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Family Burseraceae
Java almond
Canarium indicum L..

Scientific names Common names
Canarium amboinense Hochr.. Java almond (Phil.)
Canarium commune L.. Canarium nut (Engl.)
Canarium grandistipulatum Lauterb. Galip nut (Engl.)
Canarium mehenbethene Gaerthn. [Illegitimate] Kenari nut (Engl.)
Canarium moluccanum Blume Naanagai nut(Engl.)
Canarium nungi Guillaumin Ngali nut (Engl.)
Canarium shortiandicum Rech.  
Canarium subtruncatum Engl.  
Canarium zephyrinum Blume  
Canarium zephyrinum Marchand  
Canarium indicum L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
FIJI: Galip, Galip nut.
FRENCH: Amandier de java, Arbre a baume, Canari commun, Noix de nangaille.
GERMANY: Kanarienbaum, Gemmeiner, Kanari-nussbaum, Karaninuß.
HINDI: Agarbati, Dhup.
INDONESIAN: Kanari bagea, Kanari ternate, Kenari ambon.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Galip, Lauele, Red canarium.
VANUATU: Nangai.

Canarium indicum is a medium-sized to large tree growing to a height up to 40 m. Bole is short, branchless up to 10 meters, up to 100 cm in diameters, buttresses up to 1 m high. Bark surface is smooth to scaly and dippled, gray or brownish gray to yellowish-brown; inner bark is laminated, reddish-brown to pinkish-brown, exuding a milky resin. Leaves have 7 to 15 leaflets; leaflets with apex gradually to distinctly acuminate, margin entire, glabrous, with 8 to 20 pairs of secondary veins, sunken above and prominent below. Inflorescence is terminal, broadly paniculate; male flowers about 10 mm long, female flowers up to 15 mm long, with 6 stamens. Infructescences are large with up to 30 fruits. Fruit is an ovoid drupe, 3 to 6 cm by 2 to 3 cm, circular to slightly triangular, glabrous, and usually one-seeded. (12)

- Introduced.
- Ornamental cultivation.
- Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands.

- Fruit yields per 100g: protein 14.2 g, carbohydrates 5.5 g, calcium 119 mg, and oil 74.9 g. (3).
- Study for fatty acid composition showed C. indicum oil was rich in unsaturated fatty acids, 86.14% and 90.27 % for mechanical pressing and solvent extraction, respectively. (see study below) (7)
- Study reports on the synthesis of 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs) generally used for structured lipid production. The synthesis used canarium oil by enzymatic reaction.. The highest composition of fatty acids on 2-MAGs were unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid (039.8 ppm) and linoleic acid (445.5 ppm). Results suggest it can be used for synthesis of structured lipid. (8)
- Study evaluated the chemical composition and antioxidant properties. of kenari nut growth in Sangihe, Minhassa, and Maluku, Indonesia. The highest component of the nut is lipids, 66.27%, 65.93%, and 66.59%, respectively, follower by protein, 14.20%, 13.49%, and 13.18%. . The dominant fatty acids were oleic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic. Dominant amino acids were glutamic, leucine, arginine, and aspartate. (see study below) (9)

- Studies have suggested antioxidant and nutritional properties.

Parts used
Bark, nuts, seeds, resin.


- Seeds, raw or cooked (roasted or smoked). (2)
- Seeds yield an edible oil. (2)
- The oil from the ngali nut is used a flavoured cooking oil in the Solomon Islands. (10)
- Fruit of some cultivar is edible. (2)
- Bark used for treatment of chest pains; oil used for arthritis pains; and oleoresin applied as poultice for ulcerated wounds. (5)
- Dried old nuts ground into powder, mixed with cooked taro oil, and drunk to induce sterility. (2)
- In the Solomon Islands, oil pressed from Canarium nuts is mixed with sorbolene and applied to the skin for all forms of arthritis.
- Resin: Once used as illuminant and as canoe caulk. Also used as incense. (2) Oil from resin used for making soap and cosmetics.
- Oil: Oil extracted from kernel used as substitute for coconut oil with potential in skin-care products. Oil-rich seeds strung together and lit as torches. (2)
- Wood: Pink-brown wood is of medium density, soft and fine textured. Suitable for light construction, moldings, veneer, interior works. Also used for making canoes, bowls. Also used as fuel wood. (2)

