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Family Anacardiaceae
Anacardium occidentale Linn.
Ji yao guo

Scientific names Common names
Acajuba occidentalis (L.) Gaertn. Balogo (Ilk.) 
Anacardium microcarpum Ducke Balubad (Tag., Pamp.) 
Anacardium occidentale Linn. Balubag, Baluban (Tag.)
Cassuvium pomiferum Lam. Balubat, Batuban (Tag.) 
Cassuvium reniforme Blanco Balugo (Ilk.) 
Cassuvium solitarium Stokes Kachui (Tag.) 
  Kasul (Sul.) 
  Kasul (Sul.) 
  Kasuy (Tag.) 
  Kosing (Ig.)
  Sasoi (Ibn., Tag.) 
  Sambalduke (Ilk.)
  Cashew (Engl.) 
  Cashew apple (Engl.) 
Anacardium occidentale L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Habb al-biladhir.
ASSAMESE: Kajubadam
BENGALI: Hijli badam, Hijuli.
BOSNIAN: Beli mahagoni, Indijanski kašu-orah, Pipak.
BURMESE: Sihosayesi, Thee hot, Thiho thayet si.
CHINESE: Jia ru shu, Yao guo li, Yao guo shu, Yao guo, Yao kuo, Ji yao guo.
CROATIAN:Beli mahagoni, Indijanski kašu-orah, Pipak, Pipci.
CZECH: Kešú o?íšky.
DANISH: Acajounød.
DUTCH: Cashewnoot, Kasjoe, Kasjoeboom, Mereke.
FRENCH: Acajou à pommes, Anacardier, Cajou, Noix-cajou, Noix de cajou, Pomme d'acajou.
GERMAN: Akajoubaum, Kaschubaum, Kaschunuß, Kaschunußbaum, Westindische Elefantenlaus.
GREEK: Anakardia, Eidos fistikiou, Fistiki kasious, Kasious.
HINDI: : Hijlibadam, Kaajuu, Kaju, Kajubadam, Khajoor.
INDONESIA: Jambu mortyet, Jambu monyet
ITALIAN: Acajiú, Anacardio.
JAPANESE: Anakarudiumu okushidentare, Kashuunatto no ki.
KANNADA: Geru, Gerumara, Godambi
KHMER: Svaay chantii.
MALAY: Gajus, Jambu golok, Jambu mede
MALAYALAM: Kashukavu, Kasumav, Parangi mavu, Parankimaav.
MARATHI: Kaju, Kajugola.
PERSIAN: Badame pharangi.
POLISH: Nerkowiec.
PORTUGESE: Cajú, Cajú do camop, Cajueiro, Cajueiro-do-campo.
RUSSIAN: Anakardium zaladnyi, Derevo kesh'iu, Vrkkaphalah.
SERBIAN: Beli mahagoni, Indijanski kašu-orah, Pipak.
SLOVENIAN: Epatca, Epatka.
SPANISH: Anacardo, Cashu, Marañon, Marañón, Merey (Venezuela).
THAI: Mamuang him maphan, Mamuang letlor, Yaruang
VIETNAMESE: Cay dieu, Dao lon hot.

Kasuy is a small tree with a usually small and crooked trunk. Leaves are simple, smooth, alternate, ovate or obovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, 7 to 12 centimeters wide, with slightly rounded, emarginate apex. Flowers are small, 5 to 6 millimeters in diameter, crowded at the tips of the branches, and yellow to yellowish-white, the petals usually with pink stripes. The fruit, a nut, is ash-colored, kidney-shaped and about 2 centimeters long. The mesocarp is soft, corky, and oleoresinous; and the epicarp is leathery. Seed is kidney-shaped. Torus (receptacle) is fleshy, juicy, yellowish, pear-shaped, and 5 to 7 centimeters long.

- Throughout the Philippines in settled areas at low and medium altitudes, cultivated, and in some places, naturalized, or at least persistent after abandoned cultivation.
- Introduced from tropical America in the early colonial period.
- Now pantropic.

