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Family Leguminosae
Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Jue ming

Scientific name  Common names
Cassia borneensis Miq.  Andadasi (Ilk.) 
Cassia gallinaria Collad.  Andadasi-ñga-dadakkel (Ilk.)
Cassia numilis Collad.  Balatong-aso (Tag.) 
Cassia tora Linn.  Baho-baho (Bis.) 
Emelista tora Britton & Rose Halu-halu (Sul.) 
Senna tora (L.) Roxb. Katandang-aso (Tag,) 
  Monggo-monggohan (Tag.) 
  Balatong (Tag.) 
  Coffee pod (Engl.)
  Fetid cassia (Engl.)
  Fetid cassia (Engl.)
  Ring worm plant (Engl.)
  Sicklepod (Engl.)
  Sicklepod senna (Engl.)
  Stinking cassia (Engl.)
  Tora (Engl.)
  Sickle senna (Engl.)
  Wild senna (Engl.)
Katanda is a shared common name by: (1) Katanda, Cassia tora, sicklepod (2) Akapulko, Cassia alata (3) Laguan, Euchrestia horsfieldii
Balatong-aso is shared by (1) Katanda, Cassia tora, and (2) Balatong-aso, Cassia occidentalis
Senna tora (L.) Roxb. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Tukhme panwar.
ASSAMESE : Bon medelua, Kulb, Medeluwa.
BENGALI : Chakunda, Panevar.
BURMESE : Tan.kywè: , Tan.kywè:ka.lé:, Mo:kya.lak-hpak.
CHINESE: Jue ming, Ch-ueh-ming tzu, Xiao jue ming,
FRENCH : Cassier sauvage, Pois puant, Séné.
GUJARATI : Kawaria.
HINDI : Chakavat, Chakod, Chakunda, Chakvad, Chakwand, Charota, Edgaj, Prapunat, Tarkil.
KANNADA : Gandutogache, Tagache.
KOREAN: ho gyeol myeong, Gin gang nam cha.
LAOTIAN : Lap mun, Nha lap meun.
MALAYALAM : Chakramandrakam, Takara.
MARATHI: Takala, Tarva.
NEPALESE : Cakamake, Cakramandi, Carkor, Taper, Tapre.
ORIYA : Chakunda.
PERSIAN : Sangsaboyah.
POLISH : Stracze egipskie, Straczyniec.
PORTUGUESE : Fedegoso branco.
PUNJABI: Chakunda, Chakwad, Panwal.
SANSKRIT : Chakramarda, Chakramardakah, Dadmari, Dadrughra, Edgajah, Padmatah, Tarkil, Taga.
SPANISH : Bicho, Brusca cimarrona, Ororuz.
TAMIL : Tagarai, Thagarai.
THAI : Chumhet thai.
URDU: Ergaj.
VIETNAMESE : Cây Muồng ngủ, Muồng lạc, Muồng ngủ, Muồng đồng tiền, Muồng hòe, Thảo quyết minh.

Katanda is a stout erect, smooth, rank-smelling, half-woody annual, 1 meter or less in height. Leaves are 8 to 12 centimeters long and pinnately compound with 6 leaflets. Leaves are furnished with glands on the main rachis between leaflets. Leaflets are oblong-ovate or obovate and 2 to 5 centimeters long. Flowers are crowded, in pairs, in the axils of the upper leaves, and about 1.5 centimeter across. Calyx-tube is short; sepals are imbricate. Petals are 5, yellow, subequal. Stamens are 10, rarely all perfect, 3 to 5 being reduced to staminodes or sometimes absent, anthers mostly basifixed opening by terminal spores or with the slit more or less continuous downward. Ovary sessile or stalked. Fruits are slender pods, up to 15 centimeters long and 3 to 4 millimeters thick. Seeds are flattened in the same direction as the pod.

- A very common weed throughout the Philippines, in settled areas at low and medium altitudes.
- Pantropic.

• Seeds yield tannins and dyes (yellow, blue and red).
• Volatile oil showed a high content of aliphatic acids (>75%) and anthraquinones.
• Seed analysis showed the following percentage composition: water, 27.2%; petroleum ether extract, 9.75%; ether extract, 0.86%; absolute alcohol extract, 1.63%, and watery extract, 20%.
• Plant yields emodin to which the medicinal properties are attributed to.
• Leaves yield a principle similar to cathartin.
• Seeds contain phytosterine and glucosenine.

