendulous racemes, 10 to 45 centimeters long. Fruit is oblong-ovoid, 3 to 4 centimeters long, about 1.5 centimeters thick, bluntly quadrangular, pointed at the ends, and crowed by persistent calyx lobes.

Distribution
- In thickets and forests in most islands and provinces, at low and medium altitudes, from northern Luzon to Mindanao and Palawan, in most islands and provinces.
- Also occurs in India, Malaya through tropical Australia.

Constituents
- Principal constituents are starch, protein, cellulose, fat, caoutchouc, alkaline sales, and an active principal similar to saponin which forms into a stable froth when shaken on a watery solution.
- From the bark, a study yielded nine triterpene saponins, acutangulosides A-F, and acutanguloside D-F methyl esters and a single triterpene aglycone. (10)
- Wood and fruits yield tanginol, barrinic acid, barringenic acid.
- Leaves yield terpenes, flavanoids, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids, and glycosides.
- Ethanolic study of fruit extracts showed saponins, on hydrolysis yielded triterpenoid sapogenins, barringtogenol B, C and D and two triterpenoid acid sapogenins.
- Phytochemical screening of powdered leaves yielded terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids, and glycosides.
- Study evaluating stem bark for bioactive components yielded seven compounds; the prevailing compound in an ethanolic extract was 9-Octadecenoic acid, (E) (21.64%).

Properties
- Root is aperient, antipyretic, bitter, cooling, aperient and stimulant.
- Bark is stomachic.
- Seeds are emetic.

- Fruit are bitter, anthelmintic, vulnerary, depurative, emetic.
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, antioxidant, chemopreventive,
anti-arthritic, hepatoprotective, analgesic, anti-diarrheal, CNS depressant, nephroprotective, antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, wound healing properties.

Parts utilized
Bark, roots, leaves, fruits.

Uses
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, bark decoction used as stomachic.
- Bark also applied to wounds.
- Used in various folk medicine for arthralgia, dysmenorrhea, chest pains, inflammation, diarrhea. Also, as carminative, expectorant, bitter tonic, emetic.
- Used for treatment of seminal weakness, diarrhea, and gonorrhea.
- In Amboina and India, root and bark used for wounds.
- Juice of leaves used for diarrhea.
- In Sindh, fruit is used for coughs, colds, and asthma.
- Seeds are used as aromatic in colic and parturition, also for ophthalmic.
- Kernels are powdered, mixed with butter and sago, for diarrhea.
- In Bombay, kernels are used as emetic.
- Powdered seeds are used as snuff for headache.
- Seeds of the fruit, rubbed with the juice of fresh ginger, for nasal catarrh and to expel flatus in colic.
- Rubbed with water on the chest to relieve pains and colds, to the abdomen to relieve colic and flatulence.
- In India, fruits and leaves in alkaline decoction for abdominal and splenic disorders. Roots used to treat epilepsy.
- Seeds rubbed down on stone and applied over sternum for chest colds.
- A few grains mixed with the juice of fresh ginger, taken internally, induce vomiting or help the expulsion of mucus.
- In Ayurveda, seeds and leaves used for vitiated conditions of pita and kappa, colic, intestinal worms, wounds, ulcers, skin diseases, hallucinations.
- Fruit incorporated in antiseptic ointment for venereal sores.
- Juice of leaves used for mucoid diarrhea.
- Fruit used as anthelmintic and as astringent in gingivitis.
- Decoction of bark used as mouthwash in gum problems.
- In Sri Lanka, used for malaria.
- German Commission E monograph recognizes the bark for use in common colds, cough, bronchitis, fever and diarrhea.
- In India, stem bark used by tribal people of the Visakhapatnam District for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (32)
- In Bangladesh, used for diarrhea, dysentery, bronchitis, lumbar pain, hallucinations, seminal weakness, gonorrhea.
Others
- Poison: In the Philippines, bark is used as fish poison.

