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Family Leguminosae
Erythrina variegata Linn.

Hai tong pi

Scientific names  Common names
Chirocalyx candolleanus Walp. Andorogat (Bik.) 
Chirocalyx divaricatus Walp. Bagbag (Ilk.)
Chirocalyx indicus Walp. Andorogat (Bik.) 
Chirocalyx pictus Walp. Bagbok (Ibn.)
Corallodendron divaricatum (Moc. & Sesse) Kuntze Dapdap (Tag., Pamp., Bik., Bis.)
Corallodendron orientalis (L.) Kuntze Dubdub (Ilk.)
Corallodendron spathaceum (DC.) Kuntze Kabrab (Bik.)
Erythrina alba Cogn. & Marchal Karapdap (Tag.)
Erythrina boninensis Tuyama Kasindak (Tag.)
Erythrina carnea Bllanco Sabang (Bon.)
Erythrina corallodendron Lour. Sulbang (Pamp.)
Erythrina divaricata DC. Vuvak (Ibn.)
Erythrina indica Lam. Tiger's claw (Engl.)
Erythrina lithosperma Miq. East Indian coral tree (Engl.)
Erythrina lobulata Miq. Indian coral tree (Engl.)
Erythrina loueiri G.Don. Moochy wood tree (Engl.)
Erythrina loureirii G.Don. Sunshine tree (Engl.)
Erythrina marmorata Planch. Thorny dapdap (Engl.)
Erythrina mysorensis Gamble Tiger's claw (Engl.)
Erythrina orientalis Murray  
Erythrina orientalis (L.) Merr.  
Erythrina parcelli hort.  
Erythrina phlebocarpa Bailey  
Erythrina picta L.  
Erythrina rostrata Ridl.  
Erythrina spathacea DC.  
Erythrina variegata Linn.  
Erythrina variegata Linn. var. orientalis (L.) Merr.  
Gelala alba Rumph.  
Gelala litorea Rumph.  
Tetradapa javanorum Osbeck  
Erythrina variegata L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Modar, Ranga.
BENGALI : Kanda mathar, Madar, Mandara, Palte madar, Palitamadar, Tepalte madar.
BURMESE : Penglay kathit.
CHINESE: Ci tong, Hai tong, Kong tong shu, Hai tong pi.
FRENCH : Arbre corail, Arbre corail à feuilles panachées, Arbre corail de l'Inde, Bois immortel, Bois immortel vrai, Pignon d'Inde.
GERMAN : Indischer Korallenbaum.
HINDI : Chadap, Dadap, Ferrud, Mandara, Pangara, Panjira, Phārahaḍa, Pharad, Raktamadar.
INDONESIAN: Dadap ayam.
JAPANESE: Deigo, Deiko.
KANNADA : Bilee vaarjipe, Bilivarijapa, Kempuvarijapa, Mullumurunji, Paarijaathaka, Pongaara, Vaarjipe mara, Warjipe.
KHMER : Roluőhs ba:y.
LAOTIAN : Do:k kho, Th'o:ng ba:nz.
MALAY : Cengkering, Chengkering, Dadap ayam, Dadap belang, Dedap, Dedap batik, Kalayana murikku.
MALAYALAM : Mandaram, Mullumurikku, Mulmurukku, Paribhadram.
MARATHI : Pangara, Pangira, Paringa.
ORIYA : Salotonoya.
SANSKRIT : Kantakipalasa, Mandar, Mandara, Páribhadrah, Parijata, Raktapuspa.
SINHALESE : Era badu, Era mudu, Katu eramadu, Mandar, Murunga.
SUNDANESE : Dadap blendung.
SWEDISH : Indiskt korallträd.
RUSSIAN: Eritrina indijskaia, Eritrina pëstraya, Eritrina raznoobraznaia.
TAMIL : Kaliyana, Kaliyana murukku, Kaliyāṇa murukkuvakai, Kaliyana murunkai, Muṇmurukku, Savusayam.
TELUGU : Badchipa chettu, Badidapu chettu, Baridamu, Paribhadrakamu, Parijatamu, Wangiram.
THAI: Thong ban, Thong lang dang, Thong lang lai, Thong phueak.
TIBETAN : Man da ra ba.
VIETNAMESE : Cây lá vông, Vông nem.

Dapdap is a deciduous tree reaching a height of 15 meters, the branches and the branchlets stout and armed with short, few to many sharp prickles. Leaflets are broadly ovate and 8 to 18 centimeters long, with pointed tip and broad base. Racemes are terminal, hairy, dense, and up to 2.5 centimeters long. Flowers are papillonaceous, large and numerous. Calyx is about 4 centimeters long and minutely 5-toothed at the tip, the mouth being very oblique. Petals are bright red and shorter than the calyx, the standard being 7 to 9 centimeters long and the wings and keels subequal. Stamens are 10, upper filaments free nearly to the base or more or less connate with others. Ovary many-ovuled, style incurved. Racemes terminal, hairy, dense and up to 2.5 cm long. Fruits are pods, 10 to 25 centimeters long, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, and distinctly constricted between the seeds.

