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Family Malpighiaceae
Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz
Feng zheng guo

Scientific names Common names
Banisteria benghalensis L. Hiptage (Tag.)
Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz Clustered hiptage (Engl.)
Accepted infraspecifics Helicopter flower (Engl.)
Hiptage benghalensis var. benghalensis  
Hiptage benghalensis var. cochinchinensis Pierre  
Hiptage benghalensis var. dolichoptera Arenes  
Hiptage benghalensis var. rothinii R.C.Srivast.  
Hiptage benghalensis var. tonkinensis (Dop) S.K.Chen  
Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz is accepted. KEW: Plants of the World Online
WFO: The World Flora Online and CABI provide a long list of synonyms. In other compilations, Banistera benghalensis and Hiptage madablota are the most commonly cited synonyms.

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Madhabi lata, Madhoi lata, Madhoilota.
BANGLADESH: Madhobi lota.
CHINA: Feng zheng guo.
FRENCH: Liana de cerf, Hiptage du bengale, Liane papillon, Liane rouge.
INDONESIA: Jaranan, Kakas (Javanese), Areuy beurit (Sundanese).
TAMIL: Kurukkathi.
THAILAND: Noraa, Haen pik, Kamlang chang phuek.
VIETNAM: To manh.
OTHERS: Mathavikodi.

Gen info
- Etymology: Genus name Hiptage derives from Greek hitamai,
meaning "to fly", referring to its unique three-winged fruit known as "samara". Benghalensis is derived from the historic region of Bengal, where it is a native species.
- "Helicopter flower" name refers to the shape of the flowers, like three blades of a helicopter fan.

Hiptage benghalensis is a perennial, woody, much-branched, evergreen, vine-like shrub that can reach a height of 10-15 m. Young branches are gray and tomentose. The leaves are simple, entire, opposite, oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 8-21 cm long and 4-9 cm wide, acute or acuminate, glabrous, a red-varnished color when young and have petioles about 1 cm long. The highly fragrant, pink to white flowers have a yellow throat, are strongly zygomorphic, 2-3 cm in diameter, borne in erect, pubescent, axillary racemes of 10-20 cm length, the pedicels being 15-20 mm long. The corolla has five free, elliptic to round, pubescent, reflexed petals 1-1.7 cm long, fringed on the margins. Fruits are samaras with three spreading, papery, oblanceolate to elliptic wings, the middle wing being 4-6 cm long and the two lateral wings 2-3 cm long. Dry fruits are propelled by wind to places where the seeds are released. (3)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Cultivated for its attractive, fragrant flowers.
- Also native to Andaman Is, Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Hainan, Himalaya, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.
- Grows primarily in the wet tropical biome.
- Introduced as an ornamental, it is now naturalized in tropical areas with continuing increase in its distribution.
- The climbing vine has spread and has shown ability to smother vegetation and produce wind-dispersed samaras to facilitate dissemination. It threatens lowland native forests in La Réunion and Mauritius and is invasive in parts of Australia, Hawaii and Florida, where it is regulated. (3)

- Qualitative phytochemical screening of ethanol extract of stem yielded steroid, carbohydrate, flavonoid, alkaloid, tannins, phenol, mangiferin and terpenoids. (see study below) (4)
- Study of chloroform-soluble fraction of stem bark isolated seven triterpenes and a steroid derivative, characterized as alnus-5(10)-en-3β-yl acetate (1), oleanan-3-one (2), 3β-acetoxy-9β-bauer-7-en-6-one (3), lupeol (4), (24R)-24-propylcholesterol (5), alnus-5(10)-en-3β-ol (6), 3β-acetoxy-20-hydroxylupane
(7), and betulonic acid (8) by spectroscopic methods. (see study below) (5)
- Methanol leaf and stem bark extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, catechin, coumarin, flavonoids, phenols, sterols, tannins, terpenoids, and xanthoprotein. (see study below) (19)

- Studies have suggest antibacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anticancer, insecticidal, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, anti-asthma, hepatoprotective properties

Parts used
Bark, stem, leaves, flowers.