Studies
Antimicrobial: Crude extracts showed good activity against all test organisms: Gram negative and positive bacteria and two fungi. It was especially effective against Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger, comparable to kanamycin and fluconazole. (1)

Antimicrobial: Study of extracts of five edible plants from northeast Thailand showed the methanolic extract of Barringtonia acutangula to be the most active, showing antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, including E coli, Salmonella typhimurium, S aureus, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Anti-Malarial: In-vivo antimalarial activity of aqueous root extract of Barringtonia acutangula in mice: Extract of B. acutangula is non-toxic, and possesses antimalarial activity justifying indigenous medicinal use in Sri Lanka. (3)
Antimicrobial: Urinary Tract Pathogens: Study of Barringtonia acutangula showed its ethanol extract exhibited broader spectrum of inhibition, followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous against urinary pathogens under test. (4)
Triterpenoids / Sapogenins: Study isolated three new triterpenoid sapogenins balled barringtogenol B, C and D from the fruits. Two triterpenoid acid sapogenins was also isolated from the same source, one identified as methyl barringtogenate. (5)

Triterpenoid Glucoside: Study yielded a triterpenoid glucoside from Barringtonia acutangula - a 2a,3ß,19a-trihydroxy-olean-12-ene-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside. (8)
Antioxidant / Chemopreventive: Extracts showed significant activities in all antioxidant assays with the total antioxidant activity increasing in a dose-dependent manner. Results suggest BA may act as a chemopreventive agent, providing antioxidant properties and protection from free radicals. (7)
Antibacterial / Antifungal: Phytochemical screening yielded terpenoids, steroids, tannins, saponins flavanoids and glycosides. Results showed Barringtonia acutangula leaves exhibit potential antibacterial and antifungal activity. (9)
Central Nervous System Depressant Activity: An ethyl alcohol extract of coarsely powdered leaves evaluated by various assays showed CNS depressant behavior with maximum inhibition of neuronal activity. (11)
Anti-Arthritic / Leaves: Study of a chloroform extract of leaves showed significant anti-arthritic effect comparable to synthetic anti-inflammatory agents. (12)
Hepatoprotective / Roots: Study evaluated various root extracts of B. acutangula on CCl4-induced liver damage in healthy Wistar albino rats. Results showed significant dose-dependent hepatoprotective activity confirmed by histopathological evaluation. It also exhibited significant in vitro antioxidant activities. (13)
Anticancer Potential / Colorectal Cancer / Apoptosis: Study B. acutangula and Stereospermum colata methanol and ethyl acetate extracts showed free radical scavenging and anti-cancer activity against Colon cancer cell lines Colo320. Cytotoxicity was attributed to apoptosis. (15)
Antinociceptive / Antidiarrheal / Neuropharmacological Effects / Leaves and Seeds: Study evaluated a methanol extract of seeds and leaves for antinociceptive, antidiarrheal and neuropharmacological effects in mice. Both extracts showed dose-dependent antinociceptive effect, significant inhibition of defecation in diarrheal models, and decreased motor activity in both Hold Cross and Open Field tests. (16)
Hypoglycemic / Anti-diabetic / Fruits: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic activity of various fruit extracts of B. acutangula in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats. The aqueous extract of fruit showed significant hypoglycemic potential comparable to standard drug glibenclamide. (17)
Hepatoprotective / Leaves / Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity: Study evaluated in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective activity of a methanol extract of B. acutangula leaves on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic injury in rats. Results showed significant (P<0.001) hepatoprotective effect at dose of 3.3 mg/mL. (19)
Antimicrobial / Bark: Study evaluating the antimicrobial activity of bark of B. acutangula showed excellent performance against E. coli. (20)
Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Stem Bark:Study of extract and fractionates of fresh stem bark showed significant and remarkable activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella and E. coli. Extract of stem bark showed best antioxidant activity through the DPPH radicals scavenging activity. (21)
Anticonvulsant / Roots: Study evaluated an ethanol extract on antioxidant enzymes in rat brain after induction of epilepsy by MES (maximal electroshock). Results showed anticonvulsant activity probably through significantly increased levels of antioxidant enzymes which could delay the generation of free radicals in MES induced epilepsy. (22)
Anti-diabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of an ethanolic leaf extra t in normal and Alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats. Treatment of leaves extract caused a marked decrease in elevated blood glucose levels, as well as marked increase in body weight. The extract also produced significant benefits on the hyperlipidemic lipid profile. (23)
Hypolipidemic / Roots: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of Barringtonia acutangula root on STZ-induced diabetic albino rats. Results showed improvement of lipid profile on euglycemic as well as diabetic rats, probably through delayed intestinal absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity by saponin present in the EBA. (24)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated various leaf extracts for antioxidant activity. A methanol extract exhibited significant effects compared to chloroform and and petroleum ether extracts. In DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power assay, the methanol extract showed promising potential with IC50 and EC50 values of 0.15 and 0.11 mg. Phytoconstituent screening yielded significant phenolic, flavonoid, flavonol and tannins contents of 79.71, 109.52, 91.18, and 105.52 µg, respectively. (27)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of B. acutangula for anti-inflammatory activity by prevention of hypotonicity induced HRBC membrane lysis. Results indicate anti-inflammatory activity probably related to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. (28)
• Wound Healing / Fruits: Study evaluated the wound healing activity of a methanolic extract of Barringtonia acutangula fruits in both excision and incision models in rats. Results showed significant wound healing activity in both excision (20% w/w) and incision wound model (10% w/w) rats as evidenced by wound contraction, increase in number of fibroblasts, increased collagen tissue, and complete epithelialization with MEBA ointment 20% w/w. (29)
• Cytotoxicity / Antioxidant: Study evaluated various extracts for cytotoxicity (brine shrimp lethality bioassay) and antioxidant activity. In Brine Shrimp Lethality bioassay, all extracts produced dose-dependent cytotoxicity to brine shrimp nauplii, with a methanol extract showing highest toxicity with an LC50 of 46.24 µg/ml compared to standard vincristine sulfate with LC50 of 0.69 µg/ml. A petroleum ether extract showed moderate concentration dependent reducing power. (30)
• Antipyretic: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of whole plant for antipyretic activity. Results showed significant (p<0.01) dose dependent antipyretic effect in yeast induced elevation in experimental rats. Antipyretic effect was attributed possibly to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. (31)
• Anti-Nephrotoxic Activity: Study evaluated Vitex negundo roots, Oroxylum indicum whole plant, and B. acutangula leaves for nephroprotective activity against experimentally (gentamicin) induced acute nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Results showed significant nephroprotection by VN roots, followed by OI and BA leaves. (33)