• Phytochemical screening yielded glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins.
• Leaf extracts yielded anthraquinones, carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, and saponins. (see study below) (35)

• Proximate analysis of leaves (per 100g) yielded moisture 42gm ±2gm, ash 96gm ±1gm. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of magnesium, calcium, sulphur, iron, sodium, chlorine, alkaloids, tannin, saponin, flavonoids, carbohydrate, protein, steroids, glycosides. (36)
• Seed extract yielded saponin, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, protein, tannin, phenolic compounds, and carbohydrates. (see study below) (34)
• Study for total flavonoid content of CtEA showed 106.8 ± 2.8 mg/g d.w.QE, CtME 72.4 ± 1.12 mg/g d.w.QE and CtWE 30.4 ± 0.8 mg/g d.w.QE. Flavonoids concentration in decreasing order was: CtEA quercetin > kaempferol > epicatechin; in CtME quercetin> rutin > kaempferol, and in CtWE quercetin > rutin > kaempferol. (see study below) (54)

• Sweet tasting, slightly cooling.
• Diuretic, laxative, purgative.
• Mucilaginous and foetid smelling leaves are aperient, antiperiodic, antiseptic, alterative, febrifuge, anthelminthic, digestive.
• In Ayurveda, considered aperient, laxative, cardiotonic, anthelmintic, liver tonic, expectorant.

Parts utilized
· Seeds, leaves, roots.
· Collect pods from August to October when the seeds are about to ripen.
· Sun-dry, remove the pericarp before using.

Edible wild vegetable.
• Leaves used as pot herb.
• Roasted seeds used as coffee substitute. In Mexico, used as substitute for coffee or for adulterating it.
· In the Philippines, the entire plant, in decoction, is used as purgative and vermifuge.
· Leaves and seeds used as a remedy for ringworm and scabies.
· Decoction of seeds used for hepatitis, edema associated with liver problems, hypertension, infantile convulsion, night blindness due to fever, habitual constipation.
· Infusion of leaves used for intestinal disorders. Decoction is mildly laxative.
· Poultice of seeds and leaves used for scabies, psoriasis, ringworm and eczema.
· Paste of the roots used for ringworm.
· Decoction of leaves used in children suffering from fever while teething.
· Leaves fried in castor oil are used as application to foul ulcers.
· In Africa and India, a traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcers. Pounded fermented leaves added to food or local gin and taken orally as purgative or anthelmintic. (17)
· leaves also used to hasten suppuration.
· Malays use decoction of leaves as a mild purgative or as a cure for coughs.
· In Ayurveda, seeds and leaves used for cough, leprosy, ringworm, colic, flatulence, dyspepsia, bronchitis.
· In India, used for rheumatism and gout.
· In Indo-China, pods are used for dysentery and ophthalmia.
· Seeds, ground with sour buttermilk, used to relieve irritation of itchy eruptions.
Pesticide: In organic farms in India, used as a natural pesticide.
Dye: In India, seeds also used in dyeing along with indigo.
• Used in pet food preparations.
• Gelling agent in air fresheners.