• Kernel yield of fixed oil, 45-47.2%; starch; sitosterin, 8%; cardol; anacardic acid; lignoceric acid.
• Oil contains linolic acid, 7.7%; palmitic acid, 6.4%; stearic acid, 11.24%; lignoceric acid, 0.5%; and sitosterin.
• Plant yields two oils: (1) a light-yellow oil from the pressed kernels, of which the finest quality is comparable to almond oil; and (2) Cardole, from the shell of the nut, an acrid and powerful fluid useful for preserving carved wood, books, etc. against white ants.
• Cashew nut oil yields: oil, 16.12%; moisture, 2.37%; ash, 3.94%; protein, 31.67%; nitrogen, 5.70%; crude fiber, 0.44%; and carbohydrates, 45.46%.
• Bark yields a gum also obnoxious to insects.
•The kernel contains 7.6-16% moisture, 18-24% protein, 43-57% fats,19-21% carbohydrates.
• Anacardic acids, the by-product of cashew processing, have medicinal uses.
• Pericarp (shell) of the fruit yields a toxic principle, cardol oil, and anacardic acid.
• Trunk yields a gum, anacard-gummi or cashew gum, with arabin, used similarly as gum arabic.
• Wood yields catechin.
• A study yielded anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and 2-methyl cardol. Immature nut oil contains triglycerides, fatty acids, alkyl-substituted phenols and cholesterol. The main constituents of the free fatty acids were palmitic and oleic acids.

• Study of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaf, bark and root of cashew yielded bioactive principles, i.e., tannin-15.38mg/g, total polyphenolics-2.00, alkaloid-39.90 and oxalate-8.13. (30)
• Study of aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves yielded carbohydrates, proteins, saponin glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, and phenolic compounds.
• Nutrient analysis of organic whole raw cashews per 100 g: (Proximates) energy 567 kcal, protein 16.67 g, total lipd (fat) 43.33 g, carbohydrate by difference 30.00 g, total dietary fiber 3.3 g, total sugars 6.67 g; (Minerals) calcium 67 mg, iron 10 mg, sodium 0; (Vitamins) vitamin C 0, vitamin A 0; (Lipids) total saturated fatty acids 8.330 g, total trans FA 0, cholesterol 0. (49)

• Kasuy is a very peculiar fruit consisting of two parts: Below, a large, soft, yellow, fleshy, juicy, pear-shaped structure which is derived mostly from the receptacle of the flower, edible, with the characteristics of a fleshy fruit, slight sweet, at times very acrid and irritating to the throat and tongue. Above, the kidney-shaped nut, the kernel of which has an excellent flavor when roasted.
• Phenolic content with antioxidant activities.
• Bark considered alterative.
• Fruit considered acrid sweet, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, rubefacient.
• Juice of fruit considered diuretic, sudorific, and antisyphilitic.
• Bark and leaves considered astringent.
• Fumes arising from the nuts during roasting may be irritating to the face, nostrils, and throat. The oil exuding from the nuts is very caustic and may cause skin brown marks like warts, swelling, and inflammation.

Parts used
Bark, leaves, oil, and ripe fruit.

Edibility / Nutrition
- Ripe fleshy portion of fruit may be eaten; sweet, although sometimes acrid and irritating to the throat and tongue. Often eaten with salt. Wine is made from it.
- The kernel has an excellent flavor when roasted, makes an savory candy nut and a popular snack food.
- Young leaves eaten as vegetable, a fair source of calcium and iron.

• Astringent and mouth wash: Gargle dilute infusion of bark and leaves and retain in mouth for a few minutes to relieve toothache, sore gums, or sore throat. Do not swallow.
Receptacle boiled in sweetened water used by Filipinos as remedy for dysentery.
• Bruised nut used as irritant to cause abortion.
• Decoction of bark used for diarrhea, syphilitic swelling of the joints, and for diabetes.
• Bark, rich in gallic acid, used as decoction against aphthae and mouth ulcerations.
• Bark and leaves considered astringent; infusion used to relieve toothaches and sore gums, and as a lotion and mouthwash, also used internally for dysenteric conditions.
• Spirit distilled from the fruit is considered rubefacient. Used as diuretic.
• Pear-shaped receptacle eaten as cure for scurvy.
• Oil from pericarp used as anesthetic in leprosy and psoriasis, and as a blister for warts, corns, and ulcers. Also applied to cracks in the feet. In the Philippines, oil used as a powerful escharotic and vesicant.
• Tincture of pericarp used as vermifuge in Europe.
• Kernel oil is a mechanical, as well as chemical, antidote for irritant poisons. Also, it is a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications.
• Oil from the kernel is nutritious and emollient; used as demulcent in form of an emulsion.
• Juice of receptacle is acid and astringent; used for uterine troubles and dropsy.
• In Guyana, decoction of bark used as antidiarrheal. Powdered seeds used as antivenom for snake bites. Nut oil used as antifungal and for healing cracked heels.
• In Sierra Leone, Aku people use the young leaves for dysentery, diarrhea, piles, etc.
• In western Nigeria, used for arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. In some parts of Nigeria, bark used to treat diabetes.
• In Cameroon traditional medicine, used for diabetes and
• In Malay folklore medicine, decoction of vein and leaves used to lower blood pressure of diabetic patients.
- Repellent: Oil from the pericarp effective against white ants. Bark yields a gum that repels insects.
- Oil from the kernel is a chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications.
- Cardole, the oil from the shell of the nut, is effective for preserving wood and books.
- Resin / Gum: Cardanol, from anacardic acid, is used for resins, coatings and frictional materials. Resin used as varnish. Gum used as adhesive for woodwork and bookbinding
- Fodder: Cake remaining after extraction of oil from leaves serves as animal food. Seed coat used as poultry feed. (54)
- Fuel: Used for firewood and making charcoal. (54)
- Fiber: Pulp from wood used for making corrugated and hardboard boxes. (54)
- Dyestuff: Bark yields an acrid sap used as indelible ink in marking and printing linens. A 3-5% tannin is used in the tanning industry.(54)
- Alcohol: Slightly fermented juice can be distilled to make strong alcoholic drinks. In India, juice makes a brandy called "fenni" and in Tanzania, "konyagi," a product similar to gin. (54)

