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Family Combretaceae
Kalamansanai
Terminalia calamansanai (Banco) Rolfe
PHILIPPINE ALMOND
Ma ni la lan ren

Scientific names Common names
Terminalia calamansanai (Blanco) Rolfe Anarep (Ilk.)
Terminalia bialata F.-Vill. Bagabo (Ilk.)
Terminalia pyrifolia Bangkalauan (Tag.)
Gimbernatia calamansanai Blanco Bangkalauag (Bis.)
  Bisal (Pang.)
  Bunlos (Tag.)
  Burauis (Kuy.)
  Busili (Pang.)
  Dikang (Pamp.)
  Kabañgasbañgas (Bag.)
  Kalamansali (Sbl.)
  Kalamansanai (Sbl., Tag.)
  Langkog (Mbo.)
  Langkug (C. Bis.)
  Lumanog (C. Bis.)
  Magtalisai (P. Bis.)
  Malakalumpit (Tag.)
  Pangalusiten (Ilk.)
  Saget (Ig.)
  Sakat (Tag.)
  Saket (Ilk.)
  Salisai (Lan.)
  Saplid (C. Bis.)
  Subo-subo (Tag.)
  Yankug (Mbo.)
  Sakuni (Thailand)
  Philippiine almond (Engl.)
  Yellow terminalia (Engl.)

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Ma ni la lan ren (Taiwan).
THAI: Sakuni, Tin nok.

Botany
Kalamansanai is a large tree, reaching a height of 30 meters. Leaves are alternate, crowded towards the ends of the twigs, leaving scars after falling, obovate-oblong to suboblong, 9 to 14 centimeters in length, and 4 to 6 centimeters wide, with the tip abruptly but sharply pointed, and a pointed base. Flowers are in axillary racemes, small, yellowish-green, and almost without stalks. Fruit is dry, indehiscent, about 4 centimeters wide, and furnished with two opposite, spreading, rounded wings.

Distribution
- In most islands and provinces from the Babuyan Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao.
- Native to the Philippines and the South Pacific Islands.
- Reported in Indo-China, Myanmar and Thailand.
- Cultivated in NE India.

Constituents
- Study of leaves isolated ellagitannins: 1-α-O-Galloylpunicalagin, punicalagin, 2-O-galloylpunicalin, sanguiin H-4, and methyl gallate as main components.

Properties
Astringent and lithotriptic.

Parts used
Bark.

Uses

Folkloric
- In the Philippines, bark is astringent and used internally and externally.
- Used for kidney stones


Studies
Ellagitannins / Anti-Cancer:
A 70% acetone extract of leaves inhibited the viability of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Isolated compounds induced-apoptosis of HL-60 cells. Results suggest a potential for 2-O-Galloylpunicalin and sanguiin H-4 for drug development for cancer treatment and prevention. (2)
Tannins / Ellagitannins: Study isolated four new ellagitannins, calamansanin and calamanins A, B, and C, together with ten known tannins and related compounds from the leaves. (3)

Availability
Wild-crafted.


Last Update November 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: Fruit with spreading wings / hljh.tcc.edu.tw/teach
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Flowers / Racemes / hast.sinica.edu.tw

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Sorting Terminalia names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE /
(2)
Ellagitannins from Terminalia calamansanai induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells / Lih-Geeng Chen, Wen-Tsung Huang et al / Toxicology in Vitro, Vol 23, No 4, June 2009, Pages 603-609 / doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2009.01.020 |
(3)
Tannins and related compounds. CIII. Isolation and characterization of new monomeric, dimeric and trimeric ellagitannins, calamansanin and calamanins A, B and C, from Terminalia calamansanai (Blanco) Rolfe. / Takashi TANAKA; Akemi MORITA; Gen-ichiro NONAKA; Ta-chen LIN; Itsuo NISHIOKA; Feng-chi HO / CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN, VOL.39; NO.1; PAGE.60-63; (1991)


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