- In Lesser Sunda Islands, the bark is pounded and applied to fresh wounds. In Thailand, the wood is an appetizer and considered antiflatulent, carminative, and aphrodisiac; believed to relieve fatigue and to promote longevity. (2)
- In Vietnam, wood is used to relieve fatigue and treat nocturnal emission of sperm. In India, leaves used for cutaneous diseases. (2)
- Leaf juice used to treat scabies. Plant also sued for rheumatism and asthma. (2)
- According to Ayurveda, the plant is cooling, vulnerary, astringent, expectorant, cardiotonic, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, wound healing, antipruritic, and used in scabies, leprosy, skin diseases, cough, asthma, cardiac debility, obesity, etc. (8)
- In Bangladesh, flowers and roots used for treatment of diabetes and colds.
- In Assam, juice of flower used for ear pain.
- The Kanikkars of Western Ghats apply paste of leaves and flowers twice daily for treatment of ringworm infection.  (22)
- Insecticidal: Leaf juice considered insecticidal.
(see study below-10)

Antidiabetic / Stem:
Study evaluated the phytochemicals and antidiabetic activity of stem of Hiptage benghalensis in rats. The extract exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of glucose absorption and hypoglycemic effects in Long-Evans rats. (see constituents above) (4)
Anti-Inflammatory / Stem Bark: Study of chloroform-soluble fraction of stem bark isolated seven triterpenes and a steroid derivative. Compounds 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 showed significant in vitro anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of production of NO and PGE2 and protein expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds 1, 2, 7, and 8 also significantly increased protein expression of IkBα, and decreased protein expression of p-p65 and transcriptional activity of NF-kB in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. (see constituents above) (5)
Antimicrobial / Root Bark: Study evaluated a methanol extract of root bark of H. benghalensis for antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion method. Results showed significant activity at low concentrations, 0.625 mg/ml on Klebsiella pneumonia, Micrococcus luteus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 0.3125 mg/ml on Escherichia coli. (6)
Anticancer Against Various Cancer Cell Lines: Study evaluated the anticancer effects of methanolic extract of Hiptage benghalensis against various human cancer cell cultures viz. human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells, human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells, and human neuroblastoma (MR-32) cells. Results showed dose-dependent inhibition in all types of cancer cells using MTT assay.  Extract concentration causing 50% cell deaths were 50.73, 47.90, and 53.76 µg/mL against HeLa, MCF-7, and IMR-32, respectively. (7)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extract of H. benghalensis. The extract showed statistically significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory effect in Carrageenan-induced Hind Paw Edema test in Long Evans rats and significant analgesic response to Hot Plate and Acetic Acid induced writhing in Swiss albino mice. (9)
Insecticidal / Repellent Against Mosquito Vectors / Root Bark: Study evaluated the larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities of acetone root bark extract of Hiptage benghalensis against larvae and adults of three mosquito vectors viz., Anopheles barbirostris, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes albopictus, which are primary vectors of malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengues, respectively. H. benghalensis was more effective as larvicides. Regression analysis showed LC50 values gradually decreased with exposure periods; lethal time (LT50) decreased with concentration, and mortality positively correlated with concentration. Order of susceptibility was A. albopictus > A. barbirostris > C. quinquefasciatus. Results suggest potential as potent larvicide and control of the mosquito species on its breeding site. (10)
Antidiabetic in STZ-Induced Rats: Study evaluated the effect of H. benghalensis on glycemia, lipid profile, lipoprotein level, and antioxidant profile in STZ induced diabetic rats for 21 days. Results showed improvement in lipid level and lipoprotein level. Levels of urea and creatinine significantly decreased after treatment with the extract. There was amelioration of changes induced by STZ.  (11)
