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Family Asteraceae
Carthamus tinctorius Linn.

Hong hua

Scientific names Common names
Calcitrapa tinctoria (L.) Röhl. Biri (Tag.)
Carduus tinctorius (L.) Falk Kasabha (Bis.)
Carthamus glaber Burm. f. Kasubha (Tag.)
Carthamus tinctorius Linn. Kasumba (Tag.)
Carthamus tinctorius var. spinosus Kitam. Kachumba (Pamp.)
Centaurea carthamus E.H.L.Krause Lago (Tag.)
  Parrot seed (Engl.)
  Dyer's saffron (Engl.)
  Safflower (Engl.)
  Bastard saffron (Engl.)
  Dyer's saffron (Engl.)
  Fake saffron (Engl.)
  Wild saffron (Engl.)
  Zaffer (Engl.)
Carthamus tinctorius L. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Asfur, asfoor, Osfur, Usfar.
CHINESE: Da hong hua.
CROATIAN: Bojadisarski bodalj, Šafranika.
CZECH: Azafrán, Světlice barvířská.
DANISH: Farvetidsel, Safflor..
DUTCH: Carthamusbloem , Saffloer, Saffloer-bloem.
FINNISH: Värisaflori.
FRENCH: Carthame des teinturiers, Fleur de carthame, Graine de carthame, Safran bâtard.
GERMAN: Deutscher saflor, Färberdistel, Färbersaflor, Falscher Safran , Saflor.
GREEK: Knikos
HEBREW: Qurtami, Qurtam, Qurtema, Dardar.
HINDI: Kusum, Kusumba, Kusuma, Hubulkhurtum.
HUNGARIAN: Magyar pirosító, Pórsáfrány, Sáfrányos szeklice, Szaflór, Szeklice.
IRANIAN: Brata, Kafsha, Kafshe, Kosheh, Zafaran-golu, Kouchan gule, Kah'li, Golbar aftab, Kharkhool.
ITALIAN: Cartamo, Falso zafferano.
JAPANESE: Beni bana, Beni hana.
KOREAN: Hong hwa.
PERSIAN: Gulrang, Kafesheh.
PORTUGUESE: Açafrão-bastardo, Cártamo, Falso-açafrão.
RUSSIAN: Saflor, Saflor krasil'nyi.
SLOVENIAN: Barvilni rumenik, Barvilni žafran, Žafranika.
SLOVAKIAN: Požlt farbiarska.
SPANISH: Alazor, Alazor bastardo, Azafrán bastardo, Cártamo.
SWEDISH: Färgtistel, Safflor.
TURKISH: Safran yalancı, Yalancı safran.
URDU:Gul rang
VIETNAMESE: Cây rum, Hồng hoa.

Gen info
- Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant in the family Asteraceae.
- Safflower is one of the oldest cultivated crops, It was first cultivated in Mesopotamia, with archaeological traces possible dating back to 2500 BC.

- Chemical analysis of ancient Egyptian textiles dated to the Twelfth Dynasty (1991-1802 BC) identified dyes from safflower. Safflower garlands were found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamen.
(57) Safflower seeds and packets, and garlands of florets were widely found in mummies across ancient Egypt. (40)
- Etymology: According to John Chadwick, the Greek name for safflower, karthamos,occurs many times in Linear B tablets, distinguished into two kinds: white and red safflower. (57)

• Kasubha is an erect, branched, smooth herb, 30 to 90 centimeters high. Leaves are stalkless, half-clasping, lanceolate, 5 to 10 centimeters long, 1 to 2.5 centimeters wide, but smaller toward the top, with margins minutely spiny toothed. Flowering heads are large, surrounded by a cluster of leafy bracts which gradually become the bracts of the involucre, 2.5 to 4 centimeters across. Flowers are orange-red. The achenes, often deformed, are obovoid, usually 4-ribbed and truncate at the top. Pappus is absent or scalelike.

- Introduced.
- Cultivated, no naturalized.
- Planted here and there for dyeing purposes.
Nowhere spontaneous.

- Native to Iran, Turkey. (24)

- More than 200 compounds have been isolated from C. tinctorius; commonly known ones are flavonoids, phenylethanoid glycosides, coumarins, fatty acids, steroids, and polysaccharides. Analysis of safflower seeds yielded crude protein in range of 14.9 ti 17%, total sugar 3.2 to 9.2%, and extractable lipids from 25 to 40%. Seed oil, similar to olive oil, yielded linoleic acid 63-72%, oleic acid 16-25%, and linolenic acid 1-6%. (41)
- Flowers yield a coloring principle, carthamin.
- Seeds contain a fixed oil, 28.7%; proteins, 14.11%; cellulose, 30.6%.

- Flowers yielded eight compounds: palmitic acid, 1-O-hexadecanolenin, trans-3-tridecene-5,7,9,11-tetrayne-1,2-diol, trans-trans-3,11-tridecadiene -5,7,9-triyne -1,2-diol, coumaric acid, daucosterol, apigenin and kaempferol.(16)
- Flower petals have yielded carthamin, safflor yellows A and B, Safflormin A and C, isocarthamin, isocarthamidin, hydroxysafflor yellow A. A water fraction yielded four compounds, viz., 6-hydroxykaempferol 3-O-glucoside (1), 6-hydroxykaempferol 7-O-glucoside (2, a new compound), kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (3) and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (4). (20)
- Study isolated a new phenylpropanoid derivative, carthamusin A [2-hydroxy-1-(3-hydroxy-3-(2-(2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl) phenyl) propanoyloxy) pentan-3-yl benzoate], along with two known compounds ß-daucosterol and stigmasterol. (34)
- Safflower oil has high nutritional value, with 70% polyunsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid), 10$ monosaturated oleic acid, and small amounts of stearic acid. (40)
- Hydrodistillation study of flowers for volatile oil yielded 20 compounds with 0.175% oil (v/w) representing 99.81% of the oil. Oil was rich in undecanoic acid, octane, 2-nonen-1-ol, hexadecanal, dodecanal, dec-2-en-1-ol, nonanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, 2 pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, isobutyl-beta-phenylpropionate, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, myrtenoic acid, octadecanoic acid, heneicosanoic acid, 293H)-furanone, 4,4-dipropylheptane, hexcosane, 1-eicosanol, and heptocosane. (42)
- Study of leaves for alkaloid content yielded a new β-carboline alkaloid, 4,9-dimethoxy-1-ethyl-β-carboline (1) along with one known analogue 4-methoxy-1-ethyl-β-carboline (2). (see study below) (52)

