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Family Rutaceae
Karipata
Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.
CURRY LEAF
Ma jiao ye

Scientific names Common names
Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. Karipata (Tag.)
Bergera koenigii L.                        Unresolved Curry leaf (Engl.)
  Curry leaf tree (Engl.)
  South India soapnut (Engl.)
  Sweet nim (Engl.)
Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Warak al kari.
ASSAMESE: Bishahari, Narasingha, Narasihgha, Nor hing, Noroximh pat, Noroxingho pat.
BENGALI: Barsunga, Barsanga, Kariaphulli,
BURMESE: Kyaung-thwe, Pin do sin.
CHINESE: Ma jiao ye, Ga li cai, Ga li ye.
CZECH: Karí lístky.
DANISH Karry blad.
DUTCH: Kerriebladeren.
ESTONIAN: Karrilehed.
FINNISH: Currylehdet.
FRENCH: Arbre à curry , Arbre à feuilles de curry, Calou pilé, Kalou pilé, Carripoul).
GERMAN: Curryblätter.
GUJARATI: Mitha limbdo, Mitho limado.
HEBREW: Ali kari.
HINDI: Gandhel, Kadhipatta, Kadipatha , Karipatta, Karii pattaa, Meetha neem, Meetha neem patta, Mithinim, Katnim, Kitha neem.
ICELANDIC: Karrílauf.
ITALIAN: Fogli di Cari.
JAPANESE: Nanyou zanshou.
KANNADA: Karibevu, Karibevu soppu.
KHMER Xantroc.
KOREAN: Ko ri ri pu.
LAOTIAN: Dok kibi, Khi be.
LITHUANIAN: Karis, Kvapioji murėja.
MALAY: Daun kari pla, Daun kari (Indonesia), Garupillai, Karupillam, Karwa pale, Kerupulai.
MALAYALAM: Kareapela, Karivepp, ariveppila, Kariveppalai, Veppila.
MARATHI: Jhiranga, Kadhinimb, Karhilimb , Kudianim.
NEPALESE: Meciyaa saag, Mitho niim (Mitho neem).
ORWEGIAN: Karriblader.
ORIYA: Bhersunga, Lesunadando, Merisinga potro.
PORTUGUESE: Folhas de Caril.
PUNJABI: Gandalu, Gandla, Karipata, Karipatta.
RUSSIAN: List'a karri.
SANSKRIT: Alakavhayah, Girinimba, Kalasaka, Mahanimba, Surabhinimba, Suravi .
SINHALESE: Karapincha.
SLOVAKIAN: Karí list.
SLOVENIAN : Curry listi.
SPANISH: Hojas de Curry.
SWAHILI: Bizari, Mchuzi.
TAMIL: Kariveppilai.
THAI: Hom khaek, Samat; Som, Mo noi.
TURKISH: Köri yaprağı.
UKRAINIAN: Listi karri.
URDUL Kariapatm Kari patah.
VIETNAMESE: Cari, Lá cà ri, Cơm nguội, Ngệt quới koenig.

Botany
Karipata is a small, tropical to subtropical tree or shrub growing to a height of 6 to 15 meters. Leaves are odd-pinnate, 11 to 21, thin, ovate, shiny and dark green. Leaflets are 2 to 4.5 centimeters long. Flowers are white, fragrant, about 1 centimeter across, in terminal cymes. Flowers are followed by 1-2 seeded, ovoid to oblong, bluish-black fruits, about 2 centimeters in diameter.

Distribution
Cultivated.
Native to India and Sri Lanka.

Constituents
- Rich source of carbazole alkaloids.
- Study of stem bark yielded
mahanimbine, girinimbine, murrayanine, murrayazoline, murrayacine and sucrose. Leaves yielded five compounds: Il-decylhenecosane and methoxydotriacontane isolated as a mixture, and mahanimbine, ethyl octadecanoate and mahanine. Roots yielded four compounds: girinimbine, murrayanine, together with 3-methylcarbazole and murrayafoline A. (See studies below) (14)
- Leaves yielded carbohydrate, tannin, alkaloid, steroid, triterpenoid, and flavonoid. (17)
- Various extracts of leaves (petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethanol extracts) yielded carbohydrates, gums, mucilage, fats, oil, coumarin glycosides, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, anthraquinone glycosides, saponins, tannins, proteins, sterols, triterpenoids, alkaloids. (See study below) (20)
- Analysis of dried curry leaf powder (CLP) yielded 12.5% protein, 5.4% fat, 9.7% total ash, 55.6% insoluble fiber, 4.4% soluble fiber, 12.0 mg/100 g iron, 373 mg/100g phosphorus, 2.04% calcium. (see study below) (29)
- Study of petroleum ether extract of roots yielded two carbazole alkaloids: 3-methylcarbazole and murrayafoline A. (39)
- Hydrodistillation of leaves yielded 0.5% essential oil on a fresh weight basis, dark yellow, spicy odor and pungent clove-like taste. Characteristics were specific gravity 0.9748. saponification value 5.2, moisture 66.3%, protein 6.1%, fat (ether extract) 1.0%, carbohydrate 18.7%, fiber 6.4%, mineral matter 4.2%, , calcium 810 mg/100g of edible portion, phosphorus 600 mg/100g of edible portion, iron 3.1 mg/100g of edible portion, carotene (vitamin A) 12,600 IU/100g, nicotinic acid 2.3 mg/100g, vitamin C 4 mg/ 100 g. (48)
- CHCl3 extract of fruit pulp yielded three new dimeric carbazole alkaloids, bisgerayafolines A–C (1–3). Bisgerayafolines A–C (1–3). (see study below) (50)
- Analysis of fresh curry leaf for antioxidant vitamins yielded 9744 mg of lutein, 212 mg of alpha-tocopherol, and 183 mg of beta-carotene per gram of fresh weight. (57)
- Study of various extracts of bark powder yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, coumarins, saponins, sterols, flavonoids, proteins, and amino acids. (58)
- GC-MS study of leaf extract yielded various compounds viz. benzene, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-, tropylium, ethyl, 2 – phenyl, styrene, tropylium, 6-methylenecyclohexa-1,2,4-triene, 2,4-cyclopentadienide. (60)


Properties
- Leaves are pungent and aromatic.
