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Family Moraceae
Streblus asper Lour.

Quo shen shu

Scientific names Common names
Achynus pallens Sol ex Blume Aludig (Ilk.)
Albrandia gaudichaudii D.Dietr. Ampas (Pamp.)
Albrandia orientalis D.Dietr. Bagtak (P. Bis.)
Albrandia spinosa D.Dietr. Balangiking (Ibn.)
Albrandia timorensis D.Dietr. Buntatai (P. Bis.)
Calius lactescens Blanco Kagasaka (Ibn.)
Cudrania crebata C,H,Wright Kakadli (Tag.)
Diplothorax tonkinensis Gagnep. Kalios (Tag.)
Epicarpurus asper (Lour.) Steud. Kallos (Ibn.)
Epicarpurus gaudichaudii Steud. Lampataki (Tagb.)
Epicarpurus orientalis Blume Kensinal tree (Malaysia)
Morus tatarica Mill. Sand paper tree (Engl.)
Streblus asper Lour. Toothbrush tree (Engl.)
Streblus lactescens Blume  
Trophis aspera Retz.  
Trophis cochinchinensis Poir.  
Vanieria crenata (C.H.Wright) Chun  
Streblus asper Lour. is an accepted name, Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Sheora.
CHINESE: Quo shen shu.
HINDI: Siora.
INDONESIA: Peleh, Serut.
LAOS: Som pho.
MALAYSIA: Kesinai, Serinai.
SANSKRIT: Shakhotaka
TAMIL: Piray.
THAI: Khoi, Kak mai foi.
VIETNAM: Ru[oos]i ru[oos]i nh[as]m.

Kalios is a rigid and densely branched tree, 4 to 15 meters high. Leaves are oblong-ovate to subrhomboid, 4 to 12 centimeters long, very rough on both sides, with finely toothed margins, the tip blunt or tapering to a point, the base narrowed. Male flowers are in roundish heads, 4 to 7 millimeters in diameter, short-peduncled, greenish-yellow or nearly white. Female flowers are peduncled, usually in pairs, green, the sepals accrescent and nearly enclosing the fruit. Fruit is ovoid, 8 to 10 millimeters long, pale yellow, the pericarp soft and fleshy. Seed is ovoid, 5 to 6 millimeters long.

- In thickets at low and medium altitudes, especially in regions with long dry seasons, from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao.
- Native to Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Hainan, Himalaya, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. .

• Yields sulfur, peroxidase, hydrocellulose, glycosides, calcium oxalate, streblid, resin.
• Latex yields a resin.
• A rich source of cardiac glycosides, 20 have been isolated from the root bark.
• Yields a bitter substance, streblid, neither a glucoside nor an alkaloid.
• Bitter bark substance suggests the poison of Antiaris.
• Study yielded carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, tannins, saponin, gums and mucilage.
• Study of leaves yielded seven compounds: salicylic acid,β-sitosterol, β-daucosterol, oleanolic acid, magnolol, quercetin, and taxifolin - all obtained from the leaves for the first time.
• Study of leaves for volatile oil yielded 0.005% brown liquid with major constituents of phytol (45.1%), α-farnesene (6.4%) trans-farnesyl acetate (5.8%), caryophylene (4.9%), and trans-trans-α-farnesene (2.0%). *see study below) (2)
• Study of root bark yielded carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, tannins, saponin, gums, and mucilage. Physiochemical analysis revealed a total moisture content 8.91%, total ash 15.00%, acid insoluble ash 5.65%, water-soluble ash 3.23%, alcohol soluble extractive value 18.05%, and water soluble extractive value 35.83%. (6)
• Study isolated three new (1-3) and two known (4 and 5) cytotoxic cardiac glycosides, with six analogues and one known derivative (5a-g) synthesized from (+)-streblosdie (5). (see study below) (32)
- Study of leaves extract yielded fatty acids, phytosterols, triterpenoids, polyol, sugar acid, aldehyde, diterpene, terpene, carboxylic compounds, acid and sugar. The methanol extract showed abundance in
-D-glucopyranoside (10.60%), glycerol (7.96%), myo-inositol (4.90%), and butanedioic acid (3.30%). (see study below) (36)
- Study of n-butanol and chloroform fractions of S. asper heartwood yielded three new lignans, erythro-strebluslignanol (1), rhewo-7'-methoxyl strebluslignanol (2) and erythro-7'methoxyl strebluslignanol (3), along with twelve known compounds. (see study below) (37)
- Study of combined flowers, leaves, and twigs isolated a new non-cytotoxic [(+)-
17ß-hydroxystrebloside] (1) and two known cytotoxic [(+)-3'-de-O-methylkamaloside] (2) and (+)-strebloside (3) cardiac glycosides. (see study below) (38)
- Study of roots isolated four new lignan, (7'R,8'S)-4,4'-Dimethoxy-strebluslignanol (1), 3'-hydroxy-isostrebluslignaldehyde (2), 3,3'-methylene-bis(4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) (3), and 4-methoxy-isomagnaldehyde (4), and six known lignans (5-10). (see study below) (41)
- Study of methanol extract of roots isolated two new compounds, lup-20(29)-en-3ß-olyl octadec-9'-enoate (1) and stigmast-5-en-3ß-olyl-26-oic acud-3ß-hexadecanoate (4) together with four iknown constituents, lupeol linoleate (2), stigmasterol palmitate (3), cerotic acid (5), and octacosanoic acid (6). (42)
