HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Sterculiaceae
Kalumpang
Sterculia foetida L.
WILD ALMOND

Xiang ping po

Scientific names Common names
Sterculia foetida Linn. Bañgad (Ibn.) 
Clompanus foetida (L.) Kuntze Bañgag (Ibn.) 
  Bañgar (Ilk., Neg.)
  Bobo (P. Bis.) 
  Bobog (P. Bis.) 
  Bobor (Ilk.) 
  Boñgog (Ibn.) 
  Bubog (Tagb., sul., P. Bis.)
  Bubur (Ilk.) 
  Kurumpang (Mag.)
  Kumpang (Sul.) 
  Bastard poon tree (Engl.)
  Wild almond (Engl.) 
  Hazel sterculia (Engl.)
  Skunk tree (Engl.)
  Sterculia nut (Engl.)
Sterculia foetida L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Jangli badam.
BURMESE: Letpan0shaw.
CHINESE: Xiang ping po.
FRENCH: Arbre puant.
HINDI: Jangli badam, Virhoi, Asakshara, Badam.
JAVANESE: Kepoh.
MALAY: Kepoh (Indonesia).
NEPALESE: Kaju.
SPANISH: Anacagüita.
THAI: Homrong, Sam, Samrong.
VIETNAMESE: Tr[oo]m.

Botany
Kalumpang is a spreading tree reaching a height of 20 meters or more. Leaves are crowded at the ends of the branches, and digitately compound, with 7 to 9 leaflets. Leaves are smooth, leathery, entire, elliptic-lanceolate, 12 to 18 centimeters long, with pointed tip. Flowers are malodorous, dull, yellowish to purplish, 2 to 2.5 centimeters in diameter, and borne on panicles at the axils of the leaves, appearing with new leaves. Fruit is large, smooth, ovoid, red, nearly smooth, obovoid, about 10 centimeters long, containing 10 to 15 seeds, which are black and about 2 centimeters long.

Distribution
- From northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most islands and provinces along the seashore and in semi-open forests at low and medium altitudes.
- Also reported from India to tropical East Africa through Malaya to northeastern Australia.

Constituents
- Kernels: Fixed oil, 51.78%; protein, 21.61 %; starch 12.1 %; sugar, 5%; cellulose, 5.51%; ash 3%.
-
From the leaves, study yielded two new flavonoid glycosides and a new phenylpropanoid glucose ester.
- Ethanol extract yielded flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids.
-
Study of leaf extracts yielded 46 compounds, including 36 flavonoids, 4 coumarins, 6 organic acids, and 3 steroids compounds.
- Study of leaves yielded 8 compounds: 5,7,8-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone-8-O-beta-D-glucoside, 5,7,8-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone-7-O-beta-D-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, apigenin-6, 8-di-C-beta-D-glucoside, puerarin, 5,7,8,3'-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone, 5,7,8-tetrahydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyflavone, 5,7,8-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone. (11)
- Sterculia foetida oil contains cyclopropene fatty acids, namely: 8,9-methylene-heptadec-8-enoic acid (malvalic) and 9,10-methylene-octadec-9-enoic acid (sterculic) to an extent of 50–55%. (see study below) (19)
- Analysis of fatty acid composition in fixed oil yielded methyl esters of tetradecanoic acid (Myristic acid) (1.65%), hexadecanoic acid (Palmitic acid) (11.87%), 9-Octadecenoic acid (Oleic acid) (20.50%), 7, 10-Octadecadienoic acid (Linoleic acid) (20.50%), 8-(2-Octacyclopropen-1-yl)octanoic acid (Sterculic acid) (6.76%). (
23)

Properties
- Considered aperient, diuretic, and insect repellent.
- Bark and leaves considered aperient, diaphoretic, and diuretic.
- Kernels are flavored like cacao, but are not bitter, and used to adulterate cacao.
- Oil is bland, sweet, and yellow, with a high melting point.
- Oil is reported to resemble olive oil in its physiological properties, non-toxic, non-irritating, and administered to dogs acts like a mild laxative.


