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Family Rutaceae
Murraya paniculata
(Linn.) Jack 
Jiu li xiang

Scientific names  Common names 
Camunium exoticum (L.) Kuntze Banasik (Ilk.) 
Chalcas cammuneng Burm.f. Banaasi (Ilk.)  
Chalcas exotica (L.) Millsp.. Banaasi (Ilk.)  
Chalcas intermedia M.Roem. Banaot (Sbl.)
Chalcas japanensis Lour. Banasi (Bik., Ibn.) 
Chalcas paniculata L. Banati (C. Bis., Buk., Mag., Mbo.)
Chalcas sumatrana M.Roem. Kamuning (Tag., Bik., Dis., Pamp.);
Chalcas santaloides Linn. Vanaii (Iv.) 
Murraya exotica  Linn. Chinese box (Engl.)
Murraya omphalocarpa  Hayata Common jasmine-orange
Murraya paniculata (Linn.) Jack  Cosmetic bark tree (Engl.)
  Mock orange (Engl.)
  Orange jasmine (Engl.)
  Satinwood (Engl.)
Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Shi gui shu, Qian li xiang, Yue ju, Kau lei heung, Jiu li xiang.
FRENCH: Orange-jessamine, Buis de Chine.
HINDI: Gacharisha,Madhukamini.
INDIA: Kamini marchula, Pandari, Nagagolunga, Konji, Angarakana gida, Bian malika.
INDONESIAN: Kemoening, Djenar.
JAPANESE: Gekkitsu, Inutsuge, Kuribana, Gigicha, Gigichi.
KANNADA: Angara kina.
MALAYALAM: Kattukariveppu, Maramulla.
MALAYSIA: Kemuning putih, Kemuning.
NEPAL: Bajardante.
SINHALESE: Aetteriya, Etteriya.
SPANISH: Naranjo jazmín.
TAMIL: Cimaikkonci, Kattu karuveppilai, Konci.

Kamuning is a small, smooth tree, growing from 3 to 8 meters in height, and having a very hard wood. Leaves are 8 to 15 centimeters long, with usually 7 to 9 leaflets on each side, oblong to ovate, elliptic or subrhomboid, and 2 to 7 centimeters. Stems are hairy. Flowers are few, white, very fragrant, 1.5 to 2 centimeters long, and borne on short, terminal or axillary cymes. Fruit is fleshy, red when ripe, pointed or oval-shaped, 1 to 1.5 centimeters long.

- Common in thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.
- Often cultivated.

- Also occurs in India to Malaya.
- Now pantropic.

- Leaves yield a volatile oil, 0.01%, with cadinene and sesquiterpene.
- Flowers yield murrayin (glucoside), murrayetin, and indol.
- Study yielded alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides and saponins.
- Study yielded eight highly oxygenated flavones, identified as gardenin A, gardenin C, gardenin E, 5-O-desmethylnobiletin, umhengerin, 5,3--dihydroxy-6,7,4'5'--tetramethoxyflavone and new compound, 5,3',5'-trihydroxy-6,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone.

- Study reported nine coumarins from the aerial parts of the plant. Of these three – murrmeranzin, 1'2'-O-isopropylidene murrangatin and murralonginal are new; one, pranferin was reported for the first time from the plant.
- Study yielded flavonoids, indole alkaloids, coumarins.
- Yielded 60 compounds from the volatile and essential oil extracted from the leaves.
- Leaf essential oil yielded a total of 76 volatile components. The major components were methyl palmitate (11.1%), isospathulenol (9.4%), (E,E)-geranyl linalool (5.3%), benzyl benzoate (4.2%), selin-6-en-4-ol (4.0%), ß-caryophyllene (4.0%), germacrene B (3.6%), germacrene D (3.4%), and y-elemene (3.2%). (see study below). (24)
- Leaves yielded four coumarins viz., auraptene (1), trans-gleinadiene (2), 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-oxo-butyl)coumarin (3) and toddalenone (4). (see study below) (25)

- Mildly bitter-minty tasting and warming.
- Considered anti-herpetic, anti-diarrheal, aromatic, refrigerant, tonic and stomachic.
- Leaves are stimulant and astringent.