- Study of roots isolated three new cardiac glycosides, strophanthidin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-6-deoxy-ß-D-allopyranoside (1), 5ßH-16ß-acetylkamaloside (2), and mansonin-19-carboxylic acid (3) along with seven known steroids including five cardiac glycosides. (see study below) (48)
- Study
of n-butanol soluble part of MeoH extract of stem bark isolated seven compounds, (7'S.8'S)-trans-streblusol A (1), (7'R,8'S)-erythro-streblusol B (2), (7'S,8'S)-threi-streblusol B (3), 8'R-streblusol C (4), streblusquinone (5), (8R,8'R)-streblusol D (6), and streblusol E (7) along with 15 known compounds (8-22). (see study below) (52)
- Study of roots isolated six previously undescribed cardiac glycosides: 2'-de-O-methylstrebloside (1), cannogenol-3α-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-6-deoxy-2,3-dimethoxyl-ß-D-fucopyranoside (2), periplogenin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->4)-6-deoxy-ß-D-allopyranoside (3), 5-de-O-hydroxylstrebloside (4), 5ßH-16ß-hydroxylkamaloside (5), and 17S,21R-21-hydroxylstrebloside (6), and three known analogues (7-9). (see study below) (56)

- Considered astringent, antiseptic, antifilarial, cardiotonic, soothing, antiaging.
Root is considered antipyretic, antidysenteric, analgesic and sedative.
- Studies have suggested cardiotonic, filaricidal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, insecticidal, antiparasitic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antidiabetic, chemopreventive, SIV inhibitory, neuroprotective properties.

Parts utilized
Roots and bark.

- Infusion of leaves drunk as tea.
- Decoction of bark used for disinfecting wounds; also used for internally for skin disease "culebra."
- The bark is chewed as an antidote for snake poisoning.
- Bark decoction also used for fever, dysentery and diarrhea.
- Root powder used for dysentery; poultice applied to unhealthy ulcers.
- The Annamites apply the latex to the temples for neuralgia; also as sedative.
- In Ayurveda, used for filariasis, leprosy, toothaches, dysentery, diarrhea, cancer.
- In Indian traditional medicine, leaves, stems and roots used to treat syphilis.
- In Thailand, used for inflammatory illnesses.
- In Bangladesh, used for syphilis, cholera, piles, wounds, cancer, heart disease, tumors, indigestion, leucoderma, liver disease; as analgesic and as stimulant.
- In India, latex is applied to sore heels and chapped hands; also applied to glandular swellings.
- Seeds used for epistaxis, piles, diarrhea. Externally, applied as paste for leucoderma.
- Used for vitiligo.
- In Bangladesh, the Marma tribes use the root juice to treat irregular menstruation and to promote delayed menstruation. (21)
- Root used in epilepsy and inflammatory swellings and boils.
- Juice is astringent and antiseptic.
- In Tripura, India, fresh stem used as intravaginal insertion for 29 mins to induce abortion. (54)
Sanding / Scouring: The rough sides of the leaves, like those of Ficus ulmifolia, find use in the cleaning of cooking utensils. Used as substitute for sandpaper.

Cardiotonic: Extract studies of root bark on frog heart showed positive ionotropic effect.
Filaricidal: (1) Extract of stem bark revealed macrofilaricidal activity. (2) The study of the in vitro effects of two pure glycosides, i.e., asperoside and strebloside isolated from S. asper on bovine filarial parasite Setaria cervi females showed both caused death within 2 to 3 hours, probably through effects on glucose metabolism.
Antimicrobial / Oral Hygiene: Ethanol extract of leaves and sticks shown to inhibit growth of Strep mutans. Strep mutans is strongly associated with dental caries. Study suggests a potential for S asper extract as a natural product for controlling dental caries.
Anti-allergic: showed anti-PCA (passive cutaneous anaphylaxis) and mast cell stabilizing activity.
Insecticidal: Polyphenolic fractions found to have insecticidal activity.
Insecticidal / Stem bark: Study of extracts from the stem bark showed insecticidal activity against the fifth instar of Dysdercus cingulatus. Results suggest a potential for the development of biopesticides. (5)
Antiparasitic: Stem bark extract mounts an immune response against Plasmodium bergheri.
Anticancer / Volatile Oil from Fresh Leaves: The major constituents of the volatile oil of fresh leaves of Strebius asper were phytol, a-farnesene, trans-farnesyl acetate, caryophyllene and trans-trans-a-farnesene. The volatile oil showed significant anticancer activity from cytotoxicity primary screening tests with mouse lymphocytic leukemia cells. (2)
Macrofilaricidal: The crude extract of the stem bark revealed significant macrofilaricidal activity against Litomosoides carinii and Brugia malayi in rodents. Study yielded two cardiac glycosides responsible for the antifilarial activity.