- Leaves considered tonic, stomachic, carminative, antidysenteric, anti-emetic.
- Studies have shown antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, neuroprotective, anti-ulcer, antigenotoxic, chemoprotective, antidiarrheal, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, anthelmintic, antifungal, hypotensive, wound healing, nephroprotective, thrombolytic properties.

Parts used
Leaves, oils.

Uses

Culinary
- Leaves and fruits are edible.
- Leaves are dry roasted or fried to a crisp.
- Leaves widely used as spice and condiment.
- Essential ingredient of Indian cuisine.
- Leaves used to flavor various dishes, meat, seafood, chutney, relishes, marinades. (Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) is unrelated to the curry plant (Helichrysum italicum which also has a curry-like aroma.
Folkloric
- Leaves ground to a paste, with tumeric as an option, and applied to acne.
- In Unani and Ayurveda, used for piles, leucoderma, blood disorders, and to allay body heat.
- Used of nausea and stomach upsets, skin irritations and poisonous bites.
- Oils used as insect repellent and to cure various skin disorders.
- Used for hemorrhoids and as anthelmintic.
- Used to treat hypertension.
- Crushed leaves applied externally to relieve burns and to cure skin eruptions.
- Boiled leaves used for poisonous bites.
- Used for diabetes, dysentery,, fever, and inflammation.

Studies
Antioxidant / Protective in Cadmium-Induced Cardiac Oxidative Stress:
Study showed an aqueous extract of leaf protects rat cardiac tissue against cadmium-induced oxidative stress possibly through its antioxidant activity. (3)
Anti-Cancer / Proteasome Inhibition / Breast Cancer Cell Death / Leaves:
Study evaluated a hydro-methanolic extract of curry leaves against two human breast carcinoma cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The leaf extract decreased cell viability and dose-dependently altered the growth kinetics in both cell lines. The extract showed it to be a potent source of proteasome inhibitors that lead to cancer cell death. (4)
Anti-Diabetic / Hypolipidemic / Leaves:
Study evaluated aqueous extracts of Murraya koenigii leaves and Olea europaea leaves for antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Results showed both extracts exhibited potent antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects, attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as carbazole alkaloids and polyphenols. (5) Study of aqueous extract of leaves in normal and STZ- induced severe diabetic rats showed a favorable effect in bringing down the severity of diabetes. There was also a decrease in TG levels and an increase in HDL cholesterol. (
26) Daily administration of aqueous extract and methanol extract of leaves for eight weeks in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant reduction of blood glucose. The hypoglycemic effect might be mediated through stimulation of insulin synthesis and/or secretion from the beta cells of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. (37)
Girinimbine / Apoptosis Effect on Lung Cancer Cells:
Girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from M. koenigii was investigated for anticancer effects on A549 lung cancer cells. Results showed girinimbine mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects through up- and down-regulation of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins, with significant involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Results suggest girinimbine to be a potential agent for anticancer drug development. (6)
Plasma Insulin Effect / Hypoglycemic:
Study of an aqueous and methanol extract of leaves showed significant reduction of blood glucose with significant increase in plasma insulin. Results suggest the hypoglycemic effect may be mediated through stimulation of insulin synthesis and/or secretion from the beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. (8)
Acute Toxicity Study:
Acute toxicity study was carried out against Swiss albino mice. Results showed no mortality at the highest dose level, with no toxic effects at studied dose levels, and safe till the dose level of 9000 mg/k. (9)
Natural Preservative Potential / Anti-Aflatoxigenic Food Additive Potential:
Study reported the antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic potential of M. koenigii and its culinary oil food additive potential. Frying oil with M. koenigii could lead to long storage reduction in aflatoxin and frying performance increase without nutritional loss. (10)
Anti-Obesity / Hypoglycemic Effect:
Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and anti-obesity activities of ethanol extract of M. koenigii leaves in high fatty diet induced obesity in rats. Results showed a potent anti-hyperglycemic effect, with a significant decrease in both cholesterol and triglycerides, and suggest potential use by the diabetic patient for controlling body weight and maintaining glycemic level. (11)
Anti-Inflammatory:
Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of M. koenigii leaves. An ethanol extract showed significant anti-inflammatory effects using acute carrageenan induced paw edema method and yeast induced hyperpyrexia method. (12)
Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic:
Study evaluated a methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii in healthy animals for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Results showed significant dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity with reduction in carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity with increased reaction time by eddy's hot late method and percentage increase in pain by formalin test. (13)
Biologic Activities:
The crude extracts of the roots isolated compound including mahanimbine, girinimbine, mahanine and murrayafoline A exhibited significant cytotoxicity activity against CEM-SS cell line. Girinimbine inhibited EBV-activation (100%) in the antitumor promoting assay . Pet ether and the chloroform crude extracts of the stem bark exhibited weak antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. (14)
Neuroprotective Effect / Reserpine-Induced Orofacial Dyskinesia:
Study evaluated the neuroprotective potential and in-vivo antioxidant effect of a methanol extract of leaves in reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia. Results showed significant inhibition of reserpine-induced vacuous chewing movements, tongue protrusion, orofacial burst, and cataplexy. Treatment with the extract also restored the levels of protective antioxidant enzymes and inhibited haloperidol-induced cataplexy. Oxidative stress may play a role in the dyskinesia, and M. koenigii may have a role in the treatment of neuroleptic-induced orofacial dyskinesia.
(15)
Storage Effect on Nutritional Value: Curry leaf is available fresh, dried, or frozen for long term storage. Fresh curry leaves showed the highest concentration of lutein, frozen leaves the lowest, while oven-dried and air-dried leaves yielded 60% less lutein compared to fresh leaves. Beta-carotene was highest in fresh leaves, lowest in oven-dried leaves. (16)
Antioxidant Effect: Study investigated Murraya koenigii and Cinnamomum tamala for antioxidant activity. M. koenigii showed higher activity than C. tamala which may be due to multiple factors: hydrogen or electron transfer, metal chelating activity, and synergistic activity due to high polyphenol content. (17) Leaf extracts showed effective antioxidant and radical scavenging activities on DPPH, NO, OH, O2- and anti-lipid peroxidation assays. (56)
Anti-Ulcer Effect: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of M koenigii in pylorus ligated and NSAID induced ulcer model in albino rats. Results showed significant inhibition of the gastric lesion with reduced ulcerative lesion, gastric volume, free and total acidity, with raised pH of gastric juice in the pylorus-ligated model. (18)
Antimicrobial Effect: Study evaluated various root extracts of M. koenigii against four bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Root extracts in organic solvents showed good antimicrobial activity. S. aureus and T. rubrum were the most susceptible antibacterial and fungal strains. (19)
Antigenotoxic / Chemoprotective Effect: Study evaluated the chemoprotective activity of a methanolic extract of M. koenigii in Swiss albino mice bone marrow in-vivo model. Results showed the extract effectively prevented cyclophosphamide induced chromosomal aberration. No drug toxicity was noted at 100 mg/kbw dose. (20)
Antipyretic Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated the antipyretic activity of M. koenigii leaves extract. Results showed an ethanol extract to possess significant antipyretic activity. (21)
Antifungal / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of shade dried leaves and extracted essential oil from the leaves of M. koenigii for antifungal potential. Acetone extract showed highest activity against Aspergillus niger, benzene extract most active against Alternaria solani and Helminthosporium solani, and the 95% ethanol extract was most active against Penicillium notatum. The essential oil also showed moderate antifungal activity. (22)
Hypoglycemic / Fruit Juice: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of M. koenigii fruit juice in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Results showed reduction in blood glucose level. The fruit juice may also exert a cytoprotective effect because of the presence of antioxidant phytochemicals. (23)
Anthelmintic / Roots: Study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of roots for anthelmintic activity against Eudrillus eugeniae, with albendazole as reference drug. Results showed potent anthelmintic activity in the parameters studied. (24)
Larvicidal, Pupicidal Repellent Against Malaria Vector: Study evaluated the larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent and anti-vector activity of aqueous extract of M. koenigii against the larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi. Results showed a potential for M. koenigii as an ideal eco-friendly approach for vector control.