(1) Anarcardic acids effective against gram-positive bacteria, used in vivo for tooth abscesses. (2) In vitro study of different fractions of leaf extract of AO showed Staph aureus and P aeruginosa to be most sensitive to the chloroform extracts. (3) Study confirmed the traditional claim of false fruit of Anacardium occidentale as an antimicrobial. (11) (15)
-Inflammatory /
tem- Bark: Potentiation of the anti-inflammatory effect of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit juice: Study results showed the plant extract possess anti-inflammatory activity, supporting folkloric use of the plant for arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. (2)
Hypoglycemic: The experimental animal study showed AO extracts to possess hypoglycemic activity supporting its folkloric use. Although the mechanisms are highly speculative, the hypoglycemic effect of the plant extracts could be due, in part, to their terpenoid and/or coumarin contents.
Antioxidant: Effects of immature cashew nut-shell liquid (Anacardium occidentale) against oxidative damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. Study showed immature cashew nut-shell liquid (iCNSL), a source of unsaturated long-chain phenols, and may have a potential role in protecting DNA against oxidative damage.
Antioxidant / Anti-acetylcholinesterase Activity Study on immature cashew nut shell liquid showed antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. Study yielded anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and 2-methyl cardol.
Brain and Kidney Benefits: Microstructural study of the effect of ethanolic extract of Cashew stem bark of Anacardium occidentale on the Brain and Kidney of Swiss albino mice showed no toxic effects with enhancement of functions and suggests a potential for its use in certain brain and kidney ailments.
Antibacterial / Periodontal Benefit: Activity of Some Thai Medicinal Plants against Porphyromonas gingivalis: In a study that screens Thai medicinal plants for antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis, AO was one of several tested. Of the studied plants, AO bark and leaves showed the best inhibition of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Terminalia bellerica and suggests its potential for use in
therapy. (6)
Anti-diabetic: Protective role of Anacardium occidentale extract against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats: Study showed a protective role of AO extract against the diabetogenic action of STZ. (7)
Antioxidant: Comparisons between the Antioxidant Activities of the Extracts of Anacardium occidentale and Piper betle: The methanolic extract of AO can be an alternative source of polyphenolics with potent antioxidant activities. (8)
Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies: Study of leaf hexane extract of A. occidentale in mice showed no toxicity on acute administration with doses less than 6 g/kg. At high doses, signs of toxicity were asthenia, anorexia, diarrhea, and syncope. Liver and kidney parameters were significantly abnormal with correlating histopathological changes. Study concludes toxic effects of AO hexane leaf extract occurred at higher doses than those use in Cameroon folk medicine.
Antihyperglycemic / Renal Protective: Study showed the efficacy of AO hexane extract in reducing diabetes-induced functional and histological alterations in the kidneys. (9)
Antitumor Activity: Cashew gum polysaccharide, combine
d with water soluble, branched b-galactose and other oligosaccharides and proteins exhibited an antitumor activity with a high inhibitory activity against an implanted sarcoma 180 solid tumor in mice. (10)
Antioxidative / Anti-Atherogenesis: Study suggested the aqueous extract of AO possessed antioxidative properties and attenuates the initial stage of atherogenesis in vitro possibly through inhibition of NF-kB activation. (12)
Anti-Ophidian: Study evaluated the ability of A. occidentale bark extract to neutralize enzymatic and pharmacological effects induced by Vipera russelii venom. Results suggest it may be used as an alternative treatment to serum therapy and may also be a rich source of potential inhibitors of hydrolytic enzymes involved in several physiopathological diseases. (13)
Gum as Gelling Agent: Study indicated the extracted mucilage may be a good source of a pharmaceutical
adjuvant, specifically as a gelling agent. (14)
Toxicity Screening / Hypocholesterolemic Effect:Study in hypercholesterolemic rabbits evaluated the toxicity properties and hypocholesterolemic effects. Aqueous extract was found to be non-toxic and possess cholesterol-lowering effects. (16)
Anthelmintic: AC was evaluated for anthelmintic activity against earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Both alcohol and aqueous extracts of the whole plant exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 500 mg/ml. Albendazole was the reference drug.
Aphrodisiac / Seed Oil: Seed oil yielded saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and terpenoids.
The seed oil, test on male albino rats for sexual behavior, showed increase in mount and frequency of intromission, with decrease in mount latency. Results suggest the seed oil may be used to manage impotency in male humans. The seed shell oil, tested for toxicity, can be used to kill mice by application on foods eaten by mice.