Anti-Inflammatory: Study results on experimental carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of edema. Results suggest a potential for S. asper as an anti-inflammatory agent.
Chemopreventive / Anti-Cancer / Osteosarcoma: Study using osteosarcoma cells in an in vitro model, showed Streblus asper root extract exerted cell death to osteosarcoma cells. Study also showed antioxidant compounds such as caffeic acid in the root extracts which may act as a carcinogenic inhibitor. (8)
Antibacterial: Study to determine the antibacterial effects of a leaf extract of Streblus asper against six anaerobic bacterial showed inhibitory effects towards all bacterial strains except A actinomycetemcomitans. (9)
SIV Inhibitory Effect: Study screening the anti-simian immunodeficiency virus active parts of the extracts of stem of S. asper showed the essential oil, grease, steroidal and triterpene or phenolic compounds may have certain inhibitory effects on the SIV. (12)
Anticancer Mouthwash: Study from the University Sains Malaysia has created a mouthwash from the boiled extracts of S. asper, claiming to act as an agent to prevent mouth cancer. (13)
Antimicrobial Mouthrinse / Strep mutans: Study on the antimicrobial effectiveness of a mouthrinse containing Streblus asper leaf extract showed the mouthrinse can reduce S. mutans without changing oral ecology. (14)
Antimicrobial Gel / Periodontal Use: Study results suggest that the Streblus asper gel possesses desirable antimicrobial property and safety, with a potential use as adjunctive periodontal therapy. (15)
Analgesic / Stem Bark / Roots: Study of the ethanolic extracts of Streblus asper stem bark showed dose-dependent analgesic properties in all models studied through both centrally and peripherally mechanisms. (16) Study evaluated the analgesic activity of roots by peripheral mechanism of pain reduction by acetic acid induced writhing method. The ethyl acetate and petroleum ether fraction at doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg induced extremely significant (p<0.001) decrease in number of writhes. (49)
Subgingival Irrigation / Periodontal Use: Study showed the use of 80 mg/ml S. asper leaf extract solution for irrigation as an adjunct to dental scaling and root planing is effective in controlling gingival inflammation, plaque formation and the number of periodontophathic bacteria, when compared to normal saline. (19)
Behavioral Safety and Toxicity: Brine Shrimp lethality bioassay evaluated behavioral safety and toxicity. On cytotoxicity study, the methanol extract was weakly toxic, possibly due to cardiac glycosides. Petroleum ether extract was non toxic. Acute and subacute toxicity studies showed both extracts to be non-toxic. (20)
Antihyperglycemic / Antioxidant: Study of methanol extract of S. asper root bark exhibited remarkable antidiabetic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic effect was attributed to its underlying antioxidant activity. (21)
Antioxidant / Phenolic Content / Leaves: Study of S. asper leaf extracts showed the 70% EtOH extracts yield the highest amount of phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant potential, with freeze-dried leaf extract showing stronger antioxidant properties and phenolic and flavonoid content. (23)
Anticariogenic / Hemolytic / Leaves: Study evaluated leaf extracts of 12 medicinal plants for their antibacterial activity against 6 cariogenic pathogens. The extract of Streblus asper showed the most intensive activity, with complete inactivation of C. albicans. Hemolytic study of S. asper plant leaf protein gives a high range of HC50 values. (24)

Antidiabetic / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of α-amyrin acetate isolated from S. asper and petroleum ether extracts of stem bark in STZ induced diabetic rats. PESA and α-amyrin showed remarkable antidiabetic activity. (25)

Antitumor / Ehrlich Ascutes Carcinoma / Antioxidant / Stem Bark: Study evaluated a methanol extract of Streblus asper stem bark for antitumor and antioxidant effect against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. MESA exhibited dose dependent and significant decrease (p<0.01) in tumor proliferation and extended the life span of EAC bearing mice. Treatment significantly modulated hepatic and renal antioxidant parameters compared to EAC control. The antitumor efficacy could have been mediated by amelioration of oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms. (26)
Inhibitory Effect on Candida Adhesion on Bucaal Epitheiial Cells: Study evaluated the effects of ethanolic leaf extract on adherence of Candida albicans to human bucaal epithelial cells. A minimum concentration significantly reduced adherence (p<0.05) after 1 h exposure to 125 mg//m l of extract. Results inidcate the sublethal concentration of the extract may modulate candidal colonization of the oral mucosa thereby suppressing invasive potential of the pathogen. (28)
* Anti-Diarrheal / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-diarrheal activity of S. asper leaves in animal models The methanolic extract showed produced statistically significant (p<0.001) decrease in number of diarrheal feces of rats against castor oil-induced diarrhea and magnesium sulphate induced diarrhea models. In gastrointestinal transit tet, the extract showed statistically significant (p<0.001) dose dependent decrease in propulsion of charcoal meal. (29)
* Antilipoxygenase / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the antilipoxygenase activity and anti-inflammatory effects of S. asper leaf extract on xylene-induced ear edema in male mice.