Parts used
Leaves, fruit, seed, bark.

Uses
Edibility / Culinary
- Fruit contains peanut-like oily kernels which are edible and more or less laxative when eaten raw.
- Kernels sometimes used to adulterate cacao.
- The oil resembles olive oil and may be useful for culinary purposes.
Folkloric
- Decoction of bark used in the Philippines for dropsy and rheumatism; as aperient, diaphoretic, and diuretic.
- Decoction of leaves as wash for skin eruptions.
- Decoction of leaves used for difficult labor.
- Fruit contains oily kernels which are edible and laxative when raw.
- Decoction of fruit is mucilaginous and astringent.
- Paste of oil applied to pruritic conditions.
- Oil from seeds given internally for itching and skin diseases; also applied externally as a paste.
- In Java, decoction of fruit used for blennorrhagia
- In
Ghana, seeds used as purgative. (16)
Others
- Wood: Wood is soft to very soft, light to very light, with poor durability. Used for small project constructions: i.e, boxes.
- Fiber: Cord is made from bark fiber. (16)
- Gum / Resin: Gum from trunk and branches, resembling "gum tragacanth," used for bookbinding. (16)
- Oil: Oil from kernels is used as an illuminant.
- Paint: Oil mixed with white earth is used as paint.

Studies
CNS Depressant / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves:
Extract of leaves on various animal models showed CNS depressant activity and antiinflammatory activity observed as decreased exploratory activity in mice and potentiation of pentobarbitone sleeping time in normal and chronic pentobarbitone-treated mice. The extract also showed significant antiinflammatory activity in acute carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. (1)
Mitogenic Activity:
Mitogenic Activity of Sterculic Acid, a Cyclopropenoid Fatty Acid: Sterculic acid isolated from Sterculia foetida oil was identified as one of the mitogenic principles. (2)
Gum / Controlled Release Excipient:
Sterculia foetida gum was studied as a hydrophilic matrix polymer for controlled release preparations. Results concluded it can be used as a controlled release matrix polymer. (3)
Gum / Ophthalmic Drug Delivery System:
.Study of SF gum showed it could be good polymer candidate for the formulation of different ocular dosage forms like solution or viscous solution (drops), nanoparticles, nanosuspensions or suspension, micro or nano emulsion, lotion, gels, hydro gels, in-situ forming gels, ointment, inserts, films, minitablets, etc. (7)
Phytochemicals:
Study yielded two new flavonoid glycosides and a new phenylpropanoid glucose ester from the leaves of Sterculia foetida.
Fatty Acids:
Study of the seed oil showed palmitic acid to be the dominant fatty acid, 52%, with 10% sterculic acid.
Antimicrobial / Cytotoxicity / Phytochemical Screening:
Study yielded tannins, 2-deoxysugars, leucoanthocyanin and benzopyrone nucleus. Results showed extracts with antibacterial activity, inhibiting S aureus and E coli. Antiprotozoal assay also showed inhibition of growth of Entamoeba histolytica. In an in situ cell death detection kit, it showed apoptotic-like changes. (6)
Toxic and Antifeedant Activities:
Study of the seed crude extract showed S. foetida acted as insecticide to Asian armyworm, S. litura and as antifeedant to the semilooper, Achaea janata, indicating a dual mode of action against the different pest larvae treated. (8)