Gum as Tablet Binder: Seed evaluated the binding efficacy of cashew nut tree gum in tablet formulation (paracetamol) compared with standard binders such as acacia of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP K-30). Results suggest cashew nut tree gum can be used as an alternative binder with good mechanical strength and dissolution profile. (21)
Differences in Constituents and Medicinal Properties of Different Extracts: Folkloric use of herbals involves the use of plants without the isolation of particular phytochemicals, hoping for synergy of combined substances and dilution of toxicity, while modern pharmacy prefers single ingredients for dosage quantification, requiring detailed analysis of phytochemical constituents. In this study with guava, the highest concentration of bioactive principles were detected in ethanol extracts. The study justified the use of alcohol in folkloric extraction. (22)
Improved Renal Clearance: Study investigated the effects of a crude ethanolic extract of stem bark on renal clearance of Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed improvement of renal clearance on high dose of EAO. The study does not confirm or suggest the possible mechanisms of increased renal clearance. (23)
Antifeedant / Anthelmintic: Study compared the antifeedant and anthelmintic activities of crude extracts of shells of Anacardium occidentale with the activity of Azadirachta indica, a commercial standard. Results showed the test extracts of A. occidentale in petroleum ether, dichlormethane:methanol showed better activities. Phytochemical analysis yielded phenols viz., cordol, cardanol, and anacardic acid. (24)
Hypoglycemic / Antioxidative / Leaves: Study of leaf extract in a diabetic rat model showed hypoglycemic activity. Observations suggest the extract could improve and protect the islet Langerhan cells from oxidative degeneration. The preventive effects may be due to inhibition of lipid peroxidation by its antioxidant properties. (25)
Larvicidal / Nut Shell Liquid: Study reveals Aedes aegypti larvae and pupae are highly susceptible to 12 ppm CNSL (cashew nut shell liquid). Results suggest further studies conducted in different ecosystems to observe the larvicidal effect of CNSL on different vectors of malaria, dengue, and filariasis, as CNSL is is cheap, easily available, eco-friendly, non-toxic, and biodegradable. (26)
Hypoglycemic / Stem Bark Extract: Study of stem bark extract in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed antihyperglycemic property with a positive effect on weight gain. (27)
Anthelmintic / Antifeedant: Study evaluated crude extracts of shells of Anacardium occidentale for antifeedant and anthelmintic activities. Test extracts showed better activity compared to A. indica. The addition of piperine to the formulation significantly enhanced the anthelmintic activity. (28)
Antimicrobial / Cosmetic Formulation: Study evaluated the extract of A. occidentale against S. aureus and S. epidermis and then developed cosmetic formulations from those extracts. Although promising, the formulation gradually darkened when stored at temperatures between 40º and 60ºC. (29)
Anthelmintic: Study evaluated alcohol and aqueous extracts from whole plant of A. occidentale for anthelmintic activity. Both extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 500 mg/ml. Albendazole was used as standard reference. (31)
Negative Effect on Pregnancy Outcome: Study evaluated the effect of a leaf extract of A. occidentale on reproductive outcome of Wistar rats. Study revealed low birth weight and low crown-rump length effect, suggesting serious implications with consumption of leaf extract during pregnancy. Low birth weight has a major influence on neonatal morbidity, neurocognitive deficiencies, neurobehavioral effects and mortality. The author warns that the extract should not be taken by pregnant women. (32)
Antibacterial / Leaf and Bark: Study evaluated the inhibitory effect of a methanolic extract of leaf and bark of Anacardium occidentale against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans from burn and dental caries patients. The extracts inhibited all clinical isolates, and the leaf extract inhibited to a higher extent than the bark. (33)
Anti-Diabetic / Increased Glucose Uptake: Study evaluated the anti-diabetic properties of cashew plant parts using differentiated C2C12 myoblasts and rat liver mitochondria. Results showed the extract and its active component, anacardic acid, stimulated glucose transport into C2C12 myotubes in a concentration-dependent manner. Also, the dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation may enhance glycolysis and contribute to increase glucose uptake. (34)
Antidiarrheal / Leaf Extract Enriched with Zinc: Study evaluated the antidiarrheal activity of zinc, aqueous leaf extract and zinc enriched leaf extract. Results showed good antidiarrheal effect in all three formulations but the cashew leaf extract enriched with zinc exhibited the best antidiarrheal activity. (35)
Cytoprotective / Testes of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats / Improved Spermatogenesis: Study evaluated the protective effects of methanolic leaf extract on testes of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant increases in levels of testosterone, FSH and LH. AOLE improved the structural integrity of the testes, promoted spermatogenesis, and improved the profile of reproductive hormones. (36)
Anti-Hyperglycemic / Beta Cell Regeneration: Study of methanolic extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats showed reduction in hyperglycemia and regeneration of beta cells. (37)