The leaf extract showed anti-inflammatory and antilipoxygenase activity and dose dependent reduction in xylene induced mouse ear edema. However, nset of action of SA was slower compared to diclofenac sodium.  (30)
* Anti-Hepatitis B Virus / Roots: Study evaluated extracts from leraves, heartwood, barks, and roots of Streblus asper for anti-HBV activities. Results showed a methanol extract showed good anti-HBV activities with the ethy acetate and n-butanol soluble parts of the MeOH extracts showing more significant anti-HBV activities. A new lignan and 11 known cmpounds were isolated from the n-butanol soluble part of the methanol extract of roots. Honokiol showed significant anti-HBV activity with IC50s of 3.14 µM and 4.74 µM for HBsAg and HBeAg wth not cytotoxicity respectively. (31)
* Antineoplastic / Cardiac Glycoside: Study isolated three new (1-3) and two known (4 and 5) cytotoxic cardiac glycosides, with six analogues and one known derivative (5a-g) synthesized from (+)-streblosdie (5). Compound 5, (+)-strebloside, showed significant cell growth inhibitory activity against MDA-MB-231 human breast and OVCAR3 human ovarian cancer cells. (32)
* AChE Inhibition / Neuroprotective // Cardiac Glycoside: Study evaluated the antibacterial, antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and neuroprotective properties of S. asper leaf extracts. Among three fractions, the acidic fraction showed strongest antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria. Antioxidant activity among the fractions were acidic > basic > neutral,, while neuroprotective activity was neutral > basic > acidic. GC-MS analysis of the three fractions showed major phytochemical constituents including terpenoids, steroids, phenolics, fatty acids, and lipidic plant hormone. (33)
* Neuroprotective / Glutamate Toxicity / Longevity Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated the neuroprotective effect of S. asper leaf extracts against toxicity of glutamate-mediated oxidative stress, which contributes to neuronal loss in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Results showed concentration-dependent reduction of glutamate-induced cytotoxicity after extract treatment. Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide and immunofluorescent staining showed co-treatment of glutamate with SA-EE significantly reduced apoptotiic-inducing factor-dependent apoptotic cell death. Results showed the extract possess both longevity effects and neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced cell death. Study suggests therapeutic potential for treatment of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. (34)
* Inhibition of Candida Adhesion to Denture Acrylic / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of various sublethal concentrations of S. asper ethanolic leaf extract on adherence of Candida albicans to acrylic surface. Minimum concentration of SAE at 31.25 mg/ml 4-h exposure significantly reduced adherence (p<.05). Results suggest exposure of C. albicans to sublethal concentrations of SAE results in reduction of ability of yeasts to adhere to denture acrylic, possibly preventative of denture stomatitis. (35)
* Cytotoxicity Against Human Cancer Cell Lines / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanol extract and fractions of leaves for in vitro anticancer activity against human cancer cell lines. All tested extracts showed highly effective activity against human lung cancer cell line (A-549) with IC50 <10µg/ml. Obky the chloroform extract showed activity against Hep-G2 cancer cell line, wiith IC50M10µh/ml Methabik abd hexane fraction showed potent anticancer acticity on K-562 cancer cell line with IC50<10µg/ml. (see constituents above) (36)
* Inhibitory ro Geoatutus B Virus / Lignans / Heartwood: Study of heartwood isolated three new lignans, together with 12 known compounds. Primary bioassays showed 6-hydroxyl-7-coumarin (5) and ursolic acid (10) showed anti-HBV activities, with IC50s of 29.60 µM and 89.91 µM for HBsAg at no cytotoxicity, and IC50s of 46.41 µM and 97.61 µM for HBeAg at no cytotoxicity, respectively. (see constituents above) (37)
* Cytotoxic Cardiac Glycosides / Combined Plant Parts: Study of combined flowers, leaves, and twigs isolated a new non-cytotoxic [(+)-17ß-hydroxystrebloside] (1) and two known cytotoxic [(+)-3'-de-O-methylkamaloside] (2) and (+)-strebloside (3) cardiac glycosides. Cpmpound 3 was found to inhibit Na_/K+=ATPase. The cytotxic and Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitory 3 did not affect glucose uptake in human lung cancer cells agaiinst which it showed potent activity indicating the cardiac glycoside mediates its cytotoxicity by targeting NaKATPase but not by interacting with glucose transporters. (38)
* Anti-Filariasis / Filacid / Bark: Study reports on the medicinal use of Filacid, a herbal drug derived from the bark of S. asper in the treatment of filariasis caused by parasites Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. (39)
* Inhibition oSubgingival Biofilm Formation / Keaves: Streblus asper leaf extract possesses antibacterial activity towards Streptococcus mutans and periodontal pathogens. Study evaluated the inhibitory effects of leaf extract on subgingival biofilm formation. Results showed the leaf extract can inhibit in vitro subgiingival biofilm formation and can reduce numbers of periodontal pathogens P gingivalis, A actinomycetemcomitans and total bacteria. (40)