- Considered tonic, laxative, purgative, analgesic, antipyretic, diaphoretic, abortifacient.
- Seeds and oil considered purgative and laxative.
- Flowers considered tonic and emmenagogue.
- Studies have suggested cardioprotective, renoprotective, anti-estrogenic, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, antioxidant, antitumor, neuroprotective, hypotensive, antiulcer, hypolipidemic, hair-promoting, analgesic, immunomodulatory, anticryptococcal, anti-leishmania, antimalarial, antifungal, antidepression, anti-anxiety properties.

Parts used
Flowers, seeds, oil.


- Dye from flowers used as substitute for saffron, for coloring food. Not valued as a spice.
- Oil from the seeds is a valuable and edible oil.
- in wide regions of Iran, consumed raw. (
- In China, young shoots eaten in time of scarcity.
- Dye used in Italian, French, and British cuisine as flavoring and coloring. (
- Used in traditional medicine for treatment of dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea postpartum abdominal pains, trauma and joint pains. (40) Also used as purgative, analgesic, antipyretic, and antidote to poisoning.     (41)
- Hot infusion of dried flowers used as a diaphoretic in jaundice, nasal catarrh and muscular rheumatism.
- Cold infusion used as a laxative and tonic in measles and scarlatina to favor efflorescence of eruptions.
- In Indochina, flowers are given for dysmenorrhea and paralysis, as tonic and emmenagogue.
- In China, plant is used as abortifacient and to expel retained placenta.
- Plant boiled in sesamum oil is used as remedy for itches.
- Medicated oil prepared from the plant used as external application for rheumatism and paralysis.
- Flowers used for hair growth.
- In Punjab, seeds used as diuretic and tonic.
- In
Thailand used as herbal tea to reduce cholesterol and prevent atherosclerosis.
- In Korea, seeds used as folk medicine to enhance bone formation or prevent osteoporosis.
- In
Iranian folk medicine used for various applications due to its laxative effects. Also used for rheumatism, paralysis, vitiligo, black spots, psoriasis, mouth ulcers, poisoning, melancholy, among others. (40)
Indian traditional medicine, used for treatment of scabies, arthritis, and mastalgia. (40)
- In
Persian folk medicine, used for treatment of diabetes, phlegmatic fever, melancholia and dropsy.(40)
- Dye: Dye is impermanent; colors silk a brilliant scarlet, but is not permanent. Used in the preparation of toilet rouges. for which it is mixed with powdered talc. (
) Safflower dyes were important for the carpet-weaving industries in Eastern Europe, Middle East, and Indian subcontinent. (40)
- Florets: Applied as dye, coloring, flavoring, rouge, potion, and unguent. (
- Safflower oil:
Safflower oil has a nutritional value that is similar to olive oil. The high oleic type is suitable for low cholesterol diets, for frying, and preparation of frozen food. The high linoleic type may have industrial use for preparation of varnishes, production of biodiesel and alcohols for use in making surfactants. (64)
- Oil: Oil from the seed used in making soap and candles; also used as lubricant and in candle-making.
- Ice cream pigment:
The addition of carthamidin (0.06 mL) in ice cream scored higher overall acceptability. (26)
- Cosmetics:
Safflower oil, rich in essential omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid is included in skin care products and bath oils. (31) In Thailand aqueous extract of flowers largely used as hair color promoter.    (

Cardioprotective Against LPS-Induced Apoptosis:
Study showed Carthamus tinctorius possesses the ability to suppress JNK activity and inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α activation and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells. CT can potentially cardioprotective against LPS-induced apoptosis. (1)
Cardioprotective / Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: Study showed Carthamus tinctorius extract could protect myocardium damage induced by I/R injury. The mechanism of cardioprotection may be associated with inhibition of apoptosis of myocardium, upregulating protein expression of Bcl-2 gene and downregulated protein expression of Bax gene. (7)
Study showed injection of safflor significantly reduced the renal dysfunction and injury caused by I/R (ischemia/reperfusion) of the kidney, effected probably due to inhibition of cell apoptosis and caspase-3 gene expression.