Hypotensive / Cardio-Inhibitory Effects: Study evaluated the effects of A. occidentale extract (ANOE) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. ANOE bark extract produced significant dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure of previously normotensive rabbits. On isolated rat heart preparations, the ANOE induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. (40)
Antidiabetic / Inner Bark / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of inner bark extract of Anacardium occidentale in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Alloxan-diabetic rats showed significant reduction in plasma glucose after treatment with ethanolic extract fractions. (41) Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of ethanol extract of leaves on neonatal streptozotocin diabetic rats. Results showed antidiabetic activity comparable to treatment with standard drug Pioglitazone. (47)
Antimicrobial / Leaves / Periodontal Disease: Study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of A. occidentale leaf extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia. Results showed efficient antimicrobial activity and suggest potential for utilization in the preparation of chemical plaque control formulations. (42)
Antidepressant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidepressant-like effects of Anacardium occidentale leaves in the mouse Forced Swim Test and Tail Suspension Tests. Results showed significantly decreased immobility periods in a dose dependent manner in both TST and FST. The antidepressant activity was probably mediated through interaction with adrenergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic systems. (43)
Haemostatic / Stem Bark: Study evaluated a methanolic bark extract for possible haemostatic effect in an albino rat model. Results showed a significant decrease in bleeding time, prothrombin time, clotting time, and activated PTT in a dose dependent manner. There was also a significant increase in platelet count (p<0.05). (44)
Hypotensive / Anti-Curare Effect: A 1987 thesis evaluated the possible hypotensive and anticurare effect of Anacardium occidentale. Results showed a hypotensive effect attributed to adrenergic and serotonergic mechanisms. AO exerted an anticurare effect on the curarized skeletal muscle, an effect probably mediated through the presence of potassium. Further research was suggested to ascertain the mechanism of hypotensive and anticurare effect. (45)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the in-vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of a leaf extract of A. occidentale. The extract reversed oxidative damage and inflammatory parameters induced in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The leaf extract inhibited the release of TNF-a and IL-1ß in LPS-stimulated cells. (46)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study of ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of A. occidentale showed anitmicrobial activity against a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Significant antifungal activity was found against Candida albicans. (48)
• Antibacterial Against Enterotoxin Producing Bacteria / Leaf and Bark: Study evaluated ethanolic bark and leaf extracts of A. occidentale against enterotoxin producing bacteria viz., Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, and Staphylococcus aureus. Primary screening showed antimicrobial activity. The ethanolic extract was more effective than the aqueous extract and was bactericidal to all test bacteria. MIC ranged from 0.05 /g/ml to 0.2 g/ml. (50)
• Effect on Human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cell Line / Leaves: Study evaluated the hydroalcoholic leaf extract of A. occidentale on cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells. The AoHE interfered in the cell cycle progression, including apoptosis of activation of casp3. Results suggest a potential candidate for the development of a new cancer drug.   (51)
• Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of pre-treatment with methanolic leaf extract of A. occidentale against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Results showed significant hepatoprotective activity especially at dose of 500 mg/kg as evidenced by preservation of histoarchitecture of the liver and significant (p<0.05) reduction of serum marker enzymes. (53)
• Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic / Oral Care: Study evaluated ethanol extracts of cashew and mango leaves for antimicrobial use in oral health care. The cashew and mango leaf extracts significantly (p<0.05) produced large zones of inhibition against test pathogens when compared to povidone-iodine-based mouth rinses. The plant extracts significantly )p<0.01) suppressed the biofilms of oral pathogens. The extracts were less cytotoxic (p<0.001 compared to mouth rinses. (55)
• Wound Healing / Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Juice: Study analyzed juice from ripe and immature cashew apples for anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and wound healing properties in murine models of xylene-induced ear edema and wound excision. Unripe cashew apple juice (UNCAJ) exhibited better anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by significant inhibition of ear edema (66.5%) and best result for wound contraction. The UNCAJ showed greater therapeutic activity attributed to synergistic effects of phytochemical components. (56)