Antifungal / Chrysophanic Acid: Study of an aqueous paste of defatted seed powder isolated chrysophanic acid and other hydroxynathraquinone derivatives. The major antifungal compound, identified as chrysophanic acid-9-anthrone, was active against Tricophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M gypseum, and Geotrichum candidum.
Antifungal: Study showed ethanol extract of CT to have potent antifungal activities against Microsporum canis and C albicans, suggesting a potential as a antifungal agent.
Immunomodulatory / Anthraquinones: Anthraquinones of edible wild vegetable Cassia tora stimulate proliferation of human CD4+ T lymphocytes and secretion of interferon-gamma or interleukin 10. (3)
Antioxidant / Volatile Oil: The study of chemical components of the volatile oil from C. tora showed antioxidant activity of potential use for hyperlipidemia, hypertension and inflammatory disease. (4)
Lipid Effects / Fiber Supplement: Study in Korean diabetic patients showed Cassia tora fiber supplement can help improved serum lipids in T2DM. (5)
Lipid Effects / Seeds: Ethanolic extract of seeds of Cassia tora decreased total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and increased HDL. (7)
Hypotensive / Vagal Reflex: Study evaluated Cassia tora seeds for possible reflex mechanism for hypotensive effect. Study suggests a possible vagal reflex mechanism that alters the vasomotor tone of the sympathetic NS. (6)
Anthelmintic: Study demonstrated the anthelmintic activity of alcohol and aqueous extracts of Cassia tora against Pheretima posthuma and Ascardia galli. Both extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 100 mg/ml. Piperazine citrate was the standard reference. (8)
Antimicrobial: Study on various extracts of Cassia tora, Calendula officinalis and Mormodica charantia showed activity against all tested bacteria, Staph aureus being more susceptible to the aqueous extracts. (9)
Antihypertensive: Study of the methanol extracts from the raw and roasted seeds of Cassia tora exhibited significant inhibitory properties against ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme). (10)
Aldose Reductase / Diabetes: Study of seed extracts of CT isolated nine anthraquinones, with compounds 6 and 8 exhibiting inhibitory activities on protein glycation and aldose reductase. (11)
Anti-Inflammatory: Study of the methanol extract of leaves of C. tora exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activities against carrageenan, histamine, serotonin and dextran-induced rat hind paw edema. (12)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant / Seeds: Study in albino rats showed the protective effects of Cassia tora against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity attributed to its effective free radical scavenging that accounts for its antioxidant property. (13) Study evaluated the total and defatted alcoholic extracts of seeds of Cassia tora for hepatoprotective activity in carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in adult Wistar albino rats. The effects of the extracts were comparable with standard drug silymarin. (38)
Anti-Cancer: Study evaluated the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential. The plant extract induced a marked concentration dependent inhibition of proliferation, reduced DNA content and apoptosis in HeLa. Results indicated that C. tora is effective against free radical mediated diseases. (14)
Anti-Diabetes: Study results indicate that constituents of C. tora seeds have a beneficial effect on postprandial blood glucose control which may be partly due to mediation by stimulated insulin secretion from the pancreas of diabetic rats. (15) suppressing EROD, NADPH CYP-450 reductase in cells and promoting GST activity. (16)
Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of leaves for antioxidant activity using various assays. Results showed a reduction of DPPH radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. The potent in vitro antioxidant activity may be attributed to phenolic content of leaves. (17)
Antioxidant Activity / Topical Cream of Leaves Extract: Study evaluated the in vivo antioxidant activity of a newly formulated O/W cream of of methanolic extract of leaves. Results showed topical O/W creams prevented oxidative stress induced in rats by exposure to UV-B light through antioxidant activity. (18)
Trypsin / Protease Inhibitory Activity: Study investigated the protease inhibitory activity of Cassia tora against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. Proteases play an important role in many human, plant, and insect pathogens. Results showed crude extracts with strong antitryptic, bacterial, and fungal protease inhibitory activity. The Cassia tora inhibitor may attenuate microbial proteases and may be used a phytoprotecting agent. (19) Study evaluated the protease inhibitory activity of cassia tora seeds. Results showed trypsin inhibitory activity of the seeds. (31)
Novel Cancer Therapeutic / Leaves: Study of methanolic leaf extract of C. tora showed a concentration dependent lipid peroxidation inhibition. The antiproliferative activity of CTME with anticancer drug Cisplatin was studied using HeLa (human cervical cancer cells). The plant induced marked concentration dependent inhibition of proliferation, reduced DNA content and apoptosis in HeLa cells. (20)
Antiasthmatic: Study evaluated the antiasthmatic activity of C. tora leaves. A hydroalcoholic extract showed bronchodilator activity, significantly inhibiting the contractile effect of histamine in isolated goat tracheal chain. (21)
Anti-Psoriatic Activity: Study evaluated the anti-psoriatic activity of newly formulated oil in water (O/W) creams of methanol extract of leaves using Mouse tail model. O/W creams containing a methanol extract of leaves showed potent antipsoriatic activity, significantly and dose-dependently decreasing relative epidermal thickness of animal skin. (22)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves for antibacterial activity. The alcoholic extract revealed anthraquinone glycosides, phenolic compounds and saponin glycosides; the aqueous extract yielded glycosides and phenolic compounds, saponins glycosides. Both extracts exhibited significant antibacterial activity. Ciprofloxacin was used as reference drug. (23)
Antimicrobial / Seeds: In vitro study evaluated extract and prepared test ointment for antimicrobial activity against two bacterial species (S. aureus and E. coli) and two fungal species (A. niger and M. gypseum). The benzene extract was most potent against Staphylococcus aureus and A. niger. Phytochemical analysis of the seeds showed it mainly contained anthraquinones. (24)
Anti-Ulcer / Antioxidant / Seed: In a study on Wistar albino rats, a seed extract showed potent anti-ulcerogenic properties probably via cytoprotective mechanism from its antioxidant properties. (25)