(
25)
Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of M. koenigii leaves in male wistar rats with dichromate induced oxidative stress. Treatment with M. koenigii significantly increased the GSH content in liver and kidney with reduction in hepatic malondialdehyde in liver and kidney. Results indicate M. koenigii leaves have significant potential as a natural antioxidant agent. (27)
Protective in Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma: Study evaluated the effect of column extracts of M. koenigii plant extracts in vivo and in vitro in swiss albino mice. Results suggest a protective effect in Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma. In vitro studies showed moderate activity. (28)
Acceptability of Curry Leaf Products Incorporated for Consumption: Study explored the possibility of incorporating dried curry leaf powder (CLP) at 5 or 10% to common dishes to increase the intake of greens a source of micronutrients. (see constituents above) (29)
Fruit Juice Repeated Dose Toxicity Study / Effects on Weight, Fat, and Glucose: Use of fruit juice for 28 days decreased body weight, subcutaneous fat, and blood glucose level. More research is suggested on the fruit's biologic activities, especially hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic and antiobesity use. (30)
Antibacterial: Study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of leaves extracts of Murraya koenigii against six gram positive and nine gram negative bacterial and two fungal strains. The most susceptible bacterial strains were Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, with no antifungal activity. Organic solvents showed better activity than aqueous extracts. (31)
Hepatoprotective / Lead-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study of curry leaf aqueous extract showed amelioration of lead induced oxidative damage in hepatic tissue. Results suggest potential for use in prevention of lead-induced hepatotoxicity in humans occupationally or environmentally exposed to this toxic metal. (32)
Antidiarrheal / Roots: Study evaluated roots extracts of M. koenigii for antidiarrheal activity using albino rats. Ethanol and aqueous extracts showed significant inhibition in the frequency of defecation as well as reduction in the number of wet fecal droppings in castor oil-induced diarrhea model, and significant reduction in propulsion of charcoal meal through the GIT in gastrointestinal motility model.       (33)
Hypotensive / Possible Drug-Herb Interaction with Amlodipine: Study evaluated the antihypertensive effect of Murraya koenigii and investigated its interaction with amlodipine in cadmium chloride induced hypertension in rats. The combination of the extract with amlodipine showed a profound hypotensive effect suggesting a synergistic interaction. (34)
Mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial: Study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by M. koenigii leaf extract. The bactericidal activity of standard antibiotics was significantly increased in the presence of AgNPs against pathogenic bacteria, viz., E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. (35)
Antidepressant / Seeds: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of seeds for antidepressant activity in mice. Results showed significant reduction in duration of immobility of mice in tail suspension test and despair swimming test. (
36)
Hepatoprotective / Ethanol Induced Liver Toxicity: An aqueous extract showed hepatoprotection on ethanol-induced liver toxicity in wistar rats. The extract showed significant increase in reduced glutathione levels and comparable reduction in SGPT and alkaline phosphatase. (38)
Anti-Inflammatory / Potentiation of Effect: An ethanol extract of leaves showed anti-inflammatory activity in rats using carrageenan induce paw edema method. The combination of the extract with diclofenac potentiated the anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac, a result that may help in reducing the dose of the synthetic drug. (40)
Wound Healing: Study evaluated three carbazole alkaloids (mahanine, mahanimbicine, mahanimbine), essential oil and ethanol extract for efficacy in healing subcutaneous wounds. The absence of changes in the liver and kidney of the animals suggest the non-toxic nature of the treatments using the extract and the carbazole alkaloids. Wounds treated with mahanimbicine and extract showed the highest rate of collagen deposition with reduced inflammatory cells. (41)
Nootropic / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of Murraya koenigii leaves on memory in rats using Elevated plus-maze and Hebb-Williams maze as exteroceptive behavioral models for testing memory. The MKL diets produced significant dose-dependent improvement in memory scores of young and aged rats and significantly reduced the amnesia induced by scopolamine and diazepam. Results suggest a potential in the management of dementia patients. (42)
Antinociceptive / Leaves: Study evaluated the analgesic activity of acute and chronic administration of petroleum ether extract of leaves and total alkaloids in mice. The extract and total alkaloid fraction significantly and dose-dependently reduced the number of acetic acid-induced writhing, significantly increased the latency of paw licking in hot plate method, and increased basal reaction time in tail immersion method. (43)
Renoprotective / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of leaves for renoprotective potential against unilateral renal ischemia reperfusion injury in male Wistar rats. Results showed restoration of serum and urinary parameters with improvement in endogenous antioxidants. Findings suggest both preventive and curative effects against RIR injury. (44)
Koenimbin / Chemoprevention Potential: Study evaluated the efficacy of koenimbin, isolated from M. koenigii, in the inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and to target MCF7 breast cancer stem cells through apoptosis in vitro. Results showed koenimbin-induced apoptosis in MCF7 cells mediated by cell death-transducing signals. Findings suggest a potential for koenimbin for future chemoprevention studies and cancer management strategies. (45)