Small and large scale commercial production.
Essential oil and tinctures in the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated April 2018 / January 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Anacardium occidentalis Blanco1.116-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: The Cashew (Fig. 22) (Anacardium Occidentale, L.) / Free Books / Gardening / Manual Of Tropical And Subtropical Fruits / ChestOfBooks

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Cashew / Wikipedia
Potentiation of the antiinflammatory effect of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit juice / Ojewole, J.A. / Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2004, 26(3): 183 / DOI: 10.1358/mf.2004.26.3.809724
Laboratory evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of Anacardium occidentale Linn (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark extracts in rats / Ojewole, J.A. / Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2003, 25(3): 199 / DOI: 10.1358/mf.2003.25.3.769640
Effects of immature cashew nut-shell liquid (Anacardium occidentale) against oxidative damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. / S. G. De Lima, C. M. Feitosa / Genetics and molecular research : GMR, Vol. 7, No. 3. (2008), pp. 806-818

Microstructural Study of the Effect of ethanolic extract of Cashew stem bark Anacardium occidentale on the Brain and Kidney of Swiss albino mice / D. Ofusori, B. Enaibe, A. Adelakun, O. Adesanya, R. Ude, K. Oluyemi, C. Okwuonu & O. Apantak / Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2008 Volume 5 Number 2

Antibacterial Activity of Some Thai Medicinal Plants against Porphyromonas gingivalis / Intl Assoc of Dental Research

Protective role of Anacardium occidentale extract against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats / KAMTCHOUING / Journal of ethnopharmacology / 1998, vol. 62, no2, pp. 95-99 / ISSN 0378-8741 CODEN JOETD7
Comparisons between the Antioxidant Activities of the Extracts of Anacardium occidentale and Piper betle
/ Nur Masitah Mokhtar, and Kanthimathi M.S., and Azlina Abdul Aziz, (2008) / Malaysian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 16 (1). pp. 16-21. ISSN ISSN 1511-2616
Antitumor activity of cashew gum from Anacardium Occidentale L / Cheila G Mothe, Ivone A de Souza, Glicia M T Calazans
Antibacterial Activities of Anacardium occidentale (L.) Leaf Extract Against Some Selected Bacterial Isolates / Mustapha Y and Hafsat S / IJPAS., 1(1): 40-43, 2007
Anacardium occidentale Aqueous Extract Attenuates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Injury and Inhibits Inflammatory Mediators Expression in TNF-α-Induced Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells During Initial Stage of Atherogenesis / M Kamal, A Zulkhairi et al / Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 2009 | Volume: 4 | Issue: 12 | Page No.: 1230-1235 / DOI: 10.3923/rjbsci.2009.1230.1235
The anti-ophidian properties of Anacardium occidentale bark extract / Sampath Ushanandini, Shivalah Nagaraju et al / Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, Volume 31, Issue 4 December 2009 , pages 607 - 615 / DOI: 10.3109/08923970902911909
Evaluation of Anacardium occidentale gum as gelling agent in Aceclofenac Gel / Ravi Kumar, M B Patil et al / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.1, No.3, pp 695-704 , July-Sept 2009
Study for antibacterial activity of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale) extracts
/ Aiswarya G, K H Reza et al / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2011, 3(1): 193-200
Toxicity Screening and Hypocholesterolemic Effect Evaluation of Aqueous Extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. in Hypercholesterolemic Induced Rabbits / Muhammad Nor Fazali Fazil, Zulkhairi Amom, Nurhaizan Mohd Esa et al / International Journal of Phytomedicine, Vol 3, No 2 (2011)
STUDY FOR ANTHELMINTHIC ACTIVITY OF CASHEW APPLE (ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE) EXTRACT / Aiswarya G, K H Reza, Radhika G, Rahul V Sidyae / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, January – February 2011