Tracheloside / Anti-Estrogenic Lignan Glycoside: Tracheloside, isolated from the seeds of CT significantly decreased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, an estrogen-inducible marker enzyme, against cultured ishikawa cells, at a level of inhibition comparable to tamoxifen.
Neuroprotective: Study showed HSYA (hydroxysafflor yellow A) dose-dependently improved the neurological deficit scores and reduced the cerebral infarct area in a potency similar to the therapeutic effects of nimodipine on cerebral ischemia.
Antioxidant / Safflor Yellow: Study showed SY is an antioxidatve part of Carthamus tinctorius.
Polyphenols / Lipid Benefits: Study showed safflower polyphenols improved blood lipids by increasing the HDL-cholesterol formation and cholesterol excretion without significant uterotropic action in estrogen-deficient animals.
Flavanoids / Antioxidants: Study isolated eight flavonoids. Luteolin-acetyl-glucoside and quercetin-acetyl-glucoside showed potent antioxidative activities.
Teratogenic and Cytotoxic Effects of Safflower Extract / Coloring and Flavoring Use: Study showed that in higher doses, changes in cellular orientation and cellular degeneration were observed. also, cytotoxic assay demonstrated a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the carthami flos extract. It suggests reconsideration of use as food additive.
Hypotensive Effect: Study using SY, a mixture of chalconoid compounds extracted from CT lowered the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Results suggest the decrease to be mediated by the renin-angiotensin system.
Breast Cancer Inhibitory Effect: The compound Zhyu-xiang, derived from extracts containing ginseng and carthamus tinctorius, was studied on treatment of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell and
human mammary gland cell lines. Zhu-xiang showed significant dose-dependent inhibition in cell proliferation, greater than that of commonly used cytotoxic drugs. The inhibitory effect was due to induction of apoptosis, both time- and concentration-dependent. Results suggest Zhu-xiang could be a useful anticancer compound against breast cancer.
Immunomodulatory / Antitumor Activity: Study showed the Carthamus tinctorius could promote immunity through the activation of DCs per se.
Analgesic Activity: Study showed CF oil extracted from safflower seeds is a natural local anesthetic with moderate analgesic activity mediated through influences on the serotoninergic and monoaminergic pathways. It has a potential to occupy a leading place among local anesthetics used in traditional medicine, acupuncture, and medical massage. (
Quinochalcones / Anti-Inflammatory: Study isolated two new quinochalcone compounds - saffloquinoside A and saffloquinoside B - from the florets of C tinctorius. Saffloquinoside A exhibited middling anti-inflammatory activity. (5)
Bone Formation Benefits: Study in Sprague-Dawley rats showed a significant increase of osteoblast markers - osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. The effect appears likely to be mediated by IGF-I at the early stages of treatment. (
Antioxidant / Radical Scavenging: Study of crude extract showed antioxidant activities in various assays: DPPH scavenging, ABTS+ radical scavenging and superoxide anion radical scavenging. (
Antidiabetic / Hypolipidemic: Study of a hydroalcoholic extract in diabetic male Wistar rats showed decreases in FBS, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL. Blood sugar lowering effect was comparable to glibenclamide. Histological study showed the size of islets of Langerhans significantly enlarged. The extract showed no toxicity as suggested by normal levels of AST, ALT, ALP. (10)
Antitumor: Study evaluated the antitumor activity of CT extract on dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine in cancer treatment. Results showed a dose-dependent dramatic increase of the levels of TNF-
α and IL-1ß, with more immunologic and co-stimulatory molecules expressed on the DC surface. (11)
Hepatoprotective: Study of a methanolic extract showed a hepatoprotective (antioxidant and anti-inflammatory) effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats as evidenced by biochemical parameters and histopathological findings. (12)
Hypolipidemic / Effects on Gene Expression: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of various fractionation of crude extract. Results showed the dichlormethane extract to reduce the total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol of hyperlipidemic rats. The results may partly be due to a decrease in the HDL-cholesterol and gene encoding enzymes of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. (13)
Antiulcer: Study showed an extract from Ct showed an antiulcerogenic effect, which may be due to its calcium channel blocking activity. (15)
Hair-Promoting Growth: Study examined the potential of hydroxysafflor yellow A-rich C. tinctorius extract on hair growth in vitro and in vivo. C. tinctorius floret ethanolic extract promoted the proliferation of both dermal papilla cells and HaCaT and significantly stimulated hair growth-promoting genes. It suppressed expression of transforming factor ß-1, the hair loss-related gene. Results suggest a potential for use as a hair-growth promoting agent. (17)
Anti-Inflammatory / Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction: Heme oxygenases (HO) are cytoprotective enzymes that degrade heme, generating CO, bilirubin, and ferrous iron, products with antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory actions. Study evaluated methanol exhibited anti-inflammatory action , probably through induction of HO-1 expression via Nrf2 translocation and inhibition of NF-kB activity. (18)
Stimulation of Melanogenesis / Gray Hair Treatment: Study evaluated the effect of Carthamus tinctorius floret ethanolic extract on melanogenesis in murine melanoma cells. Results showed the CTE can stimulate melanogenesis at the transcriptional levels without cytotoxicity, with a potential as a gray hair treatment product. (19)
Female Reproductive Concerns: Study evaluated the possible effects of C. tinctorius on ovarian histomorphology and levels of female reproductive hormones in mice. Treatment with extracts showed detrimental effects with reduction in the number of ovarian follicles with an increase in atretic follicles, together with decrease in blood levels of FSH and estrogen. (
Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the effect of C. tinctorius on fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Results showed significant hypoglycemic effect together with significantly increased insulin levels in extract treated and glibenclamide treated groups as compared to diabetic control. (
• Drug Interactions with Anticoagulants and Anti-Platelet Drugs: Large amounts of safflower can slow blood clotting. Medications that slow blood clotting (anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs) can interact with safflower and increase the risk of bruising and bleeding. Some of the medicines that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, enoxaparin, heparin warfarin, among others. (25)
• Quinochalcone C-Glycosides / HSYA / Biologic Activities / Florets: Study reports on the chemical and biologic properties of quinochalcone C-glycosides, major ingredients in the florets of C. tinctorius. The main active component of safflower yellow (SY) is HSYA (hydroxysafflor yellow A). Review presents its various biologic activities viz., anticoagulant, cardioprotective, CNS, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, and anti-tumor effects. C-glycosides have strong commercial value as cost-effective colorants used in juices, yoghurt, gelatin desserts and candies to make them more appealing. (27)
• Safety Profile in Lactation / Brain, Renal, and Hepatic Toxicity / Avoid During Pregnancy and Lactation: Study evaluated the possible effects of C. tinctorius during lactation on brain, liver, kidney, and hematologic parameters of newborn mice. In histopathological studies, mild to severe injuries were observed in the kidney, liver, and brain tissues. Results suggest the use of safflower extract during lactation is toxic and advises the avoidance of its use during pregnancy and lactation. (28)
• Hepatoprotective / Hypolipidemic in Diabetic Rats / Seed Oil: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Carthamus tinctorius seed oil in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Treatment with seed oil decreased the levels of blood glucose, TC, TGs, LDL, ALT, AST. and ALP while increasing HDL. Results suggest the use of safflower seed oil may be beneficial in preventing diabetic complications. (29)
• Acute and Subchronic Toxicity: Study evaluated the toxic and direct teratogenic potential of two dominant iranian cultivars of C. tinctorius (safflower) floret extracts (IL 111 and LRV 51 51) commonly used in food and medicinal products. No deaths or alteration of stereotype activities were observed. In cytotoxicity evaluation, results suggested no remarkable level of teratogenicity. (30)
• Effects on Placental Histomorphology and Neonate Survival / Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the effects of C. tinctorius extracts on placental histomorphology and survival of mice neonates. Results showed toxic changes in the placental structure. Advice of caution was given on consumption of the plant as alternative food or food additive. (32)
• Antithrombotic Effects: Study evaluated the effects of C. tinctorius extracts on thrombosis in rats. All test doses of CTL extracts significantly and dose-dependently prolonged thrombosis occlusion time, reduced the weight of the thrombus and increased inhibition rate (p<0.01). Studies are suggested to determine clinical potential. (33) Study evaluated the anti-thrombosis activity of C. tinctorius in rats with induced thrombus. Results showed prolongation of venous occlusion time with dose-dependent reduction in arterial and venous thrombus weights. TXB2 decreased while 6-keto-PGF1a increased. (
• Steroidal and Metabolic Effect: Study evaluated the steroidal and metabolic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds of C. tinctorius in albino rats. Results showed significant (p<0.01) reduction of thymus weight together with hyperproteinemic, hypocholesterolemic and liver glycogen increasing effect with moderate increase in blood glucose level. Results suggest marked steroids and metabolic effect. The steroidal effect may be the basis for its use in nephrotic type kidney diseases, (35)