Availability
Wild-crafted. 

Last Update January 2017

Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antimicrobial activities of Barringtonia acutangula

(2)
Indian Herbal Remedies / C. P. Khare
(3)
In-vivo antimalarial activity of aqueous root extract of Barringtonia acutangula in mice / Chanika D. Jayasinghe / Pharmacognosy Magazine • Vol 4. Issue 15. July -Sept 2008
(4)
Antibacterial activity of Barringtonia acutangula against selected urinary tract pathogens / Sahoo et al / Year : 2008 • Volume : 70 • Issue : 5 | Page : 677-569S / Indian Journ of Pharmaceutical Sciences • / DOI: 10.4103/0250-474X.45417
(5)
Triterpenoids XI. New triterpenoid sapogenins from the fruits of Barringtonia acutangula / A. K. Barua, P. C. Mait et al / Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences • Volume 50 Issue 11, Pages 937 - 940 / DOI 10.1002/jps.2600501111
(6)
Antimicrobial Activirty of Northeastern Medicinal Plants in Thailand / IJPS • Vol 1. No 1. January-June 2005
(7)
In vitro antioxidant activity of Barringtonia acutangula (L.) / Arifur Rahman MD et al / Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal. Vol 13, No 1, Jan 2010
(8)
A triterpenoid glucoside from Barringtonia acutangula / Bikas C Pai et al / Phytochemistry
Volume 30, Issue 12, 1991, Pages 4177-4179
(9)
Antibacterial and antifungal screening on various leaf extracts of Barringtonia acutangula / R Vijaya Bharathi, A Jerad Suresh, M Thirumal et al / Int J. Res. Pharm Sci, Vol 1, No 4, 407-410, 2010
(10)
Acutangulosides A-F, monodesmosidic saponins from the bark of Barringtonia acutangula
/ Mills C, Carroll AR, Quinn RJ. / J Nat Prod. 2005 Mar;68(3):311-8.
(11)
Central nervous system depressant activity of Barringtonia acutangula (Linn.) Gaertn / P. Balaji*, M. Thirumal, B. Kumudhaveni, G. Kishore and A. Aliya / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2012, 4 (6):1786-1792
(12)
Anti-arthritic activity of the chloroform extract of Barringtonia acutangula (L) Gaertn. leaves on wister rats
/
M. Thirumal *, R. Vijaya Bharathi, B. Kumudhaveni and G.Kishor / Scholars Research LibraryDer Pharmacia Lettre, 2013, 5 (3):374-380
(13)
Hepatoprotective and in vitro antioxidant studies of Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. / Rashmi Ka*, K Bhasker Shenoy and Karunakar Hegde / JPR: BioMedRx: An International Journal, Vol 5, No 7 (2012)
(14)
Barringtonia acutangula (Kandu Almond) / Common names / ZipcodeZoo
(15)
Apoptotic induction by leaf extracts of Barringtonia acutangula l. and Stereospermum colias L. in colo320 cells / Florida, M., Aneesh Nair and T. Sekar / Internation Journal of Current Research
(16)
Antinociceptive, antidiarrheal, and neuropharmacological activities of Barringtonia acutangula. / Mohammad Zafar Imam, Shamima Sultana, Saleha Akter / Pharmaceutical Biology, 07/2012; 50(9):1078-84. / DOI:10.3109/13880209.2012.656850
(17)
EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA FRUIT EXTRACTS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED HYPERGLYCEMIC WISTAR RATS / KHATIB, N. A. AND PATIL, P. A / Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1) 2573-2578 (2011)
(18)
Pharmacognostical evaluation of Barringtonia acutangula leaf / Dharamaraj Padmavathi, Lakshmi Susheela, and Rajkishore Vijaya Bharathi / International Journal of Ayurveda Research, 2011;2(1):37-41 / doi:10.4103/0974-7788.83189
(19)
Hepatoprotective effect of Barringtonia acutangula Linn. leaves on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in rats / S Mishra, S Sahoo*, K K Rout, S K Nayak, S K Mishra and P K Panda / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources Vol. 2(4), December 2011, pp. 515-519
(20)
Study on Antimicrobial Activity of Barringtonia acutangula and Premna corymbosa, two widely distributed Shrubs of the Sundarbans / Md. Jalal Uddin and Rony Kumar Banik / International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research, Vol. 11 No. 2 Nov. 2014, pp. 577-584
(21)
Antioxidant, Antimicrobial studies and Investigation of Secondary metabolites from stem bark of Barringtonia acutangula (L.) / Mohan A, Sasi Kumar R / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, Vol 6, Issue 4.
(22)
EFFECT OF BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA ROOT EXTRACT ON ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN RAT BRAIN AFTER MES INDUCED SEIZURE RATS / G. Sandhyarani*, Bikku Naik, K. Praveen Kumar, Alli Ramesh / International Journal of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol 4, Issue 1, 2014, pp 61-64
(23)
Evaluation of Antidiabetic activity of Barringtonia acutangula (L.Gaertn) leaf extract in Alloxan induced Diabetic rats / Palanivel. V * Sabeel Kuttiyil, Senthil Kumar K.L / Palanivel.V et al; Int J Adv Pharm Gen Res, 1(2), 2013; 1-8
(24)
Hypolipidemic Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Barringtonia acutangula Linn Root Extract on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats / Nilesh P Babre, Subal Debnath, Y.S.Manjunath, Gajanan Deshmaukh, K.Hariprasath, Kukkala Sharon / Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology Vol. 2 (11), 2010,368-371.