* Antimicrobial Lignans / Roots: Study of roots isolated four new lignans (1-4), along with six known lignans (6-10). Compunds 1-6 showed good antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cervisiae, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudommonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 0.0140 to 0.0940 µM. (see constituents above) (41)
* Adaptogenic Activity / Attenuation of Stress Induced Biochemical and Physical Changes: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract for adaptogenic actiivity using swimming endurance test and milk induced leukocytosis. Evaluation parameters for the swimming endurace test were Mean swimming time, brain tissue antioxidant profiles (MDA, SOD, GSH, and catalase), triglyceride, cereatinine kinase and corticosterone. Results showed potential adaptogenic activity. (43)
* Antimicrobial Lignans / Roots: Study evaluated the protective effects of S. asper leaf extract on reactive oxygen species (ROS) in SK-N-SH cell culture and on motor functions and behavior in MPTP- treated C57BL/6 mice. MPTP induced Parkinson's disease like symptoms. Catalepsy, beam balance stability, olfactory discrimination and recognition, and spontaneous locomotor activity were assessed. Results showed anti-Parkinson effect, with reduction in ROS levels may be one of the possible mechanisms. (44)
* Induction of Apoptosis in Cervical Cancer / Roots: Study showed Streblus asper was able to induce apoptrosis on cervical cancer through the regulation of several apoptotic proteiins. Apoptosis was iinduced through TNF signaling which triggered the activation of the SMAC pathway and blockage of NF-kB cascade. The apoptosis induction was assisted by HSP60 downregulation which results in p53 activation and survivin down-expression. Study provides a preliminary understanding on a selective apoptotic mechanism by S. asper in cervical cancer. (45)
* Effect in Scopolamine-Induced Memory Deficit / Alzheimer Model / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of S. asper extract in preventing memory impairment in zebrafish induced by scopolamine. Results showed the extract attenuated memory impairment in an inhibitory avoidance test related to fear memory. Study suggests further research for the development of an extract for amelioration of Alzheimer's symptoms. (46)
* Cardiotonic Steroids with Potent Cytotoxicity / Strebloside: Study isolated four new and several known cardiotonic steroids. Several were found cytotoxic toward the HT-29 human colon cancer cells, with a known compound, strebloside, found to be potently cytotoxic with IC40 of 170 nM. (47)
* Cardiac Glycosides / Cytotoxicity and Melanogenesis-Inhibitory / Roots: Study iof methanol extract of roots isolated three new cardiac glycosides along with seven known steroids including five cardiac glycosides. The cytotoxicities of the crude extracts and isolated compunds were evaluated agaiinst four human cancer cell lines viz. HL60, A 549, AZ521, and SKBR3. Results showed cardiac glycosides 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8 exhibited significant cytotoxicities with IC50 values from 0.01 to 3.77 µM. as well as high selective index for WI38/A549 and superior selectivities when compared to reference cisplatin. Cardiac glycoside 3, 6, 7, and 8 displayed moderate inhibitory effects on melanogenesis with high cell viability compared to reference arbutin. Compound 3 could inhibit melanogenesis by suppressing the protein expressions of TRP-2 and tyrosinase. (see constituents above) (48)
* Antibacterial Chewing Sticks Against Dental Plaque: Study ievaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of aqueous extracts of Indian chewing sticks (Neem, Acacia, Pongamia glabra, Achyranthes aspera, Streblus asper) separately. Results showed all chewing sticks possess inhibitory potential against bacteria present in dental plaque. Study suggests the chewing sticks contaiin antibacterial constituents, but concentration and compostion of active substances differed among the plants. However, there were no makred differences in the susceptibility of various bacterial types to any aqueous extract of chewing sticks mentioned. (50)
Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Toxicity / Synergism with Asparagus gonoclados: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of Asparagus gonoclados and Streblus asper in a 50:50 ratio. Study showed the combination therapy showed significant hepatoprotective activity compared to single drug therapy, in carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity. Drug was safe up to 4500 mg/kbw. There was significant reduction in SGPT. SGOT and bilirubn levels in animals treated with the combine dose than the single dose. (51)
* Anti-Hepatitis B / Stem Bark: Study of n-butanol soluble part of MeoH extract of stem bark isolated seven compounds (1-7) along with 15 known compounds (8-22). The isolated lignans and allylbenzene derivatives were evaluated for anti-HGV activities in vitro using HBV transfected Hep G2.2.15 cell liine. The most active compounds, magnolol and 9-ß-xylopyranosyl-isolariciresinol, exhibited significant anti-HBV activities with IC50s of 2.03 and 6.58 µM for secretion of HBsAg, with not cytotoxicity, and of 3.76 and 24.86 µM for secretion of HBeAg, with no cytotoxicity. (see constituents above) (52)