Paraoxonase / Hypoglycemic Effect: The activity of paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a HDL-associated antioxidant enzyme, was found to be decreased during hypoglycemia. Study explored the effect of MK leaves (MkL) on paraoxonase 1 activity to control oxidative stress in diabetes. MkL significantly decreased blood sugar levels in a dose dependent manner. PON1 activity was found to be increased with MkL extract. Results suggest MkL treatment decreased oxidative stress associated with diabetes by affecting the antioxidant parameters like SOD, CAT, GSH, MDA, and also PON1. (46)
Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Hepatic Damage: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of Mk leaves in attenuating hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride, a potent oxidative stress induced and a model hepatotoxicant. Results showed a hepatoprotective effect supported by histopathological liver findings. (47)
Thrombolytic / Cytotoxic / Antioxidant: An aqueous extract of Mk showed thrombolytic activity of 26.17%. Cytotoxicity on brine shrimp lethality assay showed an LC50 value of 6.46. Total antioxidant value was found to be 350.81 ±0.99 mg/g. Findings suggest thrombolytic, cytotoxic, and antioxidant properties with potential benefit for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. (49)
Bioactive Dimeric Carbazole Alkaloids / Fruit Pulp: CHCl3 extract of fruit pulp yielded three new dimeric carbazole alkaloids, bisgerayafolines A–C (1–3). Bisgerayafolines A–C (1–3). The compounds exhibited various levels of antioxidant, anti-α-glucosidase, DNA binding, and cytotoxic activities and protein interactions. (50)
Chemomodulatory / Human Stomach and Skin Papillomagenesis: Study evaluated fresh crude curry leaf aqueous extract in Swiss albino mice for chemomodulatory activity. The anticarcinogenic potential of the curry leaf was evaluated adopting the Benzo(a)pyrene induced forestomach and 7,12 DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis. Results showed a significant reduction in tumor burden as well as tumor incidence in both tumor model systems studied. Findings suggest the curry leaf can be useful in the prevention of human stomach and skin cancers. (51)
Antifungal: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract for antifungal efficacy against two dermatophytic taxa, namely, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum and evaluated the therapeutic value of the extract against an imidazole fungicide. The extract equally inhibited vegetative growth like that of the fungicide and the extract exerted significant effect on hyphal morphology. Effect of the extract was almost equal that of the fungicide. (52)
Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study of crude extract of leaves of M. koenigii and M. frondosa and their fractions showed anthelmintic activity using Pheretima posthuma as test worms. Albendazole was used as standard reference. (53)
Toxicity and Repellent Activity / Essential Oils: Study evaluated essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and M. koenigii for toxicity and repellent activity against Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea. Findings showed the essential oils of lemongrass and curry leaf could be used as less toxic alternatives to protect stored cowpea. (54)
Antidiabetogenic / Islet Protective and Insulin Secretory Activity: Study investigated the antidiabetogenic effects of Murraya koenigii and O. tenuiflorum on STZ-induced diabetic Swiss mice. Results showed pancreatic and intestinal glucosidase inhibitory activity and pancreatic ß-cell protection. Results suggest a potential for the extracts in adjuvant therapy for treatment of diabetes. (55)
Repellent Activity / Essential Oils / Leaves: Study of essential oil of leaves yielded 30 different compounds, mostly hydrocarbons. Analysis yielded α-pinene and caryophyllene which are active ingredients for insect repellency. These two compounds has the potential for use as active ingredients in natural based insect repellent. The repellency towards Blattaria was 100%. (59)
Anti-Inflammatory / Synergism with Aegle marmelos: Study investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of leaves of M. koenigii and Aegle marmelos by carrageenan induced inflammation and paw edema on albino wistar rats. Both extracts showed anti-inflammatory activities, but the combined doses of the two extracts produced pronounced synergistic anti-inflammatory activity, comparable to the reference drug. Results suggest the extracts may possess arachidonate COX inhibitory property. (61)

Availability
Cultivated.
Seeds in the cybermarket.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update June 2016
January 2014


IMAGE SOURCE: Leaves / File:Murraya koenigii leaves - curry leaves.jpg / Sonja Pauen / 8 May 2008 / Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Germany license / click on photo to go to source image / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: File:CurryLeaf Fruits.jpg / M. Chang / 12 April 2009 / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / Flowers / File:Curry Tree flower4.JPG / Muhammad Mahdi Karim / 14 November 2007 / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic, 2.0 Generic and 1.0 Generic license. / click on photo to go to source image / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Sorting Murraya names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(2)
Murraya koenigii / Botanical info / Missouri Botanical Garden
(3)
Protective effect of aqueous Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) extract against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in rat heart / Elina Mitra, Arnab K. Ghosh, Debosree Ghosh, Debasri Mukherjee, Aindrila Chattopadhyay, Santanu Dutta, Sanjib Kumar Pattari, Debasish Bandyopadhyay / Food and Chemical Toxicology 50 (2012) 1340–1353
(4)
Murraya koenigii leaf extract inhibits proteasome activity and induces cell death in breast cancer cells
/
Bindu Noolu, Rajanna Ajumeera, Anitha Chauhan, Balakrishna Nagalla, Raghunath Manchala and Ayesha Ismail* / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:7 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-7
(5)
Anti-diabetic effect of Murraya koenigii (L) and Olea europaea (L) leaf extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. / El-Amin M, Virk P, Elobeid MA, Almarhoon ZM, Hassan ZK, Omer SA, Merghani NM, Daghestani MH, Al-Olayan EM. / Pak J Pharm Sci. 2013 Mar;26(2):359-65.