(25)
Barringtonia acutangula / Synonyms / The Plant List
(26)
Barringtonia / Commonn names / Flowers of India
(27)
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA (L.) GAERTN. LEAVES / ARUMUGAM KATHIRVEL AND VENUGOPAL SUJATHA*/ Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 4, Issue 2, 277-281
(28)
EVALUATION OF IN-VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC WHOLE PLANT EXTRACT OF BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA (L.) / G. Sandhyarani*, Bikku Naik, K. Praveen Kumar, Alli Ramesh / Journal of Pharmaceutical Biology, 4(1), 2014, 54-56.
(29)
WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA FRUIT EXTRACT / ARNABADITYA MOHANTY*, PAL A, SAHU PK / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Researchd, Vol 9, Issue 2, 2016
(30)
CYTOTOXIC (BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY ) AND ANTIOXIDANT INVESTIGATION OF BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA (L.) / Md. Asaduzzaman, *Dr. Md. Sohel Rana, S.M. Raqibul Hasan, Md. Monir Hossain, Nittananda Das / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR)
(31)
ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF EXTRACT OF BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA WHOLE PLANT ON BREWER’S YEAST INDUCED PYREXIA IN WISTAR RATS / G. Sandhyarani*, Bikku Naik, K. Praveen Kumar, Alli Ramesh / International Journal of Pharmacy, 4(2), 2014, 89-91.
(32)
Ethnomedicinal Plants Used for Rheumatoid Arthritis by Tribal People in Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India / T Shyamala, O Aniel Kumar, S.B. Padal / Internation Journey of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine, November 7, 2016, Volume 3, Issue 1
(33)
Anti-nephrotoxic activity of some medicinal plants from tribal rich pockets of Odisha / Satyaranjan Mishra, Saumya Ranjan Pani, Sabuj Sahoo / Pharmacognozy Research (2014) Vol 6, Issue 3, pp 210-217

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