- Leaves and flowers considered tonic and stomachic.
- Studies have shown antioxidant, anti-amoebic, anti-giardial, antiplatelet aggregation, insecticidal, anti-diabetic, antinociceptive, antifungal, antibacterial, antifertiity, cytotoxic, nematicidal properties.

Parts utilized
- Leaves, roots, root bark.

- In Malaysia, widely used as food flavor additive for cuisine, in preparing meat, fish and soup.
- Flowers are used for scenting tea. Leaves used to flavor curries. (23)
· Decoction of dried material (3 - 9 gms) or 0.3 - 0.9 gm of pulverized material by mouth with water: Used for gas pains. swelling pain due to sprain and contusions, rheumatic bone pain and poisonous snake bites.
· Poultice of fresh leaves used for swelling due to sprain and contusions; poisonous snake bites.
· Infusion of leaves used as tonic; also used for diarrhea and dysentery.
· Decoction of leaves also used as mouthwash for toothaches.
· Infusion of leaves and flowers is tonic and stomachic.
· Leaves and root bark used for rheumatism, cough, and hysteria.
· Used for abscesses, cellulitis, tapeworm disease, rheumatic fever, coughs, giddiness, hysteria, thirst, and burning of the skin.
· Infusion used for herpes of the stomach, and the sediment applied externally.
· In Malaysia, used to treat dysentery and morning sickness.
· In Yi medicine in China, used for common colds, fever, cough, sore throat, influenza.
· In the Gujarat region of India, used to regulate fertility.
· In Singapore, leaves are ingredient of a tonic given for irregularities in the regenerative organs of young women. Also similarly used in Java.
· In China, plant is widely used for stomachaches, toothaches, rheumatism, paralysis, and diabetes.
· In Nepal, used for the the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, stomach aches, headache, swelling, thrombosis and blood stasis.
· Wood: Most useful part of the tree is the yellow wood, in demand for making canes. Also used for making kris handles.
· Crafts: Top branches, with the leaves, used for making wreaths and in giving body to bouquets.
· Cosmetic: In Thailand and Burma, powdered bark and root used as cosmetic. Flowers are sometimes put in the hair for their pleasant smell. In Java, flowers are used in making cosmetics.

· Perfumery: Essential oil used in perfumery. Sweet scented "Thanaka powder," made from wood and roots used as cosmetic on women's cheeks. (23)