Anacardium occidentale L. / Catalogue of Life, China
Sorting Anacardium names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
Aphrodisiac activity of oils from Anacardium occidentale L. seeds and seed shells / Valentine Chi Mbatchou*, Isaac Kosoono / Phytopharmacology 2012, 2(1) 81-91
Preliminary study of Anacardium occidentale gum as binder in formulation of paracetamol tablets /
K. Gowthamarajan, G. Kanaka Phani Kumar, Narayan Babulal Gaikwad, B. Suresh / Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 83, Issue 2, 10 January 2011, Pages 506–511
Phytochemical Constituents and Medicinal Properties of Different Extracts of Anacardium Occidentale and Psidium Guajava / Ojezele Matthew Obaineh, Agunbiade Shadrach / Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, No 16, 2013
Effects of Crude Ethanolic Extract of Anacardium Occidentale (Cashew) Stem Bark on Renal Clearance in Sprague Dawley Rats / Omotoso et al. / World J Young Researchers 2012;2(3):40

ON THE ANTIFEEDANT AND ANTHELLMINTIC POTENTIAL OF ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L ./ A.S Mathew, M.G. Chauhan, and B.K. Shah / Anc Sci Life. 1998 Oct-Dec; 18(2): 134–144.
Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Anacardium Occidentale Linn.In Diabetic Rats / Ling, Letty / Masters thesis, 2006 / Universiti Putra Malaysia.
Larvicidal properties of cashew nut shell liquid (Anacardium occidentale L) on immature stages of two mosquito species / A.K. Mukhopadhyay, A.K. Hati, W. Tamizharasu & P. Satya Babu / J Vector Borne Dis 47, December 2010, pp. 257–260
Phytochemical and Micronutrient Composition of Anacardium Occidentale Linn (cashew) stem-bark hydroethanolic extract and its effect on the fasting blood glucose levels and body weight of diabetic wistar rats / C. Eliakim-Ikechukwu, A. Obri, O. Akpa / The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness. 2010 Volume 10 Number 1. DOI: 10.5580/6ef