- Along the seashore and frequently planted inland throughout the Philippines.
- Occurs in India to Polynesia.

• Seeds yield an alkaloid, a fatty oil, and a saponaceous glucoside.
• The alkaloid has properties identical to hypaphorine.
• Leaves and bark yield an a poisonous alkaloid, erythrinine, which acts on the nervous system with effects similar to the alkaloid cytisine.
• Bark, leaves and seeds yield saponin
• Hydrocyanic acid is found in the leaves, stems, roots, and fruit.
• Phytochemical screening yielded eight spiromaine alkaloids and 3 carboxylated indole-3-alkylamines.
• Dried bark yields erythraline, hypaphorine, amino acids, organic acids, erythrinin, erybidin and saponins.

• Leaf extracts yielded steroids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, furan, sugar, coumarin, alkaloid, tannin, phenol, and saponins. (28)
• Total alcohol extract yielded ß-sitosterol, oleanolic acid, and ß-sitosterol glycoside on column chromatographic processing. (see study below) (29)
• Study isolated the terpenoid pentacyclic glycoside (1) and 10,11-dioxoerythratidine (2) from the leaves of E. variegata.
• Phytochemical study of bark yielded 21 pure compounds. Compounds 8,15,18 and 20 were new isoflavones established as: : 5, 4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxy-8-(3, 3-dimethylally)-2", 2"-dimethylpyrano[5, 6: 6, 7] isoflavanone (8); 5,4'-dihydr-oxy-8-(3, 3-dimethylally)-2"-methoxyisopropyl-furano [4, 5: 6, 7]isoflavone (15); 5, 7,4'-trihydroxy-6-(3, 3-dimethyl-oxiranylmethyl)isoflavone (18); 5,4'-dihydr-oxy-8-(3, 3-dimethylally)-2"-hydroxymethyl-2"-methylpyrano[5, 6: 6, 7] isoflavone (20). The known compounds were 5, 4'-dihydroxy-8-(3, 3-dime-thylally)-2", 2"-dimethylpyrano[5, 6: 6, 7] isoflavone (1); stigmasterol (2); eryth-rinassinate B (3); 3-hydroxy-2', 2'-dimethylpyrano[5, 6: 9, 10] pterocarpan (4); 5, 7- dihydroxy-8-(3, 3-dimethylally)-flavanone (5); 5, 4'-dihydroxy-2", 2"-dimethyl. (see study below) (42)
• Phytochemical study of leaves by HPLC showed the presence of gallic and caffeic acids as major components. GC-MS analysis yielded 3-eicosyne; 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, 3-methyl-3,7-dimethyl-6-octenyl ester; phytol; 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diundecyl ester; 1-octanol,  2-butyl-; squalene; and 2H-pyran, 2-(7-heptadecynyloxy) tetrahydro-derivative. (57)
• Study of methanol extract of bark of E. variegata isolated three flavonoid phospholipase As (PLA2) inhibitors: abyssinone V (1), 4'-hydroxy-6,3',5'-triprenylisoflavonone (2, new compound) and erycrystagallin (3). (see study below) (59)
• GC-MS study of methanol extract of whole plant of E. indica yielded various compounds like 3, 7, 11, 15-Tetramethyl, cis- 10-Nonadecenoic acid, n-Hexadecanoic acid Methyl 9-cis,11-trans, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, Octadecanoic acid and Squalene. (61)

• Prepared drug tastes bitter, neutral in effect.
• The bark is bitter, acrid, thermogenic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, carminative, digestive, anthelmintic, rejuvenating, laxative, diuretic and expectorant.
• The leaves are bitter, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, stomachic and anthelmintic.

• Erythrina has a narcotic and depressant action on the central nervous system.
• Considered nervine, sedative, febrifuge, anti-asthmatic, and antiepileptic.

Part utilized
Bark, roots, leaves.
Remove spines from bark after collection, rinse, sun-dry.

• Young, tender leaves and young sprouts eaten as vegetable; used in curries. (54)
• In the Philippines, a sweetened decoction of bark and leaves used as expectorant. Bark also used to facilitate the maturation of boils.
• Leaves and roots used as febrifuge.
• Decoction of leaves used for coughs and asthma.
• Dried bark decoction or infusion in alcohol used for lumbar and leg pain.
• In the Malay Peninsular, bark used for curing toothaches, rounded and pushed into the cavity or hollow tooth.
• In the Moluccas, bark chewed for dysentery.
• Pulverized leaves in the form of snuff used for Infantile convulsion and ascariasis.
• Wood rasped in water used for hematuria.
• Bark considered as antibilious and febrifuge.
• In the Peninsula and Indo-China, leaves used for poulticing sores.
• Seeds used internally and externally for cancer; externally for abscesses.
• In China, bark used as febrifuge and expectorant.
• In India and China, the bark and leaves are used in many traditional medicinal concoctions. Paribhadra, an Indian preparation, destroys parasites and relieves joint pains. Honeyed leaf juice is used for tapeworm and roundworm diseases. The juice also helps stimulate lactation and menstruation. A poultice of leaves is used for rheumatic joints.