(6)
Apoptosis Effect of Girinimbine Isolated from Murraya koenigii on Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro
/ Syam Mohan, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Shiau-Chuen Cheah, Mohd Aspollah Sukari, Suvitha Syam, Noorasyikin Shamsuddin, and Mohd Rais Mustafa / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/689865
(7)
A REVIEW ON MURRAYA KOENIGII: MULTIPOTENTIAL MEDICINAL PLANT / HARISH K HANDRAL, ANUP PANDITH AND SHRUTHI SD / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 5, Suppl 4, 2012
(8)
EFFECT OF EXTRACTS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LEAVES ON THE LEVELS OF BLOOD GLUCOSE AND PLASMA INSULIN IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / VINUTHAN M. K., GIRISH KUMAR V., RAVINDRA J. P., *JAYAPRAKASH AND **NARAYANA K. / Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 2004; 48 (3) : 348–352
(9)
Acute Toxicity Study of Murraya Koenigii
/ Satish Chand Saini , Dr. GBS Reddy , Pankaj Birari / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention, Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013, PP.34-36
(10)
Antiaflatoxigenic food additive potential of Murraya koenigii: An in vitro and molecular interaction study /
Kasi Murugana, K. Anandaraj, Saleh Al-Sohaibania / Food Research International, Volume 52, Issue 1, June 2013, Pages 8–16
(11)
Anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of Murraya koenigii (L) leaves in high fatty diet rats /
Sachin V. Tembhurne*, Dinesh M. Sakarkar / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012), S166-S168
(12)
Anti-inflammatory activity of Murraya koenigii Spreng on experimental animals
/ Vaibhav M. Darvekar*, Vijay R. Patil and Amol B. Choudhari / J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour., 2011, 1 (1): 65-69
(13)
Leaves extract of murraya koenigii linn for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models. / Gupta S, George M, Singhal M, Sharma GN, Garg V. / J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2010 Jan;1(1):68-77
(14)
Chemical Constituents of Murraya Koenigii (Rutaceae) and Their Biological Activities / Ahmad, Kartini (1999) / Masters thesis / Universiti Pertanian Malaysia.
(15)
Protective Effect of Leaves of Murraya koenigii on Reserpine-Induced Orofacial Dyskinesia / Rupali Patil ; Kiran Dhawale; Hanmant Gound; Rajendra Gadakh / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Article 27, Volume 11, Issue 2, Spring 2012, Page 635-641
(16)
Effect of Storage Temperature on the Nutritional Value of Curry Leaf / Usha R. Palaniswamy, James D. Stuart, and Christian A. Caporuscio / Trends in new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.. 2002, pp 567–569.
(17)
Possible Mechanism of Murraya koenigii and Cinnamomum tamala With Reference to Antioxidants Activity /
James Smerq*, Mukta Sharma / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2011; 3(3): 260-264
(18)
ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII IN ALBINO RATS / DINESH KUMAR PATIDAR / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, Vol 2, No 1, Jan-Mar 2011
(19)
Antimicrobial efficacy of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng. root extracts / Manvi Malwal and Renu Sarin* /
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources Vol. 2(1), March 2011, pp. 48-51
(20)
Antigenotoxic effect of Murraya koenigii towards cyclophosphamide induced cytogenetic damage in mouse bone marrow cells / Deshmukh Swati*, Pathak A. K, Burande M.D. / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2012; 4(2);59-63
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PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND EFFECT OF ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY ON MURRAYA KOENIGII SPRENG. LEAVES EXTRACTS / Md. Rageeb, Md. Usman* and SD. Barhate / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES, Vol 1, No 1, Jan-Mar 2012
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Anti-Fungal Potential of Leave Extracts of Murraya koenigii / Mishra M K et al / IJRAP 2010, 1(2), 549-552
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HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF FRUIT JUICE OF MURRAYA KOENIGII (L) IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC MICE / Tembhurne S. V. , Sakarkar D. M. * / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.1, No.4, pp 1589-1593, Oct-Dec 2009
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IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ROOT EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII (LINN) SPRENG
./ Ashish Pagariya *, Sarika Chatur, & Faimddum Nawab / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL INNOVATIONS
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Larvicidal, pupicidal and repellent activity of murraya koenigii leaf extract against malaria vector, anopheles stephensi / Suganya Ayyappan, Kadarkarai Murugan, Mathath Roni, Christina Mary, Sivapriyajothi / Bret Research Journals
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Studies on the glycemic and lipidemic effect of Murraya koenigii in experimental animals / Achyut Narayan Kesari, Shweta Kesari, Santosh Kumar Singh, Rajesh Kumar Gupta, Geeta Watal / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 112, Issue 2, 13 June 2007, Pages 305–311 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.03.023
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Study on antioxidant potential of Murraya koenigii leaves in Wistar rats. / Gill NS, Sharma B. / Pak J Biol Sci. 2014 Jan 1;17(1):126-9.