Sterculic Oil / Anti-Obesity: Oil extracted from the seeds of the Sterculia foetida tree may reduce belly fat and help protect against obesity-related issues. The fatty acid content of sterculic oil may inhibit the action of an enzyme associated with insulin resistance, which may indirectly reduce belly fat. The data from rodent studies suggest a potential for developing a natural nutritional supplement. (9)
Antioxidant / Seed:
Study evaluated the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of seeds of S. foetida. The extract yielded 9.5% crude material with a total polyphenol content of 14.32%. Antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, ferric reducing power and ABTS.
(13)
Biodiesel / Seed Oil:
Paper suggests Sterculia foetida oil is one of the non-edible feedstocks with a potential for biodiesel production. (14) Study reports the production of biodiesel from S. foetida seed oil. Results showed as the percentage of biodiesel increases, the engine runs smoother while efficiency decreases. The blend fuel with 5% biodiesel is better with 2.8% less brake thermal efficiency than diesel.  (18) Study reports on the preparation of biodiesel from S. foetida oil. Physio-chemical properties were compared with sunflower, soybean and rapeseed oil-based biodiesel and were found comparable except for the pour point. (19)
Nasal In-situ Gel Using Sterculia foetida Gum as Natural Mucoadhesive Polymer:
The nasal mucosa is considered a potential administration route for faster and higher drug absorption. Study shows the S. foetida gum can be successfully used as a mucoadhesive natural polymer in developed thermoreversible mucoadhesive nasal gel of zolmitriptan for use in migraine therapy. (15)
Anti-Convulsant:
Study evaluated the anticonvulsant property of aqueous extract of Sterculia foetida in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and MES induced convulsions in experimental rat models. Results showed significant decrease in duration of tonic clonic seizures and recovery time in the MES model. There was delayed onset of seizures and reduced duration of convulsions in the PTZ model. (17)
Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Leaves:
Study reports on the extracellular silver nanoparticles synthesis using young leaves extracts as reducing agent. The bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles showed admirable antimicrobial effect. Results suggest a eco-friendly synthetic procedure with a potential for many pharmaceutical applications. (
20)
Anti-Diabetic / Antihyperlipidemic / Leaves:
Study of a methanolic extract of leaves in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats showed significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects with restoration of metabolic changes. The percentage reduction was higher in the glibenclamide group. (
21)
Delay of Sexual Maturity / Oil:
Study evaluated 21-day old female albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strains on diets partially substituted with S. foetida oil. Results showed 3% oil in the diet, which supplied about 105 mg of sterculic acid per day definitely delayed the sexual maturity of female rat by criteria of age at the time of vaginal opening and regularity and length of consecutive cycles. (
22)

Availability
Wild-crafted. 

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update October 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Fruits / Sterculia foetida - Wild Indian Almond, Peon, Poon Tree, Hazel Sterculia, Java Olive, Skunk Tree, Jungli Badam; Kudrapdukku, Pinari, Kokaru, Kukar, Goldhar in Hyderabad / J M Garg / 13.06.09 / Creative Commons Attribution / click on photo to see source image / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Leaves / Photo de quelques feuilles d'un arbre caca à la Réunion./ File:Sterculia-foetida-feuilles.jpg / Académie de la Réunion / 6 Dec 2005 / Public Domain / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: From Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / William Brown and Arthur Fisher / Figure 52 / Stercolia foetida (Kalumpang) / Source of Kalumpang Oil / 1920

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Pharmacological studies on Sterculia foetida leaves / Mujumdar A M et al / Pharmaceutical biology • 2000,
Vol. 38, no1, pp. 13-1 / doi: 10.1076/1388-0209(200001)3811-BFT013.
(2)
Mitogenic Activity of Sterculic Acid, a Cyclopropenoid Fatty Acid
/ D G Scarpelli / Science 13 September 1974: Vol. 185. no. 4155, pp. 958 - 960 / DOI: 10.1126/science.185.4155.958
(3)
Evaluation of Sterculia foetida Gum as Controlled Release Excipient / Amit Ashok Chivate et al / AAPS PharmSciTech • Volume 9, Number 1 / March, 2008 / DOI 10.1208/s12249-008-9039-7
(4)
Two flavonoid glycosides and a phenylpropanoid glucose ester from the leaves of Sterculia foetida / Peng-Fei Xia et al / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 11, Issue 8 August 2009 , pages 766 - 771 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020903055103
(5)
FATTY ACIDS OF STERCULIA FOETIDA SEED OIL
/ Niran Vipunngeun and Chanida Palanuvej / J Health Res 2009, 23(3): 157