Anti-Asthmatic / Oral Formulations / Leaves: Study evaluated herbal oral formulations (tablets and syrups) and dry powder of ethanolic extract of leaves of H. benghalensis used to treat asthma in animal models. Formulated dosage forms showed significant protection  from histamine and Ach induced bronchospasm when compared to control group and is comparable to crude extract of H. benghalensis and marketed anti-asthmatic product.  (12)
Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous and ethanolic extract of leaves for anthelmintic activity using concentrations of 5, 10, and 25 mg/ml, measuring time of paralysis and time of death of earthworm Pheretima posthuma. The aqueous extract showed more potent activity when compared with standard drug Piperazine citrate.  (13)
Antidiabetic / Stem: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of H. benghalensis stem in STZ induced diabetic rats. Acute oral toxicity study of EE showed a 2000 mg/kg dose was non toxic and safe. The extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kbw was found to reduced blood glucose level Extract treated group showed increase in HDL and protein values, and reduced VLCL, TC, and TG. (15)
Biodiesel / Seeds: Study evaluated the production of diesel from bio-oils derived from plant biomass as potential source. Hiptage benghalensis is an unexplored plant that stores ricinoleic acid in its seeds. Seeds from three locations yielded total lipid and ricinoleic acid contents from 54-69% and 69-87%, respectively. Properties showed its potential as a biodiesel feedstock. The seed oil was converted into biodiesel through transesterification with an efficiency of about 93%. Fuel properties like acid value, calorific value, viscosity, density, ash content, flash, pour and cloud point showed reasonable quality. Results suggest potential to alternate green energy source for biodiesel production.
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of leaves for analgesic (using hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice) and anti-inflammatory (using rat paw edema test) activity at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kbw. Results showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, which were comparable with standard drugs.  (18)
Antibacterial / Leaves and Stem Bark: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of Bauhinia purpurea and Hiptage benghalensis against  various test pathogens by disc diffusion method. The petroleum ether leaf extract of H. benghalensis showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and S. typhi, while stem bark extract showed activity against K. pneumonia, E. coli,  and S. typhi. Chloroform leaf extract showed activity against S. aureus, K. pneumonia, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi. The methanol extracts of leaf and stem bark showed activity against all tested pathogenic bacteria. Activity was comparable to tetracycline and chloramphenicol. (see constituents above) (19)
Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity / Leaves: A methanolic leaves extract of Hiptage benghalensis showed hepatoprotective activity in rats against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage that was comparable to standard medication silymarin (50 mg/kg). (20)
Genes Associated with Ricinoleic Acid Accumulation / Transcription Analysis: Ricinoleic acid is a high-value hydroxy fatty acid with broad industrial applications.  Hiptage benghalensis seed oil contains a high amount of ricinoleic acid (~ 80%) and is an emerging source of this unusual fatty acid. Study evaluated the molecular mechanism of ricinoleic acid biosynthesis and regulation. Gene transcription profiles of developing seeds revealed 12 genes involved in diverse lipid metabolism pathways displayed high expression levels and consistent expression patterns with ricinoleic accumulation in developing seeds, suggesting their primary roles in ricinoleic production. Study identified a pool of novel genes regulating ricinoleic acid accumulation, setting a foundation for developing H. benghalensis into a novel ricinoleic acid feedstock at the transcriptomic level and provided valuable candidate genes for improving ricinoleic acid production in other plants. (21)