• Juice of leaves used for earache, toothache, constipation, and cough. Also used to stimulate lactation and menstruation.
• Leaf juice used to cure whooping cough in children. Roots used for ophthalmia and skin diseases.
• In Fiji, crushed leaves are mixed with coconut oil, heated in a banana leaf, and applied to fractures. Juice from young leaves used treat boils. Plant is used as a bandage. (40)
• Leaf juice used to cure whooping cough in children. Roots used for ophthalmia and skin diseases.
• The Chakma tribe of Bangladesh used a mixture of bark of E. variegata with leaves of Ananas comosus and roots of A. catechu for treatment of helminthiasis. (46)
• In Indonesia, used in the treatment of malaria. (53) In Indonesian folk medicine, used for treatment of cancer. (63)
• Decoction of leaves used for mastitis. Bark used as astringent and anthelmintic. Roots and leaves used for fever. (54)

Pulp: Wood used as source of
pulp for making paper. Fiber is acceptable for length, flexibility, slenderness ration, and low Rankel's ration. (55)

Antibacterial activity of isoflavonoids isolated from Erythrina variegata against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: 16 isoflavonoids isolated from Erythrina variegata was screened for antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staph aureus. Of the active compounds, erycristagallin and orientanol B showed the highest anti-MRSA activity. (3)
Antibacterial / Erycristagallin / Dental Caries Prevention: Study isolated compounds from EV with antibacterial property against cariogenic oral bacteria. Among them was erycristagallin, a potential phytochemical agent for the prevention of dental caries by inhibiting the growth of cariogenic bacteria.
Anti-osteoporotic Effect:
Study showed that E. variegata could suppress the high rate of bone turnover induced by estrogen deficiency and improve the biomechanical properties of bone in the lab rats. (4) Study investigated the potential mechanism involved in mediating the osteoprotective effects of EV. Results suggest the osteoprotective effects of EV on bone properties in ovariectomized rats are likely mediated by its inhibitory actions on the process of bone resorption via suppression of osteoclast differentiation and maturation. (32)
Alkaloids / Nervous System Effects
: The study isolated eight spiroamine alkaloids and three carboxylated indole-3-alkylamines and showed characteristic pharmacological effects: (1) neuromuscular blocking, (2) smooth muscle relaxant, (3) CNS depressant, (4) hypocholeretic, and (5) anticonvulsant effects supporting the indigenous use of the plants.