• Effect on Semen Quality and Gonadal Hormone Levels: Study evaluated the effects of C. tinctorius on spermatogenesis in a male rat model of partial infertility. Results showed a significant increase in sperm of good morphology and motility together with significant increase in count and positive effect on hormonal changes and genital organ weights. (36)
• Inhibition of Proliferation and Metastasis of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell: Study investigated the effects of safflower polysaccharide on the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Results showed the polysaccharide compound significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The SPS induced cell apoptosis. Further study on underlying mechanisms may provide novel strategies in breast cancer therapy. (37)
• Depigmenting Effect / Seed: Study evaluated the skin depigmentation effect of extracts of three herbs viz., C. tinctorius seed, Cyperus rotundus and Schizonpeta tenuifolia. Results showed C. tinctorius seed extracts reduced tyrosinase activity and melanin formation of B16F10 melanoma cells. The underlying mechanism for its whitening activity may be the inhibition of tyrosinase, MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 expression. Results suggest a potential as natural function ingredient with a depigmentation effect. (38)
• Antifungal / Aspergillus flavus: Study evaluated various extracts of medicinal herbs (thyme, senna, mentha, basil, safflower) on the growth of A. flavus, one of the major fungal challenges in agriculture and food industry. While all concentrations of the plant extracts significantly inhibited the fungus growth, the extracts of thyme and safflower manifested the most effective prohibition compared to benomyl with MIC of 200 and 400 µg/mL, respectively. (39)
• Serotonin Derivatives / Antioxidant / LDL-Lowering / Anti-Atherosclerotic: Study evaluated the effect of defatted safflower seed extract and its phenolic constituents and serotonin derivatives on atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Ethanol-EA extract of seeds inhibited LDL oxidation induced in vitro. Study identified two serotonin derivatives [N-(p-coumaroyl}serotonin, CS; N-feruloylserotonin, FS] and their glucosides as major phenolic constituents of the extract. Results suggest that serotonin derivatives of SSE are absorbed in circulation and attenuate atherosclerotic lesion development via inhibition of oxidized LDL formation through their strong antioxidative activity.  (43)
• Antioxidant / Antimicrobial / Anti-Inflammatory / Anticancer / Flowers: Study evaluated the antioxidant (ABTS radical scavenging and ß-carotene inhibition tests), antibacterial (against human pathogenic strains), anti-inflammatory (inhibition of NO release in LPS-stimulated raw 264.7 macrophages) and anticancer activities (human lung carcinoma A-549 and human colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD-1) of methanolic flower extract to validate its ethnopharmaceutical claims. Results showed inhibition of ABTS and ß-carotene assay, 100% inhibition against M. luteus strains, 80% inhibition of NO release at 160 µg/ml, and anticancer activity against tumor cell lines DLD-1 with IC50 of 72 ± 9µg/ml.  (44)
• Safety Assessment of New Pigmented Seed Coat (A82): Study evaluated the safety of a new pigmented variety of safflower (A82) seeds. Oral administration of A82 seeds significantly increased body weight of male rats in a dose dependent manner (p<0.05). No organ weight or histological changes were observed in liver, kidney, spleen, heart and brain of A82 seed treated animals. Results indicate A82 seeds showed no toxicity in Wistar rats.  (45)
• Attenuation of Memory Impairment / Seed: Cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress are the most common causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Study evaluated the protective effects and mechanisms of safflower seed extract in scopolamine-induced memory impairment in a mouse model. Results suggest safflower seed extract improved scopolamine induced memory deficits via inhibition of cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress. Results suggest a potential agent for the memory impairment in AD patients. (46)
• Hair Growth Promoting Activity / Nano-Structured Lipid Carriers / Florets: Study aimed to formulate, characterize, and evaluate the hair growth promoting activity of C. tinctorius florets extract loaded nano-structured lipid carriers (NLC) in C57BL/6 Results showed promotion of hair growth in mice better than minoxidil. Safflower yellow, the principle phytochemical in the extract, along with synergism with other phytochemicals may account for the hair growth promoting activity. (47)
• Comparative Stability / Carthamin and Safflower Yellow Pigments / Florets: Safflower florets contain edible carthamin and safflower yellow dyes, natural pigments have medicinal properties. Study evaluated the external factors influencing the chemical nature of carthamin and safflower yellow in measures of pH, temperature and light. Results showed safflower yellow is more stable than carthamin in temperature and pH treatment, but carthamin is more stable in light treatment. Of note, most synthetic pigments have carcinogenic properties, while natural pigments have biologic values and can be natural components of food products. (48)
• Effect of Jasmonic Acid on Safflower under Water Deficient State: Study evaluated the role of jasmonic acid in protecting safflower against drought damages. Application of jasmonic acid can mitigate the adverse effect of drought stress o various measured attributes. It can increase safflower ability to cope with drought stress through improvement of antioxidant enzymes and enhancement of secondary metabolites. (
• Antianxiety / Antidepressant / Petals: Study evaluated the antianxiety and antidepressant effect of C. tinctorius petal extract in white albino rats. Using elevated plus maze and forced swim tests, C. tinctorius showed highly significant anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, similar to standard drugs diazepam and nortriptyline. Results suggest potential as alternative therapeutic agents for treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders. (
• Alkaloid / Cytotoxicity against HepG2 Cell Line / Leaves: Study of leaves for alkaloid content yielded a new β-carboline alkaloid, 4,9-dimethoxy-1-ethyl-β-carboline (1) along with one known analogue 4-methoxy-1-ethyl-β-carboline (2). Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2 cell lines with IC50 values of 15.20 ± o.58 µmol/L and 17.40 ± 0.33 µmol/L, respectively. (
• Potential Source of Drugs Against Cryptococcal, Malarial and Leishmanial Infections / Dried Flowers: Study of volatile oil of Carthamus tinctorius dried flowers yielded eight known and three unknown compounds. An ointment formulation of the volatile oil exhibited activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, Plasmodium falcifarum, and Leishmania donovani. The ointment showed an excellent acute toxicity safety profile. (
• Effect on Platelet Activating Factor / Cardioprotective: Study detected platelet aggregation and 5-HT release by washed platelet from coronary heart disease patients following platelet activating factor (PAF) treatment. Safflower yellow was found to inhibit the PAF-induced washed platelet aggregation and 5-HT release by platelets and elevation of free calcium in platelets, and thus, suggests cardioprotective effect. (
• No Liver and Renal Effects / Seed: Study investigated the possible toxicological effects of black coat seed of a new pigmented variety of safflower on liver and kidney tissues of male wistar rats. Results showed that safflower seed especially black ones, has not toxic effects on liver and kidney tissues. The positive effects of black seed on body weight of wistar rats may be an interesting effect to possibly exploit in the poultry industry. (
• Antimicrobial / Synergism with Antibiotic: Study investigated the antibacterial activity of Safflower and its synergistic effect with antibiotics using disc diffusion method. Safflower showed varying degrees of antibacterial properties against tested bacteria. Zones of inhibition of bacteria were increased when blends of plant extract and antibiotics were used than those with antibiotics alone. (58)
• Potential against Cryptococcal Infections, Malaria, and Leishmaniasis / Flower Volatile Oil: GC-MS study evaluated the composition of volatile oil of safflower dried flowers. The volatile oil exhibited activity against Crytococcus neoformans, Plasmodium falciparum, and Leishmania donovani. The prepared ointment showed an excellent acute toxicity safety profile. (59)
• Use in Depression and Anxiety / Review: This Saudi Arabian review reports on the use of safflower in treating depression and anxiety. Study reports more than 75% of the Saudi population are using Safflower to treat psychological stress. More than half the population is using safflower off the label to treat depression and anxiety. A 2017 study showed components (especially N-hexadecanoic acid) of C. tinctorius extract induce antidepressant-like effects by interaction with dopaminergic (D1 and D2) and serotonergic (5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors) systems. The findings validated its folkloric use for the management of depression. Safflower petal extract has been shown to exert neuroprotective and antioxidant activities, which helps with its antidepressant and antianxiety properties. A well-constructed clinical trial is critical to prove evidence-based benefits of safflower for the treatment of depression and anxiety. (60)
• Antioxidant / Anti-Aging: Study evaluated safflower seed oil for total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant and antiaging activity, grown under semi-arid conditions during 3 consecutive years accessed from Syria, France, and Algeria. Results showed the phenol content, antioxidant, and antiaging activity varied according to genotype and years. A positive correlation was found between TPC and antioxidant activity. Inhibition in collagenase assay was between 47% and 72.1% compared to positive control (83.1%), while inhibition in elastase assay of TPC ranged from 32.2% to 70.3%, with positive control at 75.8%. Results highlights potential of safflower oil as source of phenols with antioxidant and aging activity, and cosmeceutical use. (61)