November 2022

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo:: Hiptage benghalensis--Liana / Ping an Chang CC by SA 4.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Hiptage benghalensis inflorescence / Unknown photographer / Credit: Australian National Botanic Gardens / click on image to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Hiptage benghalensis flowers and leaves / Forestowlet CC0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Hiptage benghalensis fruits / Jp.basuyaux CC by SA 4.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Hiptage benghalensis fruits / Roger Culos CC by SA 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Hiptage benghalensis / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Hiptage benghalensis / PROSEA
Hiptage benghalensis / CABI
Phytochemical screening and anti-diabetic efficacy of stem of Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz
/ Shela Unaiza Hridi, Nafisa Ferdous, Fakhar Uddin Majumber, Dr JMA Hannan / Journal of Scientific & Innovative Research, 2013; 2(4): pp 736-744 / ISSN: 2320-4818
Anti-inflammatory effects of triterpenes and steroid compounds isolated from the stem bark of Hiptage benghalensis / Chin-Lin Hsu, Gow-Chin Yen et al / Journal of Functional Foods, 2015; Vol 12: pp 420-427 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2014-12-009
Antimicrobial Activity of Methanol Extract of Root Bark of Hiptage benghalensis (L) Kurz / Lalnundanga, Lalchawimawii Ngente, Thanzami K /  Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2015; 3(6): pp 119-121
Evaluation of Anticancer Activity of Methanolic Extract of Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz on Cancer Cell Lines / Babu Rao Bhukya, Narsimha Reddy Yellu / Pharmacognosy Research, 2018; 10(3): pp 309-313 / DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_102_17
A review on Hiptage benghalensis (Madhavilata) used as an Ayurvedic drug / Meena A K, Meena Jyoti, Jadhav Ankush, Padhi M M / Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2014; 4(1) / pISSN: 2231-5705 / eISSN: 2231-5713
Phytochemical Screening and Investigation of the Central and Peripheral Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethanol Extract of Hiptage benghalensis (L) Kurz / Shehla Unaiza Hridi, Nafisa Ferdous, Fakhar Uddin Majumder, J M A Hannan / British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2013; 3(4): pp 1045-1057
Insecticidal and repellent activity of Hiptage benghalensis L. Kurz (Malpighiaceae) against mosquito vectors /  Lalrotluanga, Lalchawimawii Ngente, Senthil Kumar Nachimuthu, Gurusubramanian Guruswami / Parasitology Research, 2012; 111: pp 1007-1017 / DOI: 10.1007/s00436-012-2925-7
Antidiabetic activity of Hiptage benghalensis in chemical-induced diabetic rats / International Journal of Advance Research, Ideas and Innovations in Technology, 2018; 4(2) / ISSN: 2454-132X
Development and evaluation of various oral herbal formulations for anti-asthmatic plant extract / Tushar Brahmbhatt, Biren Shah, Upendra Patel, Hiren Kadikar / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and BioScience, 2012; 1(3): pp 317-327 / ISSN: 2277-8713 / Record No: 20123319260
Anthelmintic Activity of Hiptage benghalensis (L) Kurz Leaves / Chordiya SV. Pimprikar RB, Yeshwante SB, Tanvir Shaikh, Patil PH, Kale MK, Mirke BM / Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2009; 1(3): pp 234-235 / pISSN: 0975-2331 / eISSN: 0975-4385
A survey of medicinal plant usage by folk medicinal practitionaers in seven villages of Ishwardi Upazilla, Pabna District, Bangladesh / Mohammad Mehedi Hasan, Mst Eastmat Ara Annay et al / American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 2012; 4(3): pp 326-333 / ISSN: 1995-0748
Study of antidiabetic activity of Hiptage benghalensis (L) Kurz / J Janorious Wink, V Maithili, Senthil Kumar et al / IOSR Journal of Pharmacy, 2012; 2(2): pp 162-169 / ISSN: 2250-3013
Biodiesel production from Hiptage benghalensis seed oil / Kaushik K Dhar Dubey, Christine Jeyaseelan, Kailash C Upadhyaya, Aruna Kumar et al /  Industrial Crops and Products, 2020; Vol 144: 112027
Phytochemical Constituents of Some Medicinal Plant Species Used in Recipe During 'Bohag Bihu' in Assam / Barnali Gogoi, K Zaman / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2012; 2(2) / ISSN: 2278-4136 / ZDB-No: 2668735-5
Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Leaf Extract of Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz / Baburao Bhukya, Rama Narsimha Reddy Anreddy and Krishna Mohan Gottumukkla / Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal, 2009; 2(1)
Evaluation of phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Bauhinia purpurea L. and Hiptage benghalensis L. Kurz / Murugan M, Mohan VR / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2011; 1(9): pp 157-169 / ISSN: 2231-3354
A Review on Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Potential of Family Malpighiaceae / Haidy A Abbas, Soad H Tadros, Sayed A El-Toumy, Ahmed M Salama, Rania A El Gedaily / Egypt J Chem, 2022; 65(11): pp 235-274 / DOI: 10.21608/EJCHEM.2022.119510.5372
Identification of genes associated with ricinoleic acid accumulation in Hiptage benghalensis via transcription analysis / Bo Tian, Tianquan Lu, Guanqun Chen et al / Biotechnology for Biofuels, 2019; 12(16) / DOI: 10.1186/s13068-019-1358-2
Ethnomedicinal plants used by Kanikkars of Agasthiarmalai Biosphere Reserve, Wester Ghats / S Lalitha Rani, V Kalpana Devi, V R Mohan et al / Journal of Ecobiotechnology, 2011; 3(7): pp 16-25 / ISSN: 2077-0464

Sorting Passiflora names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The Univers ity of Melbourne. Australia.

Sorting Eragrostis names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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