Trypsin / Proteinase Inhibitors:
Study indicate that E. variegata proteinase inhibitors possess different potency toward serine proteinases in blood coagulation and fibrinolytic systems.
Antimicrobial / Cytotoxicity:
Study isolated five compounds from the methanol extract of stem bark of EV: epilupeol, 6-hydroxygenistein, 3ß, 28-dihydroxyolean-12-ene, epilupeol, stigmasterol. Different partitionates showed mild to moderate antimicrobial activity and varying degrees of cytotoxicity.
Antioxidant / Smooth Muscle Inhibitory Activity:
Three new and 14 known compounds were isolated from E variegata. The smooth muscle studies on crude extract and their fractions showed inhibitory response, possibly with involvement of both muscarinic and adrenergic receptors. Significant antioxidant activity and a CNS depressive effect were also noted.
Lectin / Cytotoxicity:
Study isolated a human erythrocyte specific lectin from the seeds of E. variegata. The purified lectin was a glycoprotein which induced transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in cultures. (6)
Anti-Cancer / Root Bark:
Study of methanol extract of the root bark of EV in Swiss albino mice showed a protective effect against Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma (DAL) with evidence of a significant increase in life span, decrease in cancer cell number and tumour weight and normalization of hematologic parameters. (11)
Antioxidant / Hypolipidemic:
Study showed the protective effect of seeds of EV on high fat induced hyperlipidemia with lowering of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and VLDL. The effect may be attributed to decrease cholesterol synthesis, increase cholesterol excretion and expression of LDL receptor and catabolism. The antioxidant effect may play a role in retarding or preventing cardiovascular complications secondary to hyperlipidemia. (12)
Hypoglycemic Effect:
Study concluded that E. variegata demonstrated promising hypoglycemic action in stretozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (13)
Antibacterial / Mupirocin Synergism:
Study isolated an isoflavone, bidwillon B which inhibited the growth of 12 MRSA strains at minimum inhibitory concentrations. Combined with mupirocin, synergistic effects were observed for 11 strains of MRSA. Both compounds act on MRSA via different mechanisms. Bidwillon B presents as a potent phytotherapeutic and/or combination agent with mupirocin in the elimination of nasal and skin carriage of MRSA. (14)
Bioactive Isoflavones / Antioxidant / ß-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity:
Study of a methanol extract isolated secondary metabolites, viz., alpinum isoflavone, 6-hydroxygenistein, 3ß,28-dihydroxyolean-12-ene, and epilupeol. Some fractions showed moderate antioxidant activity and ß-glucosidase inhibitory activity. (18)
Anticancer / Antiplasmodial / Antifertility / Leaves:
Study evaluated E. variegata leaves for bioactive compounds. Study yielded the terpenoid pentacyclic glycoside (1) and 10,11-dioxoerythratidine (2). The extract and compounds showed anticancer in vitro against breast cancer cell T47D, antiplasmodial in vitro Ki and 3D7 strain parasites, and antifertility on spermatozoa R. norvegicus with middle and high activity. (19)
Fodder Potential / Nutritive Value:
Study showed leaves to be high in crude protein (16-21%) making it a good protein feed for animals. Toxic alkaloid contents are found mostly in the bark and seeds of the plant; degraded in the rumen, some do not consider it harmful to ruminants. Results suggested E. variegata could be used to promote growth in goats during the dry season. More studies were suggested to further evaluate for organic matter intake, digestibility, and growth rate effects. (20)
Fodder Potential / Protein Substitution:
Study showed used of crude protein from Erythrina variegata foliage can replace up to 60% of crude protein from a mixed diet with soybean meal without negative effect on growth in goats. (21)
Anxiolytic / Anticonvulsant:
Study evaluated an alcoholic extract of stem bark for anxiolytic and anticonvulsant activities. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, proteins, saponins, and triterpenoids. The extract showed anxiolytic and anticonvulsant activity at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kbw, with more significant effect with high dose (800mg/kg) of ALEEV. (22)
Antiatherosclerotic Effects:
Study of leaf extract in rats showed a hypolipidemic effect in HFD-fed rats with evidence of coronary artery healing and reduction in the extent of aortic lipophilic lesion areas suggesting atheroprotective and anti-obesity influences. The anti-atherosclerotic effects was attributed to the hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of the isolated phytoconstituents. (23)
Antimalarial / Stem Bark:
Study of methanol extract of bark showed significant anti-malarial activity toward Plasmodium falcifarum in vitro. (24)
Anti-Cancer / Xanthoxyletin / Apoptosis in Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells:
Study isolated xanthoxyletin, previously reported to possess antibacterial, algicidal and fungicidal properties. Study evaluated xanthoxyletin against human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells. Results showed inhibitory effects associated with DNA damage, apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and cell cycle arrest.(25)
Analgesic / Leaves and Stems:
Study of methanolic extract of leaves and soft stems showed significant attenuation from all test doses on the writhing responses induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid in mice. (26)
Antioxidant / Root Bark:
Study on antioxidant activity showed a root bark of E. variegata showed protection at 200 mg/kbw against chromium-induced oxidative stress. (27)
Anti-Atherosclerotic Activity:
Study evaluated a total alcoholic leaf extract of E. variegata on experimental atherosclerosis in guinea pigs. Extract showed no toxicity on acute toxicity study up to 2 g/kbw. Results showed anti-atherosclerotic activity consequent to hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory activities of isolated phytochemicals viz. ß-sitosterol, oleanolic acid and b-sitosterol glycoside with their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic and DNA protective properties. (29)
Memory Enhancing Activity / Corticosterone Induced Dementia:
Study evaluated the effects of EV on learning and memory in mice with corticosterone induced dementia. Results showed significant improvement in memory in a dose dependent manner. (30)
Biosorption of Lead:
Study reported on the biosorption of lead from aqueous solutions by Erythrina variegata orientalis leaf powder. Extent of biosorption was maximum at pH=5. Maximum monolayer coverage capacity for Pb ions is 18.075 mg/g. The biosorption is endothermic, irreversible, and feasible.