Antiplatelet Aggregation / Coumarins / Leaves: Study isolated two coumarins-minumicroline acetonide and epimurpaniculol senecioate from the leaves of Murraya omphalocarpa Hayata. Both compounds showed activity in the antiplatelet aggregation assay. Also, a possible acetonide artifact exhibited significant antiplatelet aggregation induced not only by AA and collagen, but also by platelet activating factor (PAF). (1)
Antiamoebic Activity: The anti-amoebic activity of some medicinal plants used by AIDS patients in southern Thailand: 12 Thai medicinal plants were screened against a Entamoeba histolytica strain. Murraya paniculata extracts were classified as "moderately active."
Anti-Giardial Activity: The in vitro anti-giardial activity of extracts from plants that are used for self-medication by AIDS patients in southern Thailand: Of 39 medicinal plant extracts studied, the chloroform extract from Murraya paniculata was "moderately active." (2)
Insecticidal Activity: Leaf-derived petroleum ether fraction was found more toxic than ethyl acetate fractions were evaluated against adult male and female Callosobruchus maculatus. Males were more susceptible than females. It suggests further study for its potential as an insect-control agent. (4)
Essential Oil Composition: Oil of M. paniculata contained 58 compounds – caryophyllene oxide, ß-caryophyllene, spathulenol, ß-elemene, germacrene D, cyclooctene, 4-
methylene-6-(propenylidene) among others. (7)
Antinociceptive / Bioactivity: Study of the ethanol extract of leaves showed a profound nociceptive dose-dependent effect. The extract also showed considerable brine shrimp toxicity. (8)
Antidiabetic / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study of the ethanol extract of leaves on STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant reduction of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides. Study also showed significant reduction of TBARS, lipid peroxidation and increase in GSH. Results showed significant antidiabetic activity along with potent antioxidant potential in diabetic conditions. Supplementation of MP extracts may be beneficial in correcting hyperglycemia and preventing diabetic complications. (9) Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic and antioxidative potential of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of M. paniculata on STZ-induced diabetic rats. MPE produced significant dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. There was significant decreased free radical level, with significant increase of SOD, GSH, and CAT towards normal values. (26)
Antifungal: Study showed activity against C. albicans, C tropicalis and C luteolus. (10)
Antibacterial / Antioxidant: M. paniculata showed antibacterial activity against E. coli, P. mirabilis, S. typhi, E. aerogenes, and S. flexneri. Ethanol extract demonstrated antioxidant activity. (11)
Analgesic: Extract of bark showed significant dose-dependent reduction in acetic acid induced writhing. The reduced writing may be through the same mechanism of action as aminopyrine. The analgesic activity in radiant heat method was attributed to a central anti-nociceptive activity like that of morphine. (12)
2ʹ-O-ethylmurrangatin / Lipoxygenase and Respiratory Burst Inhibition: Study yielded a secondary metabolite, 2ʹ-O-ethylmurrangatin, from the leaves of M. paniculata. It exhibited significant activity against lipoxygenase enzyme and moderate respiratory burst activity. (13)
Antifertility: Murraya paniculata showed a prominent effect in preventing implantation, terminating early pregnancy and mid-pregnancy of mice, but could not prevent ova transport. Of the plant parts, the cortex of the root and stem was the most effective. (14)
Hypoglycemic: Study of a hydroalcoholic extract of leaves showed hypoglycemic effects in oxidative stress condition. The mechanism may be through potentiation of insulin effect either by increased pancreatic secretion of insulin from beta cells of its release from the bound form. (18)
Toxicological Study on Leaves: Study in mice evaluated a 50% ethanolic extracts for acute and subacute toxicities . Results sowed M. paniculata to be safe in its oral effective dose. (19)
In Vitro Antioxidant Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated a 50% ethanolic extract of leaves in various in vitro antioxidant assays. Results showed strong antioxidant potential and an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants or food supplement. (20)
Leaf Essential Oil / Antifungal / Cytotoxicity / Nematicidal: Study investigated the chemical composition and bioactivities of leaf essential oil from M. paniculata from Nepal. EO showed no antibacterial activity, marginal antifungal activity against A. niger (MIC=313 µg/mL), moderate activity against A. salina (LC50= 41 µg/mL), and good nematicidal activity against C. elegans (LC50 = 37 µg/mL). (see constituents above) (24)
Coumarins / Antibacterial Activity / Leaves: Study of leaves yielded four coumarins. Study of crude extracts and pure compounds showed the chloroform extracts, together with compound 2 (gleinadiene) to exhibit moderate activity against Bacillus cereus. (see constituents above) (25)
Warfarin and Coumarin-Like Components / Inhibition of EpCAM-Mediated Cell Adhesion: Study identified an extract from M. paniculata which inhibited both embryonic implantation to human-endometrium as traditionaly used for abortion and CTC adhesion to human endotheium. Results showed warfarin and coumarin like components Z3, Z5, and Cm from Murraya paniculata could directly inhibit Ep-CAM-mediated-cell adhesion and cause inhibition on adhesion of cancer cells to human endothelial cells. (27)

- Wild-crafted. 
- Cultivated for fragrant flowers.

