Kabatiti is a climbing, smooth shrub, reaching a height of 6 meters. Leaves are shining, ovate, 5 to 9 centimeters long, 2 to 6 centimeters wide; with pointed tips, rounded bases and toothed margins. Three nerves arise from the base of the leaf. Flowers are yellowish green, about 4 millimeters in diameter, borne on axillary, short inflorescences which are about 1 centimeter long. Fruit is somewhat rounded, 7 to 9 millimeters in diameter, and surrounded at the base by the calyx, green and fleshy, becoming dark brown with age, and contains three seeds.
- Along the seashore and borders of tidal streams throughout the Philippines.
- Also occurs in India to Africa, and through Malaya to Australia and Polynesia.
- Bark yields saponin.
- Plant extracts yield alkaloid, flavonoid, unsaturated sterol and triterpene, steroid glycoside, anthraquinone, saponin, tannin, phenols.
- Study yielded three new jujubogenin glycosides from the leaves of Colubrina asiatica, together with known colubrin, rutin, and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside. (1)
- Leaves yielded two saponins: jujubogenin-3-O-[2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-4-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-alpha-L-arabinoside] (colubrinoside) and jujubogenin-3-O- [2-O-acetyl -3-O- (2-O- beta -D- xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-alpha-L-arabinoside] (colubrin). (4)
- Study of C. asiatica isolated 16 compounds: six triterpene acids (1-6), five steroids (7-11), one benzoic acid derivative (12), two peptides (13 and 15), one sesquiterpenoid (15), and one jujubogenin (16).
(see study below) (11)
- Considered cooling and alterative.
- Studies have suggest antibacterial and antioxidant properties.
Leaves and fruits.
- Decoction of leaves use to alleviate skin irritation and treat a variety of skin diseases.
- Decoction of fruit used as abortifacient.
- In Polynesia, employed as tonic and cicatrizant for wounds.
- In India, juice used as tonic.
- Fish poison: Fruit used as fish poison.
- Soap: Leaves used as soap, lathering in water.
• Jujubogenin Glycosides / Leaves: Study yielded three new jujubogenin glycosides from the leaves of Colubrina asiatica, together with known colubrin, rutin, and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside. (1)
• Antibacterial: Essential oils from six medicinal plants were studied for in vitro bacterial property against 15 pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial. The combination of essential oils of Litsea chinensis, Piper cubeba and Colubrina asiatica displayed maximum inhibitory response white the rest failed to show any synergistic or potentiating effect. (3)
• Saponins / CNS Effects: Leaves yielded two saponins. Both inhibited spontaneous motility of mice and showed an antagonistic effect on amphetamine and a synergistic activity on chlordiazepoxide. (see constituents above) (4)
• Antioxidant: Study evaluated the relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents in selected common traditional vegetables. C. asiatica exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The study found no relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents. (7)
• Antioxidant / Leaves and Stems: Study evaluated the antioxidant potential of crude aqueous extracts of leaves and stems.
Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids, saponins, and total polyphenols. Total phenolic content of aqueous leaf extract was 12.499 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder in leaves and 0.867 in stem. Total flavonoid contents were 0.8 ± - and 2.8 ± 0.1 mg GAE/g extract in leaves and stems, respectively. Total antioxidant activity by FRAP assay in leaves was 137 ± 4.8 and 170 ± 38 µM Fe2+ in stem. (9)
• Antioxidant / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of essential oil and in vitro antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of C. asiatica. On various assays, the water extract showed powerful antioxidant activity, with effective reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating activities at same concentrations, compared to standard antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, BHT, BHA, gallic acid, and quercetin. Essential oil yielded 10 compounds with dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane highest at 17% and cubebene at 14%. (10)
• Antimalarial / Antimycobacterial / Cytotoxicity: Study of C. asiatica isolated 16 compounds: six triterpene acids (1-6), five steroids (7-11), one benzoic acid derivative (12), two peptides (13 and 15), one sesquiterpenoid (15), and one jujubogenin (16). Compounds 3 and 10 showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falcifarum. Compound 5 showed antimycobacterial activity. Compounds 3,5,6,10 and 14 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against cancer cerll lines. (11)