(6)
Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Ficus septica Burm and Sterculia foetida
L. leaf extracts
/ Pierangeli G. Vital et al / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 4(1), pp. 058-063, 4 January, 2010
(7)
Preliminary evaluation of Sterculia foetida gum for ophthalmic drug delivery system / Paresh Ambalal Prajapati, Madhabhai M. Patel / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol 3, No 6 (2010)
(8)
Toxic and antifeedant activities of Sterculia Foetida (L.) seed crude extract against Spodoptera litura (F.) and Achaea Janata (L.) / Pathipati Usha Rani and Pala Rajasekharreddy / Journal of Biopesticides, 2(2): 161-164 (2009)
(9)
Plant oil may hold key to reducing obesity-related medical issues, MU researcher finds
/ James Perfield presented the research at the Diabetes, Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Dysfunction Symposium in Keystone, Colo. / Eurekalert
(10)
FATTY ACIDS: NATURAL ALICYCLIC STRUCTURES, OCCURRENCE AND BIOCHEMISTRY / The AOCS Lipid Library
(11)
Chemical constituents from leaves of Sterculia foetida / Pengfei Xia, Shuang Song, Ziming Feng, Peicheng Zhang / China journal of Chinese materia medica (2009). Vol 34, No 20, Pp 2604-2606
(12)
Sorting Sterculia names / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher
(13)
In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Sterculia Foetida Seed Methanol Extract / Narsing Rao Galla* / American Journal of PharmTech Research (AJPTR)
(14)
Production of biodiesel from Sterculia foetida and its process optimization / Silitonga, A. S. and Ong, H. C. and Masjuki, H. H. and Mahlia, T. M. I. and Chong, W. T. and Yusaf, Talal F. / Fuel: the science and technology of fuel and energy , 2013
(15)
Zolmitriptan Nasal In-situ Gel Using Sterculia Foetida Linn Gum As Natural Mucoadhesive Polymer
/ N. G. Mahakalkar*, K. P. Upadhye / Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 22(2), Sep – Oct 2013; no 37, 206-213
(16)
Sterculia foetida / Common names / Uses / World Agro Forestry
(17)
EVALUATION OF ANTI CONVULSANT EFFECT OF STERCULIA FOETIDA (PINARI) IN PENTYLENETETRAZOLE (PTZ) AND MES INDUCED CONVULSIONS IN ALBINO RATS
/ *T.A.R. Raja, R.V. Ramanarayana Reddy, k. Uma Maheshwara Rao / World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Issue 3, 2014.
(18)
Study of C I Engine performance with Diesel - Biodiesel (sterculia foetida) Blend as fuel / Venkateswara Rao P., Ramesh S., Anil Kumar S. / International Journal of Trend in Research and Development, Volume 2(4), July-August 2015
(19)
Preparation and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Sterculia foetida Seed Oil / Ch. Bindhu, J. R. C. Reddy, B. V. S. K. Rao, T. Ravinder, P. P. Chakrabarti, M. S. L. Karuna, R. B. N. Prasad / Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, May 2012, Volume 89, Issue 5, pp 891-896
(20)
Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of Silver Nanoparticles by using Sterculia foetida L. young leaves aqueous extract / Shivakumar Singh P and Vidyasagar G M * / International Journal of Green Chemistry and Bioprocess 2014, 4(1): 1-5
(21)
PRECLINICAL EVALUATION OF ANTI-DIABETIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OFSTERCOLIA FOETIDA LEAVES BY USING WISTAR ALBINO RATS
/ Shazia Hussain S*, Janarthan M, Siva Anusha. K, Ranjani. M / Indian Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biotechnology, 2(6), Nov-Dec 2014
(22)
Delay of Sexual Maturity of the Female Rat by Sterculia foetida Oil / EDWARD T. SHEEHAN ANDMITCHELL G. VAVICH / The Journal of Nutrition
(23)
ANALYSIS OF FIXED OIL FROM STERCULIA FOETIDA LINN./ S. S. Kale, Vijaya Darade* and H. A. Thakur / IJPSR, 2011; Vol. 2(11): 2908-2914

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT