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Family Poaceae
Eulaliopsis binata
(Retz.) C.E.Hubbard
Ni jin mao

Scientific names Common names
Andropogon binatus Retz.            Kaboot (Ilokano, Ibanag)
Andropogon involutus Steud.            Pueng (Bontoc)
Andropogon notopogon Steud.            Sangumati (Bukidnon)
Andropogon obvallatus Steud.            Baib grass (Engl.)
Eulaliopsis angustifolia (Trin.) Honda            Berveza grass (Engl.)
Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) C.E.Hubbard            Chinese alpine rush (Engl.)
Eulaliopsis duthiei Sur            Sabai grass (Engl.)
Ischaemum angustifolium (Trin.) Hack.             
Ischaemum binatum (Retz.) Buse             
Pollinia eriopoda Hance             
Pollinidium an gustifolium (Trin.) Haines             
Pollinidium binatum (Retz.) C.E.Hubbard             
Spodiopogon angustifolius Trin.             
Spodiopogon binatus (Retz.) Roberty             
Spodiopogon involutus (Steud.) Will.Watson             
Spodiopogon laniger Nees ex Steud.             
Spodiopogon notopogon Nees ex Steud.             
Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) C.E.Hubb. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
INDIA: Bhabhar,
NEPAL: Babiyo.
PAKISTAN: Bhabar, Berweza.
OTHERS: Babui.

Gen info
- Eulaliopsis binata is a perennial plant belonging to the grass family, Poaceae.
- In India, it is the second most important raw material for paper pulp after bamboos.

Eulaliopsis binata is a perennial; basal sheaths woolly with creamy hairs. Culms densely tufted, erect, 30–80 cm tall, nodes glabrous. Leaf sheaths glabrous, hairy at mouth; leaf blades tough, involute or rarely flat, 10–30 × 0.1–0.4 cm, uppermost very reduced, glabrous, adaxial surface and margins scabrid; ligule ca. 0.2 mm with hairs to 2 mm. Racemes 2–4, 2–5 cm, softly golden-villous; rachis internodes 2–2.5 mm, golden-villous on one or both margins, sometimes thinly. Spikelets 3.8–6 mm, yellowish; callus hairs up to 3/4 spikelet length; lower glume villous along lower margins and in tufts on back; upper glume slightly longer than lower, similarly villous, apex with a 0.3–2 mm awnlet; lower lemma narrowly oblong, equal to lower glume; upper lemma subequal to lower lemma; awn 4–9 mm. Anthers ca. 2.5 mm. (Flora of China)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Afghanistan, Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Himalaya, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. (1)

- Dry mountain slopes and open, sunny slopes, at elevations from 200 to 2,600 m.

- Preliminary phytochemical screening of methanolic, hydroalcoholic, and ethyl acetate extract of leaves yielded alkaloids +++, glycosides +, tannins +++, carbohydrates ++, flavanoids +, polyphenols ++, saponins +, with absence of coumarin. (see study below) (5)
- Study of 'baib' grass at pre-flowering stage for chemical composition and nutritive value yielded (% of DM) crude protein 4.12, ether extract 1.60, crude fiber 38.3, ash 7.69, N-free extract 48.3, total carbohydrate 86.6, Ca 0.36, P 0.16. Digestibility coefficients were crude protein 32.4, ether extract 26.9, crude fiber 70.1, N-free extract 55.7, total carbohydrate 62.0, with digestible crude protein 1.34 and total digestible nutrients 56.1 lb per 100 lb DM of hay.
- Study for total phenolic and flavonoid content of methanol leaf extract yielded 116.25 mg GAE/g DW and 183 mg QR/g DW, respectively.

- Studies have suggest nontoxic, antibacterial, phytoremediative properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves, stems.


- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Tribal people in West Bengal use root decoction (ca 10 ml) with long pepper made into paste for fever by Lodhas. Whole plant paste (ca. 5 gm) mixed with 2 tsp of honey and leaf juice (ca 15 gm) of Basak (Adhatoda zeylanica) used 3 times daily for bronchitis by the Santals. Aqueous decoction or root mixed with black pepper seed powder use to reduce body temperature due to summer heat by the Oraons. (7)
- In India, leaf juice applied to skin diseases, cuts and wounds.
- In Pakistan, stem decoction used for respiratory infections, fever, phlegmatic pains. (8)
- Pulp: Used for manufacture of writing and printing paper.