* Proteonic Analysis of Antcancer Effects / HeLa Cancer Cells / Roots: Study evaluated the potential of S. asper to inhibit the growth of cervical cancer cell lines. MS analysis revealed 76 common proteins from treated and untreated HeLa cells and seven proteins closely associated with treatment effects were selected. Results suggest tS. asper demonstrated significant anticancer effects on cervical cancer cell line through regulation of several key proteins and pathways. Further studies were suggested to further elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms of treatment effects. (53)
Bioactive Antimicrobial Compound / SA2 / Stem Bark: A petroleum ether extract fractionated from a methanol extract of stem bark yielded SA2 as majjor bioactive compound which showed highest antimicrobial activirty against Bacillus subtilis followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Escheriichia coli. The structure of the compound was determined to be Lup-20(29)-en-3 ß-01. (55)
Apoptosis Inducing Cardiac Glycosides / A549 Lung Cancer Cells / Roots: Study of roots isolated six previously undescribed cardiac glycosides, along with three known analogues (7-9). The cardiac glycosides were evaluated for effects on apoptosis and cytotoxicity in human A549 lung cancer cells. All the compounds showed remarable inhibitory activities with IC50s in the range of 0.01-6.08 µM. Compound 3 significantly inhibited A549 cell growth proliferation via induction of apoptosis, due to activation of caspases-3, --8, and -9 in A549 cells. (see constituents above) (56)


Updated July 2021 / January 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Streblus asper Blanco1.171-cropped.jpg / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A.) / 1880-1883? / Floras de Filipinas / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Streblus asper Lour. (Shakhotaka): A Review of its Chemical, Pharmacological and Ethnomedicinal Properties / Subha Rastogi et al / Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 June; 3(2): 217–222 / doi: 10.1093/ecam/nel018.
The components and anticancer activity of the volatile oil from Streblus asper / Phutdhawong Weerachai et al / Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 2004; 19(5): pp 445-447 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1342
Antimicrobial activity of Streblus asper leaf extract
/ Dr Sopit Wongkham et al / Phytotherapy Research
Volume 15 Issue 2, Pages 119 - 121
/ DOI 10.1002/ptr.705
Macrofilaricidal activity of the stembark of Streblus asper and its major active constituents / Dr Ranjit Kumar Chatterjee et al / Drug Development Research, Vol 26 Issue 1, Pages 67 - 78 / DOI 10.1002/ddr.430260106
Insecticidal action of the polyphenolic rich fractions from the stem bark of Streblus asper on Dysdercus cingulatus / M S Hashim and K S Devi / Fitoterapia, Volume 74, Issues 7-8, December 2003, Pages 670-676 / doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(03)00186-2

Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Root Bark of Streblus asper Lour. / V Madhavan et al / Indian Journal of Traditional Medicine, Vol 8(2), April 2009, pp 176-180.
Anti-inflammatory effect of Streblus asper leaf extract in rats and its modulation on inflammation-associated genes expression in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells / Bungom Sripanidkulchai et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol124, Issue 3, 30 July 2009, Pages 566-570 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.04.061
Abstract B73: Chemopreventive effect of Streblus asper, a bonsai plant, on osteosarcoma cells: A preliminary study / Azman Seeni et al / Cancer Prevention Research 3 (Meeting Abstract Supplement), B73, January 7, 2010 / doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.PREV-09-B73
EFFECT OF STREBLUS ASPER LEAF EXTRACT ON SELECTED ANAEROBIC BACTERIA / S Taweechaisupapong et al / International Society for Horticultural Science
The components and anticancer activity of the volatile oil from Streblus asper / Weerachai Phutdhawong et al / Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Vol 19 Issue 5: pp 445 - 447 / (DOI) 10.1002/ffj.1342
Traditional Use of MedicinalPlants in Bangladeshto Treat Urinary TractInfections and SexuallyTransmitted Diseases / Md. Shahadat Hossan et al / www.ethnobotanyjournal.org/vol8/i1547-3465-08-061.pdf
Screening of Active Fractions of Streblus asper on Simian Immunodeficiency Virus / LIANG Cheng-qin, ZHOU Xian-li, DUAN Xiao-qu et al / DOI CNKI:SUN:ZSFX.0.2011-01-038
Cancer-preventing mouthwash from the kesinai tree (scientific name: streblus asper) / Bernama
Selective activity of Streblus asper on Mutans streptococci / Suwimol Taweechaisupapong, Sopit Wongkham, Supaporn Chareonsuk et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 70, Issue 1, April 2000, Pages 73-79 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00140-3
Streblus asper Gel : Antimicrobial Property and Safety Evaluation / A. LUNPROM, S. TAWEECHAISUPAPONG, W. KHUNKITTI et al / 19th International Association for Dental Research-Southeast Asia Division and 13th Southeast Asia Association for Dental Education (September 3-6, 2004)
Analgesic activity of stem bark extracts of Sterblus asper
/ Tara Shankar Basuri / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2011; 3(4): pp 1279-1280 / ISSN: 0975-1491