Estrogenic Effect:
Study of alcoholic extract of leaves of EV showed estrogenic activity in prepubertal female rats as evidenced by the presence of ciliated cells in the oviduct and signs of vascularization in the cortex of ovarian sections. The activity was attributed to the antioxidant activity of ß-sitosterol, daucosterol, and oleanolic content of the extract. (32)
Antimicrobial / Stem:
Study evaluated various extracts of stems against nine bacterial and five fungal pathogens. Serratia marcescens, R. coli, Pseudomonas putida, and Bacillus circulans were found to be the more susceptible strains. Among all solvents, methanol showed promising antimicrobial activity. (35)
Anti-Inflammatory / Stem:
Study of an ethanolic extract of E. variegata in albino rats showed anti-inflammatory activity using acute (carrageenan induce paw edema) and chronic (cotton pellet induced granuloma) inflammatory models. (36)
Anti-Arthritic / Leaves:
Study of ethanol and aqueous extracts of E. variegata showed potent anti-arthritic effect on Freunds Complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis model. (37)
Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic / Roots:
Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of alcohol and aqueous root extracts of Erythrina variegata in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed dose dependent reduction of blood glucose, together with significant recovery in the levels of parameters measured in the lipid profile. (38)
Estrogenic Effect in Prepubertal Rats / Leaves:
Study evaluated an alcoholic extract of leaves by uterotrophic assay in 17 day old prepubertal female rats. Results showed estrogenic activity evidenced by the presence of ciliated epithelial cells in the oviduct and vascularization in the cortex of ovarian sections. Findings were attributed to the antioxidant activity of ß-sitosterol, daucosterol, and oleanolic acid isolated from the extract. Results support previous study reports of hypolipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic activities, lending validity to its anti-obesity claims. (39)
Anticonvulsant / Leaves, Bark and Roots:
Study of bark and leaf of Erythrina variegata and Butea monosperma in PTZ and MES induced convulsions in Wistar rats showed anticonvulsant activity in both models, and suggests possible central nervous system depressant action. (41) Study of a chloroform extract of root and bark of E. variegata exhibited significant protection (71.4%) against pentylene- tetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion in mice and significant protection (71.4%) against maximal electric shock (MES)-induced convulsions in rats. (52)
Anti-Osteoporotic Constituents/ Leaves and Bark: Study evaluated 130 species of Chinese medicinal herbs for antiosteoporosis activities by bioassay using MTT method and osteoblast-like (OB-like) cells UMR106. Phytochemical analysis of bark of E. variegata isolated 21 pure compounds. Among them, compounds 8, 15. 18, and 20 were new isoflavones, named Eryvarins H, I, J, and K. (see constituents above) (42)
Thrombolytic Activity / Bark: Study evaluated bark extracts of E. variegata for thrombolytic activity using human erythrocyte and compared with standard streptokinase (SK). The methanol extract showed 72.14 ± 3.77% clot lysis compared to 78.42 ± 1.6% produced by SK. (43)
Cardiac Depressant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidepressant activity of E. variegata water extract of leaves using frog isolated heart model. Results showed significant cardiac depressant activity via action on muscarinic receptors. (44)
Erystagallin-A / Anticancer / Antimalarial / Stem Bark: A methanol extract of stem bark of Erythrina variegata showed significant anti-cancer activity against breast cancer T47D-cell lines in vitro and anti-malarial activity against Plasmodium falcifarum in vitro using the LDH assay. The active compound was identified as erystagallin-A. (4
• Antipyretic / CNS Depressant / Leaves: Study of various leaves extracts of E. variegata exhibited significant antipyretic and CNS depressant activities. An ethyl acetate extract showed higher activity than standard drug Chlorpromazne. (47)
• Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride toxicity: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of whole plant using CCl4 induced toxicity in male Wistar albino rats. The extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg protected against CCl4 toxicity as evidenced by changes in biochemical parameters. (48)
• Antioxidant / Bark: Study of an aqueous bark extract showed high antioxidant activity against free radicals. (49)
• Antioxidant / Leaves and Flowers:
Study evaluated the in vitro free radical scavenging ability of ethanolic extract of E. variegata leaves and flowers by DPPH, ABTS, OH, H2O2, super oxide radical inhibition assay, FRAP assay and reducing power activity. Results showed flowers possess more scavenging power than the leaves extracts. (50)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves:
Study evaluated various extracts of leaves for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models. Results showed dose dependent decrease in carrageenan induced hind paw edema in -inflammatory activity in albino rats. Extracts also produced dose-dependent analgesic effects against thermally induced nociceptive pain. Activity was higher than that of standard drug diclofenac. (51) Study evaluated aqueous extract of leaves of E. variegata for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Analgesic activity was evidenced by reduced intensity of acetic acid induced writhing and thermally induced pain stimuli using Eddy's hot plate method in mice, indicating both peripheral and central analgesic activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was seen with significant results in carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. Effect was seen in the middle and final phase of inhibition suggesting the extract can block mediators like kinins and prostaglandins. (56)
• Subchronic Toxicity / Anticonvulsant / Leaves: Acute toxicity study has shown a methanolic extract of leaves to be practically non-toxic. Subchronic toxicity study on male Wistar rats showed no toxic signs, behavior changes and body weight change up to 1000 mg/kbw. Histopathological exam showed liver and kidney cell damage in the form of hydropic degeneration, fatty degeneration, and necrosis with increased extract doses, significantly different (p<0.05) with control. However, the changes were reversible.
• Gold Nanoparticles / Leaves:
Study describes the simple, cost effective and eco-friendly synthesis of gold nanoparticles using leaf extracts of E. variegata. (54)

