Kabuyau is a small, slender, erect
tree. Leaves are smooth, oblong, 10 to 15 centimeters long, 3 to 5 centimeters wide. Flowers
are cream-colored, borne in fascicles upon short, green axillary spikes. Fruit
is variable in size, globose, up to 10 centimeters in diameter; slightly raised at the apex, and many seeded. Flesh is white
and astringently sour. Rind is thick, lemon yellow.
- Common in
primary and secondary forests, sometimes in or near settlements, at low and medium altitudes, throughout the Philippines.
- Native to the Archipelago.
-Rind: volatile oil,
4%; citral, 40%.
- Leaves: volatile oil, 0.08%.
- From the essential oil: Limonene (most abundant), B-pinene, terpinen-4-ol
- Three coumarins have been reported: bergamottin, oxypeucedanin and 5-[(6',7'-dihydroxy-3',7'-dimethyl-2-octenyl)oxy]
- Leaves yield an oil resembling the odor of oil distilled from the leaves of C. grandis.
- Fruit is considered stimulant and stomachic.
Leaves and fruits.
Edibility / Culinary
- Fruit flesh is astringently sour; juice used for seasoning and makes a good drink.
- Rind is squeezed to extract oil
- Rind is often mixed with gogo to impart a sweet smell.
- Leaves used to season food.
- Leaves used in preparation of Thai and Malay dishes.
- Aromatic baths: Squeeze
fruit and juice to gogo (for shampoo) or water (bath).
- Nausea and fainting: Inhale oil from rind.
- Malays use the peel as a tonic ingredient.
- Fresh peels and dried fruits used to relieve nausea, flatulence, and control menstruation.
- Rind used in treatment headache and worms
- In Malaysia, used for stomachaches and
- Fruit juice is expectorant and antidandruff.
- With ginger and other aromatics, used to treat postpartum septicemia.
Scent: Volatile oil used in perfumery, toiletries, handwash and shampoo.
Juice of fruit used as insecticide. (Read)
• Insect Repellent: (1) Essential oil effective in repelling mosquitoes,
but less than tumeric or citronella grass. (2) Except at 10% and 25% of Kaffir lime oil, the studied oils at all concentrations were able to protect mosquito bites more than 2 hrs. with dose dependence .
isolated three known coumarins from CH as inhibitors of both lipopolysaccharide
and interferon-y-induced nitric oxide generation in in Mouse Macrophage
RAW 264.7 Cells. (2)
• Anti-Tumor / Glyceroglycolipids: Glyceroglycolipids
from Citrus hystrix, a Traditional Herb in Thailand, Potently Inhibit
the Tumor-Promoting Activity of 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-Acetate
in Mouse Skin: Study isolated two glyceroglycolipids from the leaves
of Citrus hystrix. Both showed to be potent inhibitors of tumor promoter-induced
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activation. The anti-tumor promotion may involved
the inhibition of arachidonic acid cascade. (3)
• Anti-Microbial / Thai Herbs:
Study of fresh and oil extracts fifteen medicinal herbs were tested
for potential use as natural antimicrobial additives in foods. Tested
against B cereus, S typhi and S aureus, six , including Citrus hystrix,
showed high activities on first screening. C. hystrix, together with
A. ascalonicum and C aurantifolium were selected as potential antimicrobial
food additives (4).
Antimicrobial / Peel: Study showed the ethyl acetate extract of kaffir
lime (C hystrix) peel showed broad spectrum inhibition against all Gram-positive
bacteria, yeast and molds including S aureus, B cereus, Listeria monocytogenes,
Saccharomyces cerevisae and A fumigatus.
Flavonoid / Antioxidant / Effect of Processing: Study compared
fresh use with effects of boiling and deep-fat frying on the leaf of
Citrus hystrix's phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacities.