Allergenic Components:
New foods present risk for food hypersensitive patients. Study evaluated the clinical and serological relevance of cross-reactivity between Nangai and pollen allergens with RAST, RAST inhibition, and Western blot using sera from patients allergic to grass, birch and mugwort pollen. There was prevalence for reactivity against Nangai in the group of pollen allergic patients. The cross-reactivity may re related-at least in part- to carbohydrate epitopes. The biologic effects of Nangai on allergic patients were confirmed using HR and SPI. The Nangai specific IgE among pollen allergic patients suggests the need for control of new or changed food prior to market introduction. (4)
Nut Oil / Nutritional Fatty Acid Profile: Study for fatty acid composition showed C. indicum oil was rich in unsaturated fatty acids, 86.14% and 90.27 % for mechanical pressing and solvent extraction, respectively. Results suggest C. indicum oils are eligible for use as edible oil and has potential to be utilized as material for medical, nutraceutical and food applications. (7)
Chemical Composition / Antioxidant / Nut: Study evaluated the chemical composition and antioxidant properties. of kenari nut growth in Sangihe, Minhassa, and Maluku, Indonesia. Antioxidative activities based of DPPH were 61.3%, 60.2%, and 53.2%, respectively. The nut yielded antioxidant substance, i.e., phenolic compound and tocopherol. (see constituents above) (9)
Toxicology of Seed Oil: Seed oil is made up of triacylglycerols, which contain simple fatty acids. Triacyglycerols have a lower toxicity than individual fatty acids. Acute oral toxicity studies suggest fatty acids found in ngali nut oil are of low toxicity in rodents. While there is a dearth on chronic toxicity studies, ngali oil's edibility with long history of traditional use suggests unlikely toxicity. (10)
Effect of Roasting on Kernel Nutrient Values Study evaluated the effects of roasting on kernel chemical quality and color development of C. indicum. Roasting decreased peroxide value but increased free fatty acid, probably due to increased cell destruction and lack of enzyme activation, respectively. Protein content significantly decreased after roasting, compared to raw kernels. Testa-on kernels contained higher protein compared to testa-off kernels. Mild roasting and presence of testa can enhance health benefits of kernels. (11)

- Wildcrafted.
- Cultivated.
- Oil and supplements in the cybermarket.

September 2020

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: File: Canarium indicum / Photographer: Roger Culos / CC by SA 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / WIKIMEDIA COMMONS
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: /Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp. - quickstick GLSE2 / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Foliage and fruit of the kenari and butterfly / M North / (click on image to go to source page / PlantIllustrations

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Canarium indicum / Synonyms / The Plant List
Canarium indicum: Canarium nut / Ken Fern: Tropical Plants Database / Useful Tropical Plants
Ethnobotany of Canarium plant species used by Tobelo Dalam (Togutil) ethnic community of Halmahera Island, Indonesia
/ M Nasir Tamalene, Mimien Henie Irawati al Muhdhar, Endang Suarsini, Fatchur Rahman, Said Hasan / BIODIVERSITAS. April 2016; 17(1): pp 61-69 / ISSN: 1412-033X E-ISSN: 2085-4722 / DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d170109
Allergenic components of a novel food, Micronesian nut Nangai (Canarium indicum), shows IgE cross-reactivity in pollen allergic patients / Eva Sten, Stahl Skov, S B Andersen et al / Allergy, May 2002; 57(5): pp 398-404 / PMID: 11972478 / DOI: 10.1034/j.1398-9995.2002.13423.x
Canarium L. : A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review / R .Mogana and C.Wiart Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2011; 4(8): pp 2482-2489
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF 2-MONOACYLGLYCEROLS FROM CANARIUM OIL (CANARIUM INDICUM) / Hamidah Rahman, Kusnandar Anggadiredja, Johhner P Sitompul, Tutus Gusdinar / Procedia Food Science, 2105
Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Kenari (Canarium indicum) Nut / G.S. Suhartati Djarkasi, Lana Lalujan, Erny J. N. Nurali, Thelma J. D. Tuju, Dekie Rawung, Maria F. Sumual / The Pharmaceutical and Chemical Journal, 2017; 4(4): pp 79-84 / ISSN: 2349-7092
Canarium indicum seed oil / C CMEC48: Complementary Medicines Evaluation Committee / Australian Gove: Department of Health and Ageing
Effects of roasting on kernel peroxide value, free fatty acid, fatty acid composition and crude protein content / Shahla Hosseini Bai, Ian Darby, Tio Nevenimo, Godfrey Hannet, Daisie Hannet et al / PLOS ONE, 2017 / https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184279
Canarium indicum / PROSEA: Plant Resources of South-East Asia / Pl@ntUse

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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