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Pharmacological studies of anticancer, anti inflammatory activities of Murraya koenigii (Linn) Spreng in experimental animals / P. Muthumani*, S.Venkatraman, K.V.Ramseshu, R.Meera, P.Devi, B. Kameswari, B.Eswarapriya / J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol.1(3), 2009, 137-141
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Acceptability of curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) incorporated products and attitude toward consumption / M. SHANTHALA, Jamuna Prakash / Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 01/2005; 29(1):33 - 44 / DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4549.2005.00011.x
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BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF FRUIT JUICE OF MURRAYA KOENIGII (L) IN 28 DAYS REPEATED DOSE TOXICITY STUDY / *Tembhurne S. V., Sakarkar D. M / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.1, No.4, pp 1568-1575
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Study for anti-infective potential of antibacterial properties of Murraya Koenigii / Satish Chand Saini*, Dr. GBS Reddy / IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS), Volume 7, Issue 5 (Sept. – Oct. 2013), PP 26-28
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HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII AGAINST LEAD-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RAT / DEBOSREE GHOSH, SYED BENAZIR FIRDAUS, ELINA MITRA, MONALISA DEY, AINDRILA CHATTOPADHYAY, SANJIB K. PATTARI, SANTANU DUTTA, KULADIP JANA, AND DEBASISH BANDYOPADHYAY / Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 5, Suppl 1, 285-295
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Anti-diarrhoeal activity of Murraya koenigii Linn root extracts / Ashish Pagariya*, V.Maithili / JOURNAL OF NATURAL REMEDIES, 9(1), 2009, 8-11
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The Effect of Murraya koenigii Extract on Therapeutic Efficacy of Amlodipine in Rats: Possible Drug-Herb Interaction / Kalyani H Barve*, Ginpreet Kaur, Aadesh Kumar and Saloni Daftardar / Gen Med (Los Angel) 3:153. doi: 10.4172/2327-5146.1000153
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Murraya koenigii-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its activity against three human pathogenic bacteria / S. R. Bondea, D. P. Rathoda, A. P. Inglea, R. B. Adea, A. K. Gadea & M. K. Raia* / Nanoscience MethodsVolume 1, Issue 1, 2012, pp 25-36 / DOI:10.1080/17458080.2010.529172
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Evaluation of Anti Depressant Activity of Murraya Koenigii Leaf Extract in Mice
/ Krishna Prasad. D, S. N.Sri Harsha, D. Yashwanth kumar & K. S. S. N. Neelima / Global Journal of Medical research Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine Volume 13 Issue 2 Version 1.0 Year 2013
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EFFECT OF EXTRACTS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LEAVES ON THE LEVELS OF BLOOD GLUCOSE AND PLASMA INSULIN IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / VINUTHAN M. K., GIRISH KUMAR V., RAVINDRA J. P., *JAYAPRAKASH AND **NARAYANA K. / I3n4d8ianViJnuPthyasnioletPhalrmacol 2004; 48 (3) : 348–352
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HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF MURRAYA KOENIGII AGAINST ETHANOL- INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY MODEL IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS / SADHANA SATHAY1, POORNIMA D AMIN, VINAM B MEHTA, VIJAY B ZALA, RAMESH D KULKARNI, HARPREET KAUR AND ROOPALI G REDKAR / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 3(1), Jan-Mar 2012
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Carbazole Alkaloids from Roots of Murraya Koenigii (Rutaceae) / Mohd Aspollah Sukari, Kartini Ahmad, Md Jelas Haron and Radzali Muse / Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 1 (2001) 263-265
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Modifying Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Diclofenac with Murraya koenigii / Ginpreet Kaur, Saloni Daftardar and Kalyani H. Barve / Recent Patents on Inflammation and Allergy Drug Discovery, Vol 8, Issue 1, pp77-81 / DOI: 10.2174/1872213X08666140121155027
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Efficacy of Carbazole Alkaloids, Essential Oil and Extract of Murraya koenigii in Enhancing Subcutaneous Wound Healing in Rats / Thilahgavani Nagappan, Thirukanthan Chandra Segaran, Mohd Effendy Abdul Wahid, Perumal Ramasamy and Charles S. Vairappan* / Molecules 2012, 17, 14449-14463 / doi:10.3390/molecules171214449
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Nootropic Potential of Murraya koenigii leaves in Rats / Mani Vasudevan,* Milind Parle, Singaravel Sengottuvelu and Thulasimani Shanmugapriya / Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine 2008 8(4), 365-373 / DOI 10.3742/OPEM.2008.8.4.365
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Antinociceptive activity of acute and chronic administration of Murraya koenigii L. leaves in experimental animal models / Rupali Arun Patil, Padmaja Mukund Langade, Pramod Babarao Dighade, Yogesh Ashok Hiray / Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 44, No. 1, January-February, 2012, pp. 15-19
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Evaluation of aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii in unilateral renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats / Priyanka Punuru, D Sujatha, B Pushpa Kumari, V. V. L Charisma / Indiann Journal of Pharmacology, 2014, Vol 46, Issue 2, Pp 171-175 / DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.129310