• Antifungal against Aspergillus Species / Seeds: Study evaluated the effect of crude alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoid compounds extracted from seeds of C. tinctorius against Aspergillus species isolated from stored medicinal plants seeds. In vitro antifungal activity used food poisoning method against Aspergillus species. The crude alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoid compounds from the seeds showed significant reduction (p<0.05) in growth of Aspergillus species especially at 20 mg/ml compared with negative control. (62)
• Daphnoretic /  Potential Inflammatory Inhibitor / Anti-COVID19: Study evaluated the possible interactions of several flavonoids from C. tinctorius with several immune system components using a computational approach. Of 22 flavonoids studied, daphnoretin showed best binding affinity with TLR4, and Rutin was shown to attach best with FcyRIIa. Unlike its excellent binding to TLR4, daphnoretin showed weak binding to TLR8. Results suggest daphnoretin as a good candidate as inhibitor inn hyperinflammatory reactions in COVID-19 DTLR8. (63)
• Safflower Oil as Adjuvant Treatment in Stroke /  Clinical Trial: Study evaluated the hypothesis that adult patients treated with safflower or not would present with fewer neurological complications following 15 days. A randomized controlled trial included 36 patients diagnosed with CVA (ischemic cerebrovascular accident) based on  brain imaging studies. Based on the pilot study, adjuvant treatment with safflower in addition to the standard anti-ischemic regimen can be more effective than individual conventional drugs for treating ischemic CVA among adults. (65)
• Antimicrobial Against Nosocomial Microorganisms: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activities of different safflower extracts from seeds, leaves, and flowers against nosocomial pathogens. Study lists the important phenolic phytoconstituents and mechanisms involved in the antimicrobial activity. Results suggest different extracts can be used against multidrug-resistant microbes that cause nosocomial and community acquired infections. (66)