Last Update August 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Line Drawing / File: Murraya paniculata line drawing.gif / USDA Forest Service Collection Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA / http://huntbot.andrew.cmu.edu/USDA/18/6725.1851.gif / Public Domain / Wikipedia
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / File: Murraya paniculata flowers.JPG / B. Navez / 10 Jan 2008 / Murraya paniculata flowers (photograph taken on Réunion island / GNU Free Documentaion License / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antiplatelet Aggregation Coumarins from the Leaves of Murraya omphalocarpa / Yi-Chen Chia, Fang-Rong Chang, Jinn-Chyi Wang, Chin-Chung Wu, Michael Y.-N. Chiang, Yu-Hsuan Lan, Keh-Shaw Chen,* and Yang-Chang Wu / Molecules 2008, 13(1), 122-128 / doi:10.3390/molecules13010122
The in vitro anti-giardial activity of extracts from plants that are used for self-medication by AIDS patients in southern Thailand / N. Sawangjaroen et al / Parasitology Research / Volume 95, Number 1 / January, 2005 / 10.1007/s00436-004-1264-8
Highly oxygenated flavonoids from Murraya paniculata / Takeshi Kinoshita and Kurnia Firman
/ Phytochemistry Volume 42, Issue 4, July 1996, Pages 1207-1210/ doi:10.1016/0031-9422(96)00058-1
Medicinal plants used by the Yi ethnic group: a case study in central Yunnan / J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2009; 5: 13./ doi: 10.1186/1746-4269-5-13
Chemical composition of the leaf essential oils of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng and Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack / Jasim Uddin Chowdhury et al / Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2008; 3: 59-63
Antinociceptive and bioactivity of leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, Rutaceae / Shazid Md. Sharker et al / Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, 19(3): 746-748, Jul./Set. 2009
Effect of Murraya paniculata leaves on diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin / Manish K Gautam et al /
Screening of Methanol and Acetone Extracts of Fourteen Indian Medicinal Plants for Antimicrobial Activity / Yogeshkumar Vaghasiya and Sumitra V Chanda / Turk J Biol 31 (2007) 243-248
Studies on in vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal Property and Antioxidant Potency of Murraya paniculata
/ Mohana Sundaram, Sivakumar, Karthikeyan et al / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10 (10): 925-929, 2011
Analgesic activity of bark of Murraya paniculata / Manas Kumar Podder, Biswa Nath Das et al / International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences Vol. 3(4) pp. 105-108, April 2011
Bioassay studies of 2ʹ-O-ethylmurrangatin isolated from a medicinal plant, Murraya paniculata / Azizuddin Shaikh, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary / Turk J Biol 35 (2011)
/ Chen Qionghua, Wang Shuru, Zhang Zongyu et al / Journal of China Pharmaceutical University, 1987 / DOI CNKI:SUN:ZGYD.0.1987-03-016
Murraya exotica L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Sorting Murraya names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Mini Review: Bioactivity studies and chemical constituents of Murraya paniculata (Linn) Jack / Ng, M. K., Abdulhadi-Noaman, Y., Cheah, Y.K., Yeap, S. K. and *Alitheen, N.B. / International Food Research Journal 19(4): 1307-1312 (2012)

Studies on the hypoglycemic effects of Murraya paniculata Linn. extract on alloxan-induced oxidative stress in diabetic and non-diabetic models / MK Gautam, Anamika Gupta, M Vijaykumar, CV Rao3, RK Goel* / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)S186-S191
Toxicological Evaluation of Murraya Paniculata (L.) Leaves Extract on Rodents
/ Gautam, M.K., A. Singh, C.V. Rao and R.K. Goel / American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 7 (2): 62-67, 2012
IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF MURRAYA PANICULATA (L.) LEAVES EXTRACT / M K Gautam, M Gangwar, A Singh, C V Rao, R K Goel* / Inventi Impact: Ethnopharmacology , 2012/10/15
Murraya paniculata / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Murraya paniculata / Synonyms / The Plant List
Murraya paniculata / Useful Tropical Plants
Composition and Biological Activities of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack Essential Oil from Nepal / Noura S. Dosoky, Prabodh Satyal, Tilak P. Gautam and William N. Setzer / Medicines 2016, 3, 7 / doi:10.3390/medicines3010007
COUMARINS FROM MURRAYA PANICULATA (RUTACEAE) / S. S. S. A. Aziz, M. A. Sukari*, M. Rahmani, M. Kitajima, N. Aimi, N.J. Ahpandi / The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, Vol 14 No 1 (2010): 1 - 5
Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of Murraya paniculata linn. Leaves: a preclinical study / M K Gautam, Anamika Gupta, C V Rao, R K Goel / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2012,5(3),1334-1337
Warfarin and coumarin-like Murraya paniculata extract down-regulate EpCAM-mediated cell adhesion: individual components versus mixture for studying botanical metastatic chemopreventives / Jingwei Shao, Suxia Zhou, Zhou Jiang, Ting Chi, Ji Ma, Minliang Kuo, Alan Yueh-Luen Lee & Lee Jia / Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 30549 (2016) / doi:10.1038/srep30549

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