Chemical constituents from the leaves of Streblus asper / Liang Cheng-qin, Zhou Xian-li, Wang Zheng et al / DOI CNKI:SUN:ZCYA.0.2010-05-040
Effect of glycosides of Streblus asper on motility, glucose uptake, and certain enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism of Setaria cervi / Som N Singh, Ranjit K Chatterjee et al / Drug Development Research
Volume 32, Issue 3L pp191–195, July 1994 / DOI: 10.1002/ddr.430320309
Subgingival Irrigation Using Streblus asper Leaf Extract in Chronic Periodontitis / W. SUWANNARONG, K. INTARANONGPAI, S. TAWEECHAISUPAPONG et al / 19th International Association for Dental Research-Southeast Asia Division and 13th Southeast Asia Association for Dental Education (September 3-6, 2004)
Pre clinical studies of Streblus asper Lour in terms of behavioural safety and toxicity / R. B. Suresh Kumar, A. Puratchikodi, Angelene Prasanna, Narayan Dolai, Piyali Majumder, U. K. Mazumder, P. K. Haldar / Orient Pharm Exp Med 01/2011; 11: pp 243- 249 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13596-011-0040-4
Evaluation of antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties of Streblus asper Lour against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats / RB Suresh Kumar, Biswakanth Kar, Narayan Dolai, Asis Bala, Pallab Kanti Haldar / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)139-143
Streblus asper / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Streblus asper Leaves from Various Drying Methods / Nor Mawarti Ibrahim, Ishak Mat, Vuanghao Lim and Ruzita Ahmad / Antioxidants 2013, 2(3): pp 156-166 / doi:10.3390/antiox2030156
Anticariogenic Activity and Haemolytic Study of Some Medicinal Plants Leaf Protein Extract against Six Oral pathogens in In vitro condition / Hiral Soni, Kalpesh Ishnava, Khushal Patel / Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(3): pp 253-259 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v2i3.9344
Antidiabetic effect of Streblus asper in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Sanjay Kumar Karan, Arijit Mondal, Sagar Kumar Mishra, Dilipkumar Pal, and Kedar Kumar Rout / Pharmaceutical Biology, March 2013, 51(3): pp 369-375 / doi:10.3109/13880209.2012.730531
Antitumor activity and antioxidant role of Streblus asper bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice / Kumar, R. B. Suresh; Kar, Biswakanth; Dolai, Narayan; Karmakar, Indrajit; Haldar, Sagnik; Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Haldar, Pallab K. / Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology;2013, Vol. 10 Issue 3, p197
Streblus asper / Synonyms / Plants of the World Online
In vitro inhibitory effect of Streblus asper leaf extract on adhesion of Candida albicans to human buccal epithelial cells / S Taweechaisupapong, S Wongkham et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Jan 2005; 96(1-2): pp 221-226 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.09.010
In Vivo Anti-Diarrheal Activity of Methanolic Extract of Streblus asper Leaves Stimulating the Na_/K+-ATPase in Swiss Albino Rats / Md Shahed-Al-Mahmud, Md Jalal Ahmed shawon, Md Rashidur Rahman / Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2020; 35: pp 72-79 / https://doi.org/10.1007/s12291-081-0781-7.
Antilipoxygenase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Streblus asper Leaf Extract on Xylene-Induced Ear Edema in Mice / Kanathip Singsai, Pimchanok Charoongchit, Karitta Chaisatan et al / Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences , Vol 2020, Article ID 3176391 / DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.1155/2020/3176391
Anti-HBV activities of Streblus asper and constituents of its roots / Hiong Chen, Xiao-Jian Su et at / Fitoterapia, June 2012; 83(4): pp 643-649 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2012.01.009
Cardiac Glycoside Constituents of Strebus asper with Potential Antineoplastic Activity / Yulin Ren, Wei-Lun Chen, Daniel D Lantvit, A Doughlas Kinghorn et al / J Nat Prod., 2017; 80(3): pp 868-658 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b00924
Acid-base fractions separated from Streblus leaf ethanolic extract exhibited antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-cholinesterase, and neuroprotective activities / Anchalee Prasansulab, Atsadang Theerasri, Tewin Tencomnao / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018, 19: Art No. 223 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2288-4 / ISSN: 2662-7671
Ethanolic extract of Streblus asper leaves protects against glutamade-induced toxicity in HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells and extends lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans / Anchalee Prasansuklab, Krai Meemon, Tewub Tencomnao et al / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2017; 17: Article No 551 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-2050-3
Inhibitory effect of Streblus asper leaf extract on adhesion of Candida albicans to denture acrylic / S Taweechaisupapongm S Wongkham et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, July 2006' 106(3): pp 414-417 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.01.021
Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activity of Methanol Extract and its Fractions of Streblus asper Leaves on Human Cancer Cell Liines / Preeti Rawat, Amil Kumar, Tryambak Deo Singh, Mahesh Pal / Oharmacognosy Magazine, April-June 2018; 14(54): pp141-144 / DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_391_17