Oil, seeds, supplements in the cybermarket.

Updated January 2024 / March 2020 / May 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration Carthamus tinctorius0.jpg / Original book source: Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, German / Permission granted to use under GFDL by Kurt Stueber / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Safflower.jpg / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Carthamus tinctorius / Pseudoanas (talk) / 日本語: 自身が撮影しblogにアップした画像の原版 / CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication / Click on image or link to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Carthamus tinctorius seeds / SPRINGHAUS / Non-commercial use / Click on image or link to go to source page / SpringHaus

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Carthamus tinctorius L. prevents LPS-induced TNFalpha signaling activation and cell apoptosis through JNK1/2-NFkappaB pathway inhibition in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells / Tien YC, Lin JY et al /
J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Aug 9;130(3):505-513. Epub 2010 Jun 9.
Safflower: Research Update
Effect of saffor (Carthamus tinctorius) injection on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Nov;31(21):1814-8 / Gao F, Wu XH, Luo CL, He YF, Zhang LS, Yang
An anti-estrogenic lignan glycoside, tracheloside, from seeds of Carthamus tinctorius / Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 Nov;70(11):2783-5 / Yoo HH, Park JH, Kwon SW
Pharmacokinetics and excretion of hydroxysafflor yellow A, a potent neuroprotective agent from safflower, in rats and dogs / Planta Med. 2006 Apr;72(5):418-23 / Chu D, Liu W, Huang Z, Liu S, Fu X, Liu K.
Study on the antioxidative effect of Safflor Yellow / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 May;29(5):447-9 / Jin M, Li JR, Wu W.
Effects of defatted safflower seed extract and phenolic compounds in diet on plasma and liver lipid in ovariectomized rats fed high-cholesterol diets.:J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2004 Feb;50(1):32-7.Cho SH, Lee HR, Kim TH, Choi SW, Lee WJ, Choi Y
Antioxidative flavonoids from leaves of Carthamus tinctorius.:Arch Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;25(3):313-9.Lee JY, Chang EJ, Kim HJ, Park JH, Choi SW
A study on the teratogenic and cytotoxic effects of safflower extract.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Dec;73(3):453-9.Nobakht M, Fattahi M, Hoormand M, Milanian I, Rahbar N, Mahmoudian M.
Hypotensive effects of safflower yellow in spontaneously hypertensive rats and influence on plasma renin activity and angiotensin II level:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1992;27(10):785-7.Liu F, Wei Y, Yang XZ, Li FG, Hu J, Cheng RF
The inhibitory effect of a herbal formula comprising ginseng and carthamus tinctorius on breast cancer
Carthamus Tinctorius Enhances the Antitumor Activity of Dendritic Cell Vaccines via Polarization toward Th1 Cytokines and Increase of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes / Jia-Ming Chang, Le-Mei Hung et al / eCAM, doi:10.1093/ecam/nen068
Analgesic properties of “CF” extracted from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds and potential for its use in medicine / A M Popova, I A Li, D I Kang / Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, Volume 43, Number 1 / January, 2009 / DOI 10.1007/s11094-009-0233-z
Two New Quinochalcones from the Florets of Carthamus tinctorius / Jian-Shuang Jiang et al / Org. Lett., 2010, 12 (6), pp 1196–1199 / DOI: 10.1021/ol902971w
Determination of Mineral Content in Methanolic Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Seed Extract and Its Effect on Osteoblast Markers / Young Seok Lee, Chang Won Choi et al / Int J Mol Sci. 2009 January; 10(1): 292–305. / Published online 2009 January 12 / doi: 10.3390/ijms10010292.
Sorting Carthamus names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
Radical Scavenging and Antioxidant Activity of Carthamus tinctorius Extracts / Rajesh Mandade, S.A. Sreenivas, Avijit Choudhury / doi:10.5530/ax.2011.3.12.
Antidiabetic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats /
Sedigheh Asgary, Parivash Rahimi Parvin Mahzouni, Hossein Madani / Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Carthamus tinctorius Enhances the Antitumor Activity of Dendritic Cell Vaccines via Polarization toward Th1 Cytokines and Increase of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes / Jia-Ming Chang, Le-Mei Hung, Yau-Jan Chyan, Chun-Ming Cheng, and Rey-Yuh Wu / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 274858 / doi:10.1093/ecam/nen068
Hepatoprotective Effect of C. tinctorius L. aginst Carbon-tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats / Hind Salah Yar et al / Pharmacie Globale (IJCP), 2012, 9(02).
The effects of the extracts from Carthamus tinctorius L. on gene expression related to cholesterol metabolism in rats / Teerakul Arpornsuwan*, Khaimuk Changsri, Sittiruk Roytrakul and Tadsanee Punjanon / Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 32 (2), 129-136, Mar. - Apr. 2010
Protective effects of dietary Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) on experimental coccidiosis / Lee, Sunghyen
Lillehoj, Hyun et al / Journal of Poultry Science. 46:155-162. /
Antiulcer screening of Carthamus tinctorius on volume and acidity of stimulated gastric secretion in rats
/ Rajesh Mandade, SA Sreenivas, Ravi Wanare / Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics, 2012, 3:185-8 / DOI: 10.4103/0976-500X.95525
Studies on chemical constituents from the flowers of Carthamus tinctorius L. / Liu Y1, Yang J, Liu Q. / Zhong Yao Cai. 2005 Apr;28(4):288-9.
Hair Growth-Promoting Effect of Carthamus tinctorius Floret Extract / Jintana Junlatat and Bungorn Sripanidkulchai* / Phytotherapy Research, 11 Dec 2013 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5100
Anti-inflammatory action of methanol extract of Carthamus tinctorius involves in heme oxygenase-1 induction
Min Soo Jun, Yu Mi Ha, Hee Sook Kim, Hwa Jin Jang, Young Min Kim, Young Soo Lee, Hye Jung Kim, Han Geuk Seo, Jae Heun Lee, Seung Ho Lee1, Ki Churl Chang∗ / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133 (2011) 524–530
Stimulation of melanogenesis by Carthamus tinctorius floret extract in B16F10 murine melanoma cells / Jintana Juniatat, Bungom Sripandikutchai / 021-KKU / http://pharm.kku.ac.th/isan-journal/journal/volumn9-no1/003-Aesthetic/Page221.pdf
Studies on chemical components of Carthamus tinctorius petals / Li Y1, Che Q. / Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1998 Aug;33(8):626-8.
Comparative study of four safflower oils (Carthamus tinctorius) varieties grown in eastern of Morocco /
Abdessamad Ben moumen, Farid Mansouri, Lamyae Zraibi, Malika Abida Abedlghani Nabloussi, Marie-Laure Fauconnier , Mariane Sindic Ahmed El amrani,and Hana Serghini Caid / InsideFood Symposium, 9-12 April 2013
Effects of Carthamus tinctorius L. on the ovarian histomorphology and the female reproductive hormones in mice / Ali Louei Monfared∗, Amir Parviz Salati / Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine Received: Oct 2, 2012; Accepted: Jan 13, 2013 Vol. 3, No. 2, Spring 2013, 171-177
Effect of Carthamus tinctorius (Safflower) on fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits / Nasreen Qazi, Rafeeq Alam Khan, Ghazala H Rizwani and Zeeshan Feroz / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.27, No.2, March 2014, pp.377-380
Carthamus tinctorius / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Safflower: Drug Interactions / WebMD
Studies on Extraction of Safflower Pigments and its Utilization in Ice Cream / Machewad GM *, Ghatge P, Chappalwar V, Jadhav B and Chappalwar A /
Chemical and Biological Properties of Quinochalcone C-Glycosides from the Florets of Carthamus tinctorius / Shijun Yue, Yuping Tang, Shujiao Li and Jin-Ao Duan / Molecules 2013, 18, 15220-15254 / doi:10.3390/molecules181215220
Safety Pro le of Carthamus Tinctorius L. in Lactation: Brain, Renal and Hepatotoxicity / Abdolrasool Namjoo, Hamid Nasri, Abbas Talebi-Juneghani, Azar Baradaran, Mahmoud Ra eian-Kopaei / Pak J Med Sci., 2013; 29(1Suppl): pp 378-383. / doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.291(Suppl).3538
Hepatoprotective and Hypolipidemic Effects of Carthamus tinctorius oil in Alloxan-induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats / Parivash Rahimi, Sedigheh Asgary, Najmeh Kabiri / J HerbMed Pharmacol. 2014; 3(2): pp 107-111.