Anti-Inflammatory / HRBC Membrane Stabilization / Leaves:
Study evaluated ethanolic extract of dried powdered leaves for anti-inflammatory activity. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by prevention of hypotonicity induced HRBC membrane lysis. Activity was comparable to standard drug Diclofenac sodium. (58)
Phopholipase A2 Inhibitors / Antimicrobial Potential / Bark: Study of methanol extract of bark of E. variegata isolated three flavonoid phospholipase As (PLA2) inhibitors. Two of the compounds, abyssinone V (1) and erycrystagallin (3) have been previously reported as antimicrobial agents from Erythrina plant species. (see constituents above) (59)
Proteinase Inhibitors / Seeds: Study of Erythrina variegata seeds isolated Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, and chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI. The trypsin inhibitors showed significant homology to storage proteins, sporamin, in sweet potato and the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in miracle fruit, having about 30% identical residues. (61)
Antioxidant / Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Erythrocyte Damage / Whole Plant: Study evaluated the invivo antioxidant effect of an ethanol extract of Erythrina variegata in CCl4-induced erythrocyte damage. The EEEV suppressed the accumulation of lipid peroxidation in the plasma and maintained the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The extract also decreased the membrane fluidity induced by CCl4. Results confirmed the antioxidant effect of the EEEV by protection of erythrocyte against CCl4 induced oxidative stress. (62)
Anti-Cancer Alkaloid and Flavonoid / Leaves and Stem Bark: Study evaluated the effectiveness of leaves and stem bark of E. variegata as anti-cancer agent. The methanol extract of leaves and stem bark yielded an erythrina alkaloid (1) and isoflavonoid (2). Compounds 1 and 2 showed anti-cancer activity against breast cancer cell T4TD with IC50s of 1.0 and 3.3 µg/mL, respectively. (63)