ON THE ANTIFEEDANT AND ANTHELLMINTIC POTENTIAL OF ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L. / A.S Mathew, M.G. Chauhan, and B.K. Shah / Anc Sci Life. 1998 Oct-Dec; 18(2): 134–144.
Antimicrobial effect of Anacardium Occidentale extract and cosmetic formulation development / Gisele Mara Silva Gonçalves*; Juliana Gobbo / Braz. arch. biol. technol. vol.55 no.6 Curitiba Nov./Dec. 2012 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132012000600006
Phytochemical Constituents and Medicinal Properties of Different Extracts of Anacardium Occidentale and Psidium Guajava / Ojezele Matthew Obaineh, Agunbiade Shadrach / Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, No 16, 2013 / DOI: 10.15272/ajbps.v3116.109
STUDY FOR ANTHELMINTHIC ACTIVITY OF CASHEW APPLE (ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE) EXTRACT / Aiswarya, G.; Reza, K. H.; Radhika, G.; Sidhaye, Rahul V. / EInternational Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review & Resear;Jan/Feb2011, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p44
Effects of Aqueous Extract of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) Leaf on Pregnancy Outcome of Wistar Rats
/ S.S. Dare, W.O. Hamman, S. Musa, A.D.T. Goji, A.A. Oyewale, S. Abba and I. Ezekiel / International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 3(2): 77-82, 2011
/ Chaithra M, Vivek MN, Asha M.M, Yashoda Kambar, Prashith Kekuda TR, Mallikarjun N* / Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics; 2013, 3(6), 80-83
Hydro-ethanolic extract of cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) nut and its principal compound, anacardic acid, stimulate glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells / Leonard Tedong,, Padma Madiraju, Louis C. Martineau, Diane Vallerand, John T. Arnason, Dzeufiet D. P. Desire, Louis Lavoie, Pierre Kamtchouing andPierre S. Haddad* / Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, Volume 54, Issue 12, pages 1753–1762, December 2010 / DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201000045
Antidiarrhoeal activity of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) leaf extract enriched with zinc in wistar albino rats / Udedi S. C*., David E. E., Igwilo I. O., Ekwealor K. E., Enemali M. O., Bamidele, T. O., Ifemeje J. C. and Asogwa K. K. / Sky Journal of Biochemistry Research Vol. 2(6), pp. 37 – 41, November, 2013
Cytoprotective activities of Anacardium occidentale (Linn) on the testis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Victor Ukwenya, Olumide Ashaolu, David Adeyemi, Efere Obuotor, Bernard Enaibe and Ezekiel Caxton-Martins / Eur J Anat, 17 (2): 92-101 (2013)
Antihyperglycemic activities of methanolic leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) on the pancreas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Ukwenya V. O.*, Ashaolu J. O., Adeyemi A. O., Akinola O. A., and Caxton-Martins E. A. / Journal of Cell and Animal Biology Vol. 6(11), pp. 169-174, June 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/JCAB12.028
Anacardium occidentale / Synonyms / The Plant List
Anacardium Occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) Stem Bark Extract Induces Hypotensive and Cardio-Inhibitory Effects in Experimental Animal Models / Francis Olivier Tchikaya, Guy Bernard Bantsielé, Gisèle Kouakou-Siransy, Jacques Yao Datté, Paul Angoue Yapo, Noel Guedé Zirihi, and Michel Atté Offoumou / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011; 8(4): 452–461.
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE IN ALLOXAN – DIABETIC RATS / S. Abdullahi and G.A. Olatunji / Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 30, No. 3 (2010), pp 35
Antimicrobial effect of Anacardium occidentale leaf extract against pathogens causing periodontal disease / Jothi Varghese, Vijay Kumar Tumkur, Vasudev Ballal, Giliyar Subraya Bhat / Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 4, 15-18./ doi: 10.4236/abb.2013.48A2003.
Antidepressant-Like Effects of Anacardium occidentale L. Leaves in the Mouse Forced Swim and Tail Suspension Tests / Dharamveer Panjwani, Vimla Purohit and H.H. Siddiqui / Pharmacologia, Volume 6, Issue 5, 2015
Haemostatic effect of methanolic stem bark extract of anacardium occidentale L. in male albino rats / Arokoyo DS, Bamidele O, Babatunde LD, Adebisi O / Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences Vol. 6(3) pp. 58-65, March 2015 / DOI: http:/dx.doi.org/10.14303/jmms.2015.025
Pharmacological study of the hypotensive and anticurare effect of Anacardium occidentale / Garg, Ganesh / Thesis, 1987 / University of the West Indies (Mona, Jamaica)
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties ofAnacardium occidentale Leaf Extract / Natalia Cabral Souza, Juliana Medeiros Oliveira et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine,
Volume 2017 (2017) / https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2787308
Antidiabetic activity of extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. leaves on n-streptozotocin diabetic rats / YS Jaiswal, PA Tatke, SY Gabhe, and AB Vaidya / J Tradit Complement Med. 2017 Oct; 7(4): 421–427 / doi:  10.1016/j.jtcme.2016.11.007
Antimicrobial Screening of Different Extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. Leaves / Akash P. Dahake*, Vishal D. Joshi, Arun B. Joshi / Int.J. ChemTech Res. 2009,1(4)
Cashew, raw, whole, organic: Nutrient Analysis / USDA Branded Food Products Database
Antibacterial Activity of Anacaridum Occidentale on Some Enterotoxin Producing Bacteria / M O Arekemase, G P Oyeyiola, M B Aliyu / International Journal of Biology, Vol. 3, No. 4; October 2011 / doi:10.5539/ijb.v3n4p92
Effect of Anacardium occidentale leaf extract on human acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines / Janaina M Santos, Nathalia M Cury, Jose A Yunes, Jorge A Lopez and Maria Hernandez Macedo / Natural Product Research / https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.142584
The importance of the cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) coat: a review / Tereza Dantas, Natália Freitas Oliveira, Rosélia Sousa Leal / American International Journal of Contemporary Scientific Research
Hepatoprotective effect of methanolic leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) on carbon-tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity in wistar rats / Ikyembe D, Pwavodi C, Agbon AN. / Sub-Saharan Afr J Med 2014;1:124-31
Anacardium occidentale -Cashew nut / WorldAgroForestry
In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica in oral care / Geethashri Anand, Manikandan Ravinanthan, Ravishankar Basaviah, A Veena Shetly / Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences, 2015; Vol 7, Issue 1: pp 69-74 / DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.148780
Anti-inflammatory and wound healing potential of cashew apple juice (Anacardium occidentale L.) in mice / Mirele da Silveira Vasconcelos, Neuza F Gomes-Rochette, Maria Liduina M de Oliveira / Experimental Biology and Medicine

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