Study on Acute and Subchronic Toxicity, Cytotoxicity, and In Vitro Developmental Toxicity of Safflower Extracts of IL111 and LRC5151 Cultivars / Seyed Nasser Ostad et al / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Article 11, Volume 8, Issue 1, Winter 2012, pp 343-352
Cosmeceutical Critique: Safflower Oil / Leslie S. Baumann / Dermatology News, July 2012
The effects of Carthamus tinctorius L. on placental histomorphology and sruvival of the neonates in mice /
Ali Louei Monfared, Amir Parviz Salati / Avicenna J Phytomed. 2012 Summer; 2(3): 146–152.
Anti-Thrombotic Effect of Carthamus tinctorius Linn Extracts in Rats / Sheng-hao Wu, Cui-ping Zheng / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research October 2014; 13(10): pp 1637-1642 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v13i10.10

A new Phenylpropanoid Derivative Isolated from Carthamus tinctorius L. / Xiaojia Hu, Sha Yin, Zhenru Huang, Abdelhakim Elomri and Yang Lu / Rec. Nat. Prod, 2016;10(1): pp 17-21
Evaluation of Steroidal and Metabolic Effect of Tukhm-E-Qurtum (Carthamus tinctorius L. Seed) / Wasim Ahmad*, Ghufran Ahmad, Khan NA, Shamshad Ahmad / International Journal of Advances in Pharmacy Medicine and Bioallied Sciences, Volume 3, Issue 1, Page 32-36, January-April 2015.
Effects of Carthamus tinctorius on Semen Quality and Gonadal Hormone Levels in Partially Sterile Male Rats / Soghra Bahmanpour, Zahra Vojdani, Mohamad Reza Panjehshahin, Hassan Hoballah, Hamza Kassas /
Korean J Urol. 2012 Oct;53(10):705-710 / https://doi.org/10.4111/kju.2012.53.10.705
Safflower polysaccharide inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of MCF-7 breast cancer cell
/ Zhongbing Luo et al / Molecular Medicine Reports, Vol 11, Issue 6, June 2015 /  DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2015.3310