- Cordage: Long, narrow, and stiff leaves used for making rope and strings. In Nepal, use for making rope for swing for Dashain festival, one of the biggest Hindu festival.
- Crafts: Grass is woven into mats, baskets, light shoes, etc.
- Agroforestry: Used for erosion control.

Antimicrobial / Toxicological Profile / Leaves:
Study  evaluated the pharmacognostic, phytochemical , toxicological, and antibacterial profile of methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane solvent extracts of Eulaliopsis binata on in vivo/in vitro assays. All extracts showed hemocompatibility and exhibited no behavioral alteration in antioxidant potential and anatomical structure of vital organs. The methanol extract showed significant upsurge in glutathione level, and all extra ts showed significant antibacterial potential in a dose-dependent manner. (4)
Sun Protective / Leaves: Sunscreen aids enhance the body's natural beauty and protect the skin against ageing and UV radiation. Study  evaluated the sun protection factor of hydroalcoholic, ethyl acetate, and methanolic E. binata leaf extracts. The methanolic extract showed highest value with total phenolic content of 51.56, total flavonoid content of 43.32 and SPF value of 9.24. (see constituents above) (5)
Potential as Polymer Composite Reinforcement: Study showed Eulaliopsis binata has potential as reinforcement for polymer composites. Innate surface roughness provided boon for bonding between matrix material and the fiber with resulting better structural stability to the composite as a whole. The addition of fiber lead to gradual decrease in actual density with better specific mechanical properties. (9)
Phytoremediative / Cd and Pb Contaminated Soil: Study evaluated the effect of E. binata on heavy metal polluted soil with growth of 90, 180, 270 and 360 days. Results showed that heavy metal contents decreased with E. binata growth, extractable Cd and Pb decreased 28% and 15% after 1 year, but the difference was not significantly different compared to control. Study suggests E. binata has positive influence on Cd-Pb polluted soil and has broad application potential in remediating heavy-metal polluted soil. (10)

Seeds in the cybermarket.

June 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Eulaliopsis binata / Krish Dulal / CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported / image modified / click on link or image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo - Poaceae: Eulaliopsis binata / Inflorescence / Copyright © 2012 by Leonardo L Co [ref. DOL32569] / Non-Commercial Use / Image modified / click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Sabai grass (Eulaliopsis binata) / Jose Hernandez @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / image modified / click on image to go to source page / LuirigAltervista 
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Sabai grass storage box / Export Portal / click on image to go to source page / Export Portal

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Eulaliopsis binata / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Eulaliopsis binata / Wikipedia
Pharmacognostic and pharmacological evaluation of Eulaliopsis binata plant extracts by measuring in vitro/in vivosafety profile and anti-microbial potential / Vinod Kumar, Arun K Sharma, Satyendra K Rajput, Mahesh Pal, Neerupma Dhiman / Toxicology Research,  2018; 7(3): pp 454-464 /
DOI: 10.1039/c8tx00017d
DETERMINATION OF SUN PROTECTION FACTOR IN DIFFERENT EXTRACT OF EULALIOPSIS BINATA  / Vinod Kumar, Mahesh Pal and Neerupma Dhiman / Plant Archives, 2019; 19(S2): pp 185-187 / eISSN: 2581-6063 / pISSN: 0972-5201

The chemical composition and nutritive value of "baib" grass (Eulaliopsis binata) at the pre-flowering stage
/ K Chandra, M M Jayal / Indian Veterinary Journal, 1965; Vol 5r2: pp 284-286
Medicinal Uses of Grasses by the Tribal People in West Bengal - An Overview  / Anshuman Saha, Akramul Hoque, Shyamal Kanti Mallick, Sauris Panda / International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2014; 3(3): pp 63-70
Ethno-veterinary practices of Poaceae taxa in Punjab, Pakistan / Muhammad Majeed, Khizar Hayat Bhatti, Muhammad Shoaib Amjad et al / Ethnoveterinary practices of Poaceae taxa in Punjab, Pakistan /
DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-15532/v1
Study of mechanical behaviour of eulaliopsis binata fiber reinforced polymer composite / Samir Kumar Acharya, Subhrajit Pradhan / Materials Today: Proceedings, 2019; 19(Part2): pp 344-348 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.matpr.2019.07.610
The effect of Eulaliopsis binata on the physi-chemical properties, microbial biomass, and enzymatic activities in Cd-Pb polluted soil /  Hui Yu, Yanci Xiang, Dongsheng Zou / Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2016; 23(19) / DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-6967-8

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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