Lignans from the heartwood of Streblus asper and their inhibiting activities to Hepatitis B virus / Lu-Qing Li, Shan Li et al / Fitoterapia, March 2012; 83(2): pp 303-309
Cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic cardiac glycosides isolated from the combined flowers, leaves, and twigs of Streblus asper / Yulin Ren, Douglas Kinghorn et al / Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Feb 2020; 28(4): 115301 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2019.115301
Streblus asper Lour. - an indigenous drug for the treatment of filariasis / Siingh V K, Shamima Hashmi / Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants, Vol 1: Ethnomedicine and Pharmacognosy, 2002: pp 215-219
Effects of Streblus asper leaf extract on the biofilm formation of subgingival pathogens / S Taweechaisupapong, S Luengpailin et al / South Africann Journal of Botany, Sept 2014; Vol 94: pp 1-5
Antimicrobial lignans derived from the roots of Streblus asper / Hui Nie, Jun Li et al / hytochemistry Letters, Dec 2916l Vol 18: pp 226-231 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2016.10.022
Lupene-type triterpenic and steroidal constiituents from the roots of Streblus asper Lour / Vidhu Aeri, Perwez Alam, Mohammed Ali, Kamran J Naquvi / Journal of Scientific Innovative Research, 2015; 4(3): pp 142-145
Streblus asper attenuates stress-induced physical and biochemical changes in rat model / Sachin Neekrha, Himani Awasthi, Dharmchand Prasad Singh / Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, Apr 2021; 14(4): pp 1910-1914 / DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00337
Protective Effects of Streblus asper Leaf Extract on H2O2-Induced ROS in SK-N-SH Ce;;s and MPTP-Induced Parkinson's Disease-Like Symptoms in C57BL/6 Mouse / Kanathip Singsai, Tarinee Akaravichien, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan, Jintana Sattayasai / Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medic9ine, Vol 2015; Art ID 970354 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/970354
Induction of Apoptotic Mechanism by Streblus asper Root Extract on Cervical Cancer Using in Vitro and In Vivo Models / Mujammad Nabil, Aman Seeni, Wan Ismahanisa Ismail, Nurhidayah Ab, Rahim and Syarifah Habib Dzulkarnain / Viomedical & Pharmacology Journal, Dec 2010; 12(4): pp 1661-1673 /
Effect of Streblus asper Leaf Extract on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Deficits in Zebrafish: The Model of Alzheimer's Disease / Kanathip Singsai, Pirinyapat Fakthong et al / Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 2021, Art ID 6666726 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6666726
Cardiotonic steroids with potent cytotoxicity from Streblus asper / U Ren, T N Ninh, H B Chai, D D Soejarto, A D Kinghorn / Planta Med, 2014 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1382505
Three new cardiac glycosides obtained from the roots of Streblus asper LLour. and their cytotoxic and melanoogenesis-inhibitory activities / Dan Miao, Tengqian Zhang, Jian Xu, Jie Zhang et al / Royal Society of Chemisty Adv., 2018; 8: pp 19570-19579 / DOI: 10.1039/C8RA00733K
Analgesic activity of methanol extract and its fractions of Streblus asper (Lour.) roots / Elora Tasneem Rahman Sheikh Zahir Raihan, Zobaer Al Mahmud and Nazmul Qais / World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 8(4): pp 18-24 / ISSN: 2277-7105
Antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of Indian chewiing sticks on dental plaque: An in vitro study / Do;a Srinivasa Rao, Tenuja Penmatsa, Nalam Radhika Gautam et al / J Pharm Bioallied Sci., July 2014; 6(Supp;1): pp 140-145 / DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.137426 / PMID: 25210357
Comparative study of Asparagus gonoclados Baker and Streblus asper Lour. for hepatoprotective activity using carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in rats / D Tijare Ranajit, Beknal A, Mahoorkar N, Chandy Vineth / Pharma Science Monitor, Aor-Jun 2018; 9(2): pp 408-410 /
Anti-hepatutus B virus constituents from the stem bark of Streblus asper / Jun Li, Rui-Yun Yang / Phytochemistry, Oct 2012; Vol 82: pp 100-109 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2012.06.023
Proteomic analysis of Anti-Cancer Effects of Streblus asper Root Extract on HeLa Cancer Cells / Mohammad Nabil, Azman Seeni, Wan Ismahanisah Ismail, Nurhidayah Ab. Rahim / Biomedical & Pharmacology Journal, Sept 2019; 12(3): pp 1253-1277
A few traditional medicinal plants used as antifertility agents by ethnic people of Tripura, India / Banani Das, Anupam Das Talukdar, Manabendra Dutta Choudhury / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2014; 6(3) / ISSN: 0975-1491
Isolation and Characterization of Active Compound from Stem Bark of Streblus aspe
r / Kandali R, Konwar B K / Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry, 2012; 25(2): pp 157-159 / pISSN: 0970-6399 / eISSN: 0974-4479
Cardiac glycosides from the roots of Streblus asper Lour. and their apoptosis -inducing activities in A549 cells / Bo-dou Zhang, Jie Zhang et al / Phytochemistry, Jan 2021; Col 181: 112544 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2020.112544

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                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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