Results showed boiling decreased total antioxidant capacity and that
the method of processing can significantly affect the flavonoid content
and their total antioxidant capacities. (5)
Antioxidant In a study of four Citrus species, C. hyxtrix exhibited the highest antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods, and the highest flavanoid and phenolic content. (18)
Antiproliferative / Anticancer: Study
on the anti-proliferative activity of essential oil
Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging Activity:
Study on 10 methanolic extracts from various medicinal plants commonly
used in Thai traditional medicine, the extract from leaves and peels
of Kaffir lime exerted the strongest effect on production of the hydroxyl
radical (OH). (7)
Stimulating Effect of Oil / Aromatherapy: Study of kaffir lime essential oil from fresh peels of Citrus hystrix showed a significant increase in blood pressure and decrease in skin temperature. Findings likely represent stimulating / activating effects of the kaffir lime oil, providing some evidence for use in aromatherapy. (8)
Anti-Fertility: Study of extracts of C hystrix fruit peel showed effective inhibition of implantation, producing abortion and slight hastening of labor time. The extract stimulated uterine contractions in an in situ study. (9)
Anxiolytic Effect: Study provided evidence that smelling oils of C hystrix and C microcarpa have anxiolytic property, with the C hystrix having a stronger effect. (9)
Insecticidal: Study of essential oil yielded 29 compounds. Beta-citronellal, 66.85%, was the major compound, followed by beta-citronellol, linalool and citronellol. Topical application of the essential oil showed antifeedant properties with severe growth inhibition of S. litura. (13)
Antioxidative / Myricetin:Study showed C. hystrix leaf may exert antioxidative stress properties by scavenging hydroxyl radicals and inhibiting lipid peroxidation that causes oxidative damage to the liver cancer cell line HepG2. A possible component inhibiting lipid peroxidation is myricetin, a predominant flavonol of C. hystrix leaves.
Antibacterial:Study showed emulsions with at least 2% of the essential oil of Kaffir lime showed inhibition of growth of E. coli, B. subtilis, and S. aureus at at efficacy similar to Ampicillin. (15)
Anxiolytic:Study provided some evidence that the smelling of essential oils of C. hystrix and C. microcarpa confer anxiolytic effect. (10)
Cockroach Control: According to a 2007 study by the Thailand National Institute of Health evaluating natural remedies for cockroach control, C. hystrix was the most effective essential oil used in controlling the pest, repelling 100 % of certain types of cockroaches. (17)
Cytotoxicity / Leukemic Cell Lines: Various crude extracts from leaves were evaluated for potential in vitro cytotoxic activity. An ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest cytotoxicity on 4 leukemic cell lines. (19)
Antibacterial / Essential Oils/ Respiratory Tract Pathogens: Study evaluated the inhibitory effect of essential oils of leal and fruit peel against respiratory tract pathogens. Both oils were effective against all test pathogens. Results suggest makrut leaf oil, makrut oil, and components (citronellal, a-terpineol, terpinene-4-ol) may be alternative natural medicines for prevention and treatment of many bacterial diseases. (20)
Cockroach Repellent / Essential Oils: Seven commercial essential oils were evaluated for repellent activity against three cockroach species. The essential oil derived from Citrus hystrix showed the best repellency (100%) against P. americana and B. germanica and highest repellency (87.5%) against N. rhombifolia. (21)
Cardioprotective / Peels Extract: Study observed the combination effect of doxorubicin and kaffir lime peel ethanolic extract (ChEE) on ALT and AST activity and cardio-hepato-histopathology on female Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed ChEE repaired cardiohistopathology profile of doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity, but did not repair hepatohistopathology nor reduce ALT and AST enzymes activity. (22)
• Photodermatitis: Occasional reports of photodermatitis from
rubbing the juice onto the skin for insect bites and as insect repellent. Another report of dermatitis associated with rubbing the juice of the medicinal lime onto the scalp to dye the hair. (eMediine)
Kaffir Lime Oil in the cyberMarket