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Family Combretaceae
Terminalia calamansanai (Banco) Rolfe
Ma ni la lan ren

Scientific names Common names
Gimbernatia calamansanai Blanco Anarep (Ilk.)
Pentaptera mollis C.Presl Bagabo (Ilk.)
Pentaptera pyrifoliia C.Presl Bangkalauan (Tag.)
Terminalia calamansanai (Blanco) Rolfe Bangkalauag (Bis.)
Terminalia blancoi Merr. Bangkalduag (Tag.)
Terminalia latialata C.T.Whhite Bisal (Pang.)
Terminalia molliis S.Vidal Bunlos (Tag.)
Terminalia oryzetorum Craib Burauis (Kuy.)
Terminalia papilio Hance Busili (Pang.)
  Dikang (Pamp.)
  Kabañgasbañgas (Bag.)
  Kalamansali (Sbl.)
  Kalamansanai (Sbl., Tag.)
  Langkog (Mbo.)
  Langkug (C. Bis.)
  Lumanog (C. Bis.)
  Magtalisai (P. Bis.)
  Malakalumpit (Tag.)
  Pangalusiten (Ilk.)
  Saget (Ig.)
  Sakat (Tag.)
  Saket (Ilk.)
  Salisai (Lan.)
  Saplid (C. Bis.)
  Subo-subo (Tag.)
  Yankug (Mbo.)
  Philippiine almond (Engl.)
  Yellow terminalia (Engl.)
Terminalia calamansanai (Blanco) Rolfe is an accepted name. Plants of the World Online
Correction: Previously entered as synonyms, Terminalia calamansanai (Blanco) Rolfe and T. bialata are separate species.

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Ma ni la lan ren (Taiwan).
THAI: Sakuni, Tin nok.
OTHERS: Kako, Kwako, Sualisualo.

Gen info
- Terminalia is a genus of large trees of the flowering family Combretaceae, comprising nearly 300 species distributed in tropical regions of the world. (6)
- The genus name derives from the Latin terminus,
referring to the leaves appearing at the very tips of the shoots. (6)

Kalamansanai is a large deciduous tree, with an open, flat-topped crown, reaching a height of 30 meters. Trunk is straight, cylindrical, up to 70 centimeters in diameter. Leaves are alternate, crowded towards the ends of the twigs, leaving scars after falling, obovate-oblong to suboblong, 9 to 14 centimeters in length, and 4 to 6 centimeters wide, with the tip abruptly but sharply pointed, and a pointed base. Flowers are in axillary racemes, small, yellowish-green, and almost without stalks. Fruit is dry, indehiscent, about 4 centimeters wide, and furnished with two opposite, spreading, rounded wings.

- In most islands and provinces from the Babuyan Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao.
- Native to the Philippines and the South Pacific Islands.
- Reported in Indo-China, Myanmar and Thailand.
- Cultivated in NE India.

- Study of leaves isolated ellagitannins: 1-α-O-Galloylpunicalagin, punicalagin, 2-O-galloylpunicalin, sanguiin H-4, and methyl gallate as main components.

- Astringent and lithotriptic.
- Study gas suggest anti-cancer properties.

Parts used


- Seeds are eaten, raw or cooked.
- Fruits are eaten raw. (4)
- In the Philippines, bark is astringent and lithotriptic. Used internally and externally.
- Wood: Seldom used for construction because it is not durable. Used for foundation piles, cheap or temporary construction, ties, paving blocks and mine timbers. (4)

Ellagitannins / Induced Apoptosis / Anti-Cancer:
A 70% acetone extract of leaves inhibited the viability of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Isolated compounds induced-apoptosis of HL-60 cells. Results suggest a potential for 2-O-Galloylpunicalin and sanguiin H-4 for drug development for cancer treatment and prevention. (2)
Tannins / Ellagitannins: Study isolated four new ellagitannins, calamansanin and calamanins A, B, and C, together with ten known tannins and related compounds from the leaves. (3)
Anticancer / Induced Apoptosis in HL-60 Cells / Ellagitannins / Leaves: A 70% acetone extract of leaves of T. calamansanai leaves inhibited the viability of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.
1-Alpha-O-galloylpunicalagin, punicalagin, 2-O-galloylpunicalin, sangulin H-4, and methyl gallate were main components isolated with IC50s of, 65.2, 74.8,, 42.2, 38.0, and > 100 microM, respectively for HL-60 cells. 2-O-Galloypunicalin and sangulin H-4 induced a decrease of the human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage-related procaspase-3 and elevated activity of caspase-3 i HL-60 cells, but not human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), suggesting potential for both compounds as new candidates for drug development for prevention and treatment of cancer. (7)


Update October 2021 / December 2015 / November 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: / Terminalia calamansanai / Photograph by: LiChieh Pan / Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) / click on image to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Fruit with spreading wings / hljh.tcc.edu.tw/teach
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Flowers / Racemes / hast.sinica.edu.tw

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Sorting Terminalia names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The Univers ity of Melbourne. Australia./
Ellagitannins from Terminalia calamansanai induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells / Lih-Geeng Chen, Wen-Tsung Huang, Iain Tze Lee, Ching-Chiung Wang / Toxicology in Vitro, June 2009; 23(4): pp 603-609 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2009.01.020|
Tannins and related compounds. CIII. Isolation and characterization of new monomeric, dimeric and trimeric ellagitannins, calamansanin and calamanins A, B and C, from Terminalia calamansanai (Blanco) Rolfe. / Takashi TANAKA; Akemi MORITA; Gen-ichiro NONAKA; Ta-chen LIN; Itsuo NISHIOKA; Feng-chi HO / CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN, VOL.39; NO.1; PAGE.60-63; (1991)
Terminalia calamansanai / Use Tropical Plants
Termminalia calamansanai / Plants of the World Online
Terminalia / Wikip

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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