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Koenimbin, a natural dietary compound of Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng: inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and targeting of derived MCF7 breast cancer stem cells (CD44+/CD24-/low): an in vitro study
/ Fatemeh Ahmadipour, Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin, Syam Mohan, Aditya Arya, Mohammadjavad Paydar, Chung Yeng Looi, Yeap Swee Keong, Ebrahimi Nigjeh Siyamak, Somayeh Fani, Maryam Firoozi, Chung Lip Yong, Mohamed Aspollah Sukari, Behnam Kamalidehghan/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S72127
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An aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii leaves induces paraoxonase 1 activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice / Adrija Saha and Santasree Mazumder* / Food Funct., 2013,4, 420-425 / DOI: 10.1039/C2FO30193H
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The protective effect of Murraya koenigii leaves against carbon tetra chloride-induced hepatic damage in rats
/ Brahma Naidu Parimi, Ramgopal Mopuri, Balaji Meriga* / Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 2014; 2(4): 313-318
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EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM MURRAYA KOENIGII LEAVES USING ULTRASONIC-ASSISTED SOLVENT EXTRACTION METHOD / ZA ISKANDAR B MOHD DIKUI / UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG, April 2009
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A Study on Thrombolytic, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Potential of Murraya Koenigii / R. Shalini, A. Pushpa* / Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 20(2), May – Jun 2013; n° 16, 98-100
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Bioactive Dimeric Carbazole Alkaloids from Murraya koenigii / Chokkalingam Uvarani, Mathan Sankaran, Nanjundan Jaive, Kumarasamy Chandraprakash, Athar Ata*, and Palathurai S. Mohan* / J. Nat. Prod., 2013, 76 (6), pp 993–1000 / DOI: 10.1021/np300464t
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Chemomodulatory action of curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) extract on hepatic and extrahepatic xenobiotic metabolising enzymes, antioxidant levels, lipid peroxidation, skin and forestomach papillomagenesis / Trisha Dasgupta, A.R Rao, P.K Yadava / Nutrition Research, Vol 23, Issue 10, pp 1427-1446, Oct 2003 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5317(03)00136-2
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Antifungal activity of curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) extract and an imidazole fungicide on two dermatophyte taxa
/ A. Jayaprakash and P. Ebenezer / J. Acad. Indus. Res. Vol. 1(3) August 2012
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ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LINN AND MUSSAENDA FRONDOSA LINN. / Asha Kesari* and Dr. Bhim Charan Maiti / World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 4, Issue 2, 502-509.
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Toxicity and repellant activity of C. citratus (D.C) Stapf. and Murraya koenigii Sprang. against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera; Bruchidae) / P A Paranagama et al / Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension, 5(1&2): 2002
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Islet protective and insulin secretion property of Murraya koenigii and Ocimum tenuflorum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice / Menakshi Bhat Dusane, Bimba N. Joshi / Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 2012, 90(3): 371-378, 10.1139/y11-133
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Antioxidant and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Murraya koenigii leaf extracts / Mir Zahoor Gul,* Vidya Attuluri,* Insaf Ahmed Qureshi and Irfan Ahmad Ghazi / Pharmacognosy Journal, 2012; 4(32):65-72 / doi:10.5530/pj.2012.32.12
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A CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS IN FRESH CURRY LEAF (MURRAYA KOENIGII) BY REVERSED PHASE HPLC WITH UV DETECTION / U.R. Palaniswany, C. Caporuscio, J.D. Stuart / ISHS Acta Horticulturae 620: XXVI International Horticultural Congress: Asian Plants with Unique Horticultural Potential
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Pharmacognostic studies on bark of Murraya koenigii Spreng. / Kawaljeet Kaur, Arvind Kumar Gupta, Sayeed Ahmad and Perwez Alam / International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Vol 2(4), Oct-Decd 2011
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EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM MURRAYA KOENIGII LEAVES: POTENTIAL STUDY FOR APPLICATION AS NATURAL-BASED INSECT REPELLENT / Jamil R., Nor Natashah Nasir, Hafizah Ramli, Isha R. and Nur Aminatulmimi Ismail / Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, VOL. 11, NO. 4, FEBRUARY 2016
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Chemical Composition of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Murraya koenigii / K.S Leela Vinodh, A. Natarajan, K. Devi, B. SenthilKumar* / |International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 2013; 4(3): 493 - 497
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Study of synergistic anti-inflammatory activity of Murraya koenigii and Aegle marmelos / D. Susanna, D. Bhavana, D. Mounika, V. Sandhya, D. Vijay Anand Raju, R. Nagakishore and Bolay Bhattacharya* / Annals of Biological Research, 2015, 6 (6):33-38
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