- Wild-crafted. 
- Seeds in the cybermarket.

Updated March 2020 / December 2017 / December 2015

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Plate from book / File:Erythrina variegata Blanco1.217-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Seeds / Erythrina variegata L. tiger's claw / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Erythrina variegata / NFTA / Winrock
Indian Medicinal Plants
Antibacterial activity of isoflavonoids isolated from Erythrina variegata against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Anti-osteoporotic effect of Erythrina variegata L. in ovariectomized rats / Yan zhang, Xiao-Li Li, Wan-Ping Li et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Vol 109, Issue 1, 3 January 2007, Pages 165-169 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.07.005
Erythrina - chemical and pharmacological evaluation II: Alkaloids of erythrina variegata L / S Ghosal, S K Dutta, S K Bhattacharya / Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 61, Issue 8, pages 1274–1277, August 1972 / DOI: 10.1002/jps.2600610821
Human erythrocyte specific lectin from the seeds of Indian coral tree, Erythrina variegata L.
/ T K Datta and P S Basu / J. Biosci., Vol. 5, Supplement 1, December 1983, pp. 25-30.
Antibacterial property of isoflavonoids isolated from Erythrina variegata against cariogenic oral bacteria
/ M Sato / Phytomedicine / 2003-; vol 10 (issue 5) : pp 427-33

Inhibitory potency of Erythrina variegata proteinase inhibitors toward serine proteinases in the blood coagulation and fibrinolytic systems / NAKAGAKI T et al / Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry / 1996, vol. 60, no8, pp. 1383-1385