A Study on the Depigmenting Effect of C. tinctorius Seed, Cyperus rotundus, and Schizonpeta tenuifolia Extracts / Hwang EY, Kim DH, Hwang JY, Kim HJ, Park TS, Lee IS, Son JH / Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Evaluation of antifungal activity of aqueous extracts of some medicinal plants against Aspergillus flavus,pistachio aflatoxin producing fungus in vitro / Sahar Omidpanah et al / Drug Development and Therapeutics, 2015, Vol 6, Issue 2, pp 66-69
Medical Uses of Carthanus tinctorius L. (Safflower): A Comprehensive Review from Traditional Medicine to Modern Medicine / Elahe Delshadc, Mahdi Youfefi, Zahra Ayati et al / Electronic Physician
Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Carthamus tinctorius L / Jinous Asgarpanah, Nastaran Kazemivash / Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, Feb 2013; 19(2): pp 153-159 / DOI: 10.1007/s11655-013-1354-5
Volatile oil composition of Carthamus Tinctorius L. flowers grown in Kazakhstan / Aknur Amanbekovna Turgumbayeva, Gulbaram Omargazieva Ustenova, Balakyz Kymyzgalievna Yeskalieva et al / Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2018; 25(1): pp 87-89 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.5604/12321966.1235170
Serotonin Derivatives, Major Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Seed Antioxidants, Inhibit Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Oxidation and Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice / Naoto Koyama, Kanna Kuribayashi, Tetsuya Seki, Katsunori Kobayashi, Yasufumi Furuhata, Katsuya Suzuki, Harumi Arisaka, Takashi Nakano, Yusuke Amino and Koichi Ishii / Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,, 2006; 54(14): pp 4970-4976 / https://doi.org/10.1021/jf060254p
Antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of Carthamus tinctorius flowers / NK Bouraoui, S Oueslati, H Falleh, F Harbaoui, R Ksouri, J Legault, M Lachaâl  / Planta Med 2011; 77 - PM136 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1282894
Safety Assessment of a New Pigmented Safflower Seed Coat (A82) by a Feeding Study on Rat / Soraya Karami, Mohammad R Sabzalian, Layasadat Khorsandi, Mehdi Rahimmalek / Braz. arch. biol. technol. Vol.60  Curitiba  2017 / https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4324-2017160564 
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed attenuates memory impairment induced by scopolamine in mice viaregulation of cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress  / Ji Hyun Kim, Mei Tong He, Min Jo Kim, Chang Yeol Yang, Yu Su Shin, Takako Yokozawa, Chan Hum Park, Eun Ju Cho / Food & Function, 2019; 10: pp 3650-3659
Comparing Stability of Carthamin and Safflower Yellow Pigments at PH, Temperature and Light, from Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Florets/ N. Fatahi , Carapetian and R. Heidari / Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 2009; 4(3): pp 250-253 / http://medwelljournals.com/abstract/?doi=rjbsci.2009.250.253
Effect of Jasmonic Acid on Physiological and Phytochemical Attributes and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under Water Deficient / R Khademian, M Ghorbani Nohooji, B Asghari / Journal of Medicinal Plants, Nov 2019; 4(72): pp 122-134
Evaluation of antianxiety and antidepressant properties of Carthamus tinctorius L. (Safflower) petal extract / Nasreen Qazi, Rafeeq Alam Khan and Ghazala H Rizwani / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., May 2015; 28(3): pp.991-995
A new alkaloid isolated from leaves of  Carthamus tinctorius / ZHANG Dong-bo, SUN Chen, LIU Hong-bo, ZHANG Yan-lei, LI Shi-ying, WANG Ming-geng, REN Zhen-li, SONG Zhong-xing, TANG Zhi-shu / Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs, Jan 2019; 50(1): pp 22-24
Safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius L.) a Potential Source of Drugs against Cryptococcal Infections, Malaria and Leishmaniasis / Aknur Turgumbayeva, Gulbaram Ustenova, Ubaidilla Datkhayev, Khairolla Rahimov, Silvijus Abramavicius, Agile Tunaityte, Kairat Zhakipbekov, Kaldanay Kozhanova, Saken Tulemissov, OzikhanUstenova, Gulmira Datkayeva, Edgaras Stankevicius / Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, 2020; 89(1): pp 137-146 / doi:10.32604/phyton.2020.07665
Effect of safflower yellow on platelet activating factor mediated platelet activation in patients with coronary heart disease / Damin Huang, Yingmin Lu, Xiaohan Luo, Laixin Shi, Jinchun Zhang, Junxian Shen, Minmin Bao, Lei Song, Caiwen Wei, Hongsong Li and Zhihua Li / Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2012; 7: pp 140-144. / DOI:10.3329/bjp.v7i2.11094
The effects Safflower Seed (A new variety of pigmented coat seeds) Consumption on the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Male Wistar Rats  / Soraya Karami, Layasdat Khorsandi / Jordan Biomedicine Journal, 2016; 4(1): pp 15-29
Ethanol extract of Carthamus tinctoriusL. shows anti-thrombosis activity in rats. / T Ding, L Jian, J Zhao, S Liu, J Zhang, S H Wu / African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Atternative Medicines, 2015; 12(3)
Safflower / Wikipedia
Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and its Synergistic Effect with Antibiotic / Abdel Moneim E Sulieman, Sherif M Sharrawy, Ahmed A Elghandi, Mohanad Abdelgadir, Vajid N Veetil / EC Microbiology, 2018; 14(3): pp 160-166
Safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius L.) a Potential Source of Drugs against Cryptococcal Infections, Malaria and Leishmaniasis / A Turgumbayeva, G Ustenova, E Stankevicius / Phyton 2020 / Corpus ID: 216334597 / DOI: 10.32604/phyton.2020.07665
The Use of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) in Treating Depression and Anxiety / Asma S Albaiz / Cureus, 2022; 14(2): e22278 / DOI: 10.7759/cureus.22278
Phenol Content and Antioxidant and Antiaging Activity of Safflower Seed Oil (Carthamus Tinctorius L.) / Kamel Zemour, Amina Labdelli, Ahmed Adda, Abdelkader Dellal, Thierry Talou, Othmane Merah / Cosmetics, 2019; 6(3) / DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics6030055
Antifungal Activity of the Secondary Metabolites Extracted from Carthamus tinctorius L. against  Aspergillus Species Isolated from Stored Medicinal Plants Seeds in the Iraqi Markets / Arabia Yaqoub Hussain, Hussein J Hussein, Abeer Fauzi Al-Rubaye / Clincal Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses, 2021 / eISSN: 1941-2010 / pISSN: 1935-1232
Daphnoretin from Carthamus tinctorius as a Potential Inflammatory Inhibitor in COVID-19 by Binding to Toll-like Receptor-4: An in silico Molecular Docking Study / Lismayana Hansur, Melva Louisa, Puspita Eka Wuyung, Fadilah Fadilah / Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 2022; 10(A): pp 220-227 / DOI: 10.3889/oamjms.2022.7961
Resurgence of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Utilization: A Global View / Zehra Ekin /  Journal of Agronomy, 2005; 4(2): pp 83-87 / DOI: 10.3923/ja.2005.83.87
Effect of Carthamus tinctorius L. (Safflower) on National Institute of Health Stroke Scale Scores of Ischemic Stroke Patients: A Pilot Clinical Trial / Madhi Yousefi, Payam Sasannezhad, Hassan Rakhshande, Hassan Doosti, Azade Saki, Zahra Baghestani Kouzegar, Hamideh Ahmadih, Elahe Delshad / Traditional Integrative Medicine, 2022; 7(2) / DOI: 10.18502/tim.v7i2.9922

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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