Anti-Cancer Activity of Methanol Extract of Root Bark of Erythrina variegata linn. / N. Baskar, B. Parimala Devi and R. Mohan Kumar / International Journal of Toxicological and Pharmacological Research 2010
Effect of Erythrina variegata seed extract on hyperlipidemia elicited by high-fat diet in wistar rats / G Balamurugan and A Shantha / J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2010 Oct-Dec; 2(4): pp 350–355. / doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.72139
Hypoglycemic activity of Erythrina variegata leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Kumar, Arvind; Lingadurai, Sutharson; Shrivastava, Tarani P et al / /DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2010.529615
Synergistic effects of mupirocin and an isoflavanone isolated from Erythrina variegata on growth and recovery of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus / Masaru Sato, Hitoshi Tanaka et al / Intern Journ of Antimicrobial Agents, Vol 24, No 3, Sept 2004, Pp 241-246 / doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2004.03.020
Chinese materia medica: combinations and applications / Xu Li / Google Books
Erythrina variegata L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Sorting Erythrina names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
BIOACTIVE ISOFLAVONES FROM ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. / Mohammed Z. RAHMAN, Mohammad S. RAHMAN Abul KAISAR, Aslam HOSSAIN, Mohammad A. RASHID / Turk J. Pharm. Sci. 7 (1), 21-28, 2010
POTENTIAL OF DADAP AYAM (Erythrina variegata) PLANT AS HERBAL MEDICINE / Tati Herlina, Euis Julaeha, Nurlelasari, Dikdik Kurnia, and Unang Supratman / Journal Medika Planta - Vol. 1 No. 4. Oktober 2011
Goat production in Laos and the potential of using Erythrina variegata as a Feedstuff / Helena Allard/ Uppsala 2010
Effect of feeding different levels of foliage from Erythrina variegata on the performance of growing goats
/ Daovy Kongmanila, Jan Bertilsson, Inger Ledin, Ewa Wredle / Tropical Animal Health and Production
October 2012, Volume 44, Issue 7, pp 1659-1665
Pharmacological eveluation of alcoholic of stem bark of erythrina variegata for anxiolytic and anticonvulsant activity in mice / Pitchaiah, Gummalla and Viswanatha, GL and Srinath, R and Nandakumar, K / Pharmacologyonline, 3. pp. 934-947, 2008
Effect of Erythrina variegata on experimental atherosclerosis in guinea pigs / Mangathayaru Kalachaveedu, Sarah Kuruvilla, K Balakrishna / J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2011;2:285-7 / DOI: 10.4103/0976-500X.85950
ANTI-MALARIAL COMPOUND FROM THE STEM BARK OF Erythrina variegata / Tati Herlina*, Unang Supratman, Ukun M.S. Soedjanaatmadja, Anas Subarnas, Supriyatna Sutardjo, Noor Rain Abdullah, and Hideo Hayashi / Indo. J. Chem., 2009, 9 (2), 308 - 311
Xanthoxyletin, a Coumarin Induces S Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 Cells / Azhar Rasul, Muhammad Khan, Bo Yu, Tonghui Ma*, Hong Yang / Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 12, 1219-1223
Analgesic Effects of Erythrina variegata L. Leaves and Soft Stems in Mice / MJ Mahal, Z Khatun, T Hossain, AA Mamun, MS Hossain, AK Das, A Khatun, M Rahmatullah / Journal of Phytomedicine and Therapeutics
Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Erythrina variegata and Impatiens balsamina on Chromium (VI) Induced Oxidative Stress in Albino Rats / N Baskar, B Parimala Devi, B Jayakar / Int Journ of Res in Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics, Vol 1(1), 2012
Phytochemical Investigation of Erythrina variegata and Ficus racemosa leaves / M. Ramila Devi and A. Manoharan / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2011, 3(6):166-172
Effect of Erythrina variegata on experimental atherosclerosis in guinea pigs
/ Mangathayaru Kalachaveedu, Sarah Kuruvilla, K Balakrishna / J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2011;2:285-7
MEMORY ENHANCING ACTIVITY OF ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA 0N CORTICOSTERONE INDUCED DEMENTIA IN MICE / Srinivasan Nagarajan et al. / International Journal of Pharmacological Screening Methods, 2013; Vol 3 / Issue 1: pp 31-35.
Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Biosorption of Lead by Erythrina variegata orientalis Leaf Powder /
Suhasini, J. Alpitha; Rao, D. Subba; Venkateswarlu, P. / Journal of Chemical Engineering; 2011, p40
Erythrina variegata extract exerts osteoprotective effects by suppression of the process of bone resorption / Yan Zhang, Qi Li, Xiaoli Li, Hoi-Ying Wan, Man-Sau Wong / Br J Nutr 2010 Oct 21;104(7): 965-71.
Estrogenic effect of Erythrina variegata L. in prepubertal female rats / K Mangathayaru, K Saray, and K Balakrishna / Indian Journal of Natura Products and Resources, Vol 5(3), Sept 2014, pp 223-227
Erythrina variegata / Synonyms / The Plant List
ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA / V. R. KRISHNA RAJU MANTENA*, G. TEJASWINI / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 7, Issue 4, 2015
Anti Rheumatoid Arthritis Activity Of The Erythrina Variegata / Biology Essay / Essays, UK.
Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of root extracts of Erythrina variegata in alloxan induced diabetic rats / Jagdish Chandra Nagar*and Lalit Singh Chauhan / Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2015.
Estrogenic effect of Erythrina variegata L. in prepubertal female rats / K Mangathayaru, K Sarah, and K Balakrishna / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, Vol 5 (3), Sept 2014, pp 223-227
Medicinal Plants for Wounds, Cuts and Burns / Aaron Matas / Books.Google
Anticonvulsant Effect of Leaf and Bark of Erythrina Variegata Linn and Butea Monosperma (LAM) Taub in different Experimental Convulsion Model in Rats / Prakash T. Sangale*, Dhananjay B. Deshmukh, Rajesh Bhambere / PharmaTutor; 2015; 3(5); 19-23
Study of Antiosteoporotic Constituents of Erythrina Variegata L. / LiXiaoLi / Master Thesis, 2004 / Shenyang Pharmaceutical University
IN VITRO THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF ERYTHRINA VARIEGATE BARK / Mohammad Shahriar*, Nishat Zareen Khair, Mahjabeen Gazi and Rumana Akhter / World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol 4, Issue 5, pp 512-515.
Cardiac Depressant Activity of Erythrina variegata Linn on Isolated Frog- Heart / Karthikeyan R* and Koushik OS / Journal of Pharmacognosy & Natural Products, 1:107. / doi:10.4172/jpnp.1000107
In vitro anticancer and antimalarial Erystagallin-A from Erythrina variegata (L.) stem bark / HerlinaTati, Nurlelasari, KurniaDikdik, SupratmanUnang, UdinZalinar / International Journal of Phytomedicines and Related Industries, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1 / DOI : 10.5958/j.0975-4261.3.1.015
A Comparative Analysis of Medicinal Plants used by Several Tribes of Chittagong Hill Tracts Region, Bangladesh to Treat Helminthic Infections / Mohammed Rahmatullah, Rownak Jahan, Md. Shahadat Hossan, Syeda Seraj, Md. Mahbubur Rahman, Anita Rani Chowdhury, Z.U.M. Emdad Ullah Miajee, Dilruba Nasrin, Zubaida Khatun, Farhana Israt Jahan, Mst. Afsana Khatun / Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4(2): 105-111, 2010
HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (CCL4) INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS / B Venkateswarlu and Karunambigai M / International Journal of Preclinical & Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 4(2): 75-80.
HPTLC analysis and in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous bark extract of Erythrina variegata L. / Kanakasabapathy Devaki, Subrhamanian Hemmalakshmi & Suriyamoorthy Priyanga / Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol 63, Issue 3 (2016) / https://doi.org/10.1080/07929978.2015.1096608
Screening of the Antioxidant Potential of the Leaves and Flowers Extract of Erythrina variegata L. : A Comparative Study / S. Hemmalakshmi, S. Priyanga, B. Vidya, V.K. Gopalakrishnan, K. Devaki* / Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 40(2), September-October 2016; Article No. 36, Pages: 186-191
Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Erythrina Variegata Leaves Extracts / Murugalakshmi. M*, Mari Selvi. J, Thangapandian. V / Journal of Advanced Botany and Zoology, Vol 2, Issue 2
Anticonvulsant Activity of Chloroform Extract of Bark & R oot of E rythrina variegata L. / Chinchawade A B, Deshmukh D B, Gaikwad D D, Grampurohit N D / International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2013; 5(1): pp 23-25
Subchronic Toxicity of Methanol Extract From Erythrina Variegata (Leguminosae) Leaves on Male Wistar Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) / Tati Herlina, Madihah Madihah, Deden Deni, Suseno Amien / Molekul: Jurnal Ilmiah Kimia, Vol 12, No 1 (2017) / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20884/1.jm.2017.12.1.349
Erythrina variegata / Ken Fern, Tropical Plants Database / Useful Tropical Plants
ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF ERYTHRINA VARIEGATE / Y.Bhagyasri, G. Nagalatha, N. Vinay reddy, N.Siva Subramanian / Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2017; 7(8)
Phytochemical Profile of Erythrina variegata by Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analyses / Suriyavathana Muthukrishnan, Ramalingam Kuppulingam et al / Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, Aug 2016; 9(4): pp 207-212 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jams.2016.06.001
IN VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTION OF ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA (L.) LEAVES BY HRBC MEMBRANE STABILIZATION / G. Balamurugan, SupriyaSajja, D. Balakrishnan, and S. Selvarajan / International Journal of Drug Development and Research, 2010
Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors from an Erythrina Species from Samoa / V R Heade, P Dai, M G Patel, M S Puar, J Pai, R Bryant, and P A Cox / Journal of Natural Products, 1997; 60(6): pp 537-539 / https://doi.org/10.1021/np960533e
In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Erythrina indica LAM. 1786 (Dapdap) Leaf Extract on α-Amylase and
-Glucosidase Enzymes
/ Jaemie Danielle A Natividad, Rzjanne Chrizsa A Pahilan / Thesis-Dissertations / March 2016 / University of San Carlos-Josef Baumgartner Learning Resource Center, Science and Tech Section
Isolation and Primary Structure of Proteinase Inhibitors from Erythrina variegata (LINN.) var. OrientalisSeeds / Yoshiaki Kouzuma, Masanobu Suetake, Makoto Kimura & Nobuyuki Yamasaki / Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 1992; 56(11): pp 1819-1824 / https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.56.1819
In Vitro Anti-Cancer Alkaloid and Flavonoid Extracted from the Erythrina variegata (Leguminoseae) Plant / Tati Herlina, Unang Supratman, Anas Subarnas, Supriyatna Sutardjo, Suseno Amien, Hideo Hayashi / Indoneian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention, 2011; 2(3)

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