Neuropharmacological Effects: Study evaluated the neuropharmacological effect of leaves in mice. Ethanol and aqueous extracts showed significant activity in the behavioral model of hole board test. Chlorpromazine was the standard drug reference. (26)
Anthelmintic Activity / Stem Bark: Study evaluated methanolic and aqueous extracts of Cassia tora stem bark for anthelmintic potential against earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Both extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity. Albendazole was the reference drug. (27)
Mucilage / Suspending Agent: Cassia tora mucilage exhibited the strongest suspending ability. The mucilage can be a stabilizer of choice if high viscosity is desired, and serve as a good thickening agent both in the pharmaceutical and food industries. (28)
Anti-Psoriatic Activity / Flavonoids / Seeds: Study evaluated the anti-psoriatic activity of three flavonoids, namely luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside (1), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (2) and formononetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (3), isolated from the ethanol extract of C. tora leaves using a UV-B induced photodermatitis model. Results showed the flavonoids from C. tora leaves have significant antipsoriatic activity. (32)
Larvicidal / Anopheles stephensi / Seeds: Study evaluated various concentration of seed extracts for larvicidal activity against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi. Results showed larvicidal activity, with the 0.4% extract sowing 80% larvae mortality. (see constituents above) (34)
Antimicrobial / Leaf: Study evaluated organic and aqueous extract of leaves of C. tora for antimicrobial activity against three human pathogenic bacterial and two fungal strains. Aqueous and methanol extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity against most of the tested microbes. The most susceptible was Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Candida albicans. (35)
• Galactomannans / Gum / Toxicoloty / Seeds: Seed gums are used for their emulsifying, suspending, binding, thickening, stabilizing, and water-holding properties, and used pharmaceutically for various formulations and sustained drug release systems. Study evaluated the toxicity of seed gum isolated from Senna tora in adult albino rats. Acute oral toxicity study showed the LD50 of Senna tora gum is greater than 2000 mg/kg. In sub-acute toxicity, there was no sign of toxicity at doses of 500, 1000, and 1500mg/kg daily for 28 days. (37)
• Treatment of Anxiety Disorders / Leaves: Invention application relates to the use of C. tora extracts for its antianxiety activity and the process of preparation of the novel herbal extract. The crude alcoholic extract of leaves revealed significant antianxiety activity. (39)
• Antimicrobial / Anticancerous: Study evaluated crude extracts of leaf and seed along with organic solvents for antimicrobial and anti-cancerous activities. Most of the antimicrobial activities were found with the organic solvents. Leaf and seed extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity, especially against Klebsiella oxytoca, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Curvularia lunata. On anticancer activity against breast cancer cell line MCF7, the hexane fractions of leaf extract showed more effective activity than the ethyl acetate fractions. (40)
• Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the wound healing activity of extract of leaves of Cassia tora using excision and incision wound models on albino mice. Results showed significant increase in percentage of excision wound contraction, tensile strength of incision wound, and remarkable reduction in period of complete epithelization. The methanolic extract exhibited significant (p<0.01) wound healing activity compared to control. (41)
• Cataract Prevention / Leaves: Study evaluated the potential of an ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia tora leaves on experimental cataract induced by a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite. Results showed effective protection against cataract by reducing the inflammatory response, reducing protein denaturation and cross-linking, and maintaining membrane integrity and intracellular communication. The protective activity may be due to the additive effects of phytochemicals in the leaves. (42) Study evaluated the efficacy of C. tora leaves in preventing experimental cataractogenesis in a cataract induced animal model. There was a significant decrease in the onset and maturation of cataract, potentiated antioxidant defense and normalized lens crystallin expression. HPLC and ESI-MS analysis yielded flavonoids and anthraquinones. The anticataract effect is attributed to the presence of antioxidants in the leaves. (47)
• Hypotensive Principles from the Seed: Study showed aqueous and methanol extracts from seeds of Cassia tora elicited a hypotensive effect on anesthetized rats. Preliminary studies showed the active hypotensive principles to be derived from the kernel of the seeds and consisting mainly of glycosides. (43)
• Anthelmintic / Antibacterial / Leaves and Roots: Study evaluated leaves and roots extracts of Cassia tora for antibacterial and anthelmintic activity. Aqueous extracts of roots and leaves showed better antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Ethanolic extracts showed moderate activity against Indian adult earthworm Pheretima posthuma. (44)
• Antifungal / Emodin, Physcion and Rhein / Seeds: Study isolated emodin, physcion, and rhein from the chloroform fraction of seeds. They showed strong and moderate fungicial activities against B. cinerea, E. graminis, P. infestans, and R. solani. (45)
• Potential for Food, Feed, Medicine and Climate Change Adaptation: Considered a weed in the Philippines, study reports on Senna tora as a source of food, feed, and medicinal use in Bukidnon. It ca be an important seed protein crop, with a great potential as leaf vegetable for humans and forage for livestock. Deep-rooted and hardy, it could produce substantial foliage during the rainy months and make grasslands less to erosion. (46)
• Antidermatophytic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimycotic activity of petroleum ether and methanolic leaf extracts of Senna tora against dermatophytic fungi viz., Trichophyton rubrum, T. tonsurans, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Candida albicans and bacteria like S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis and E. coli. Results showed effective antidermatophytic activity attributed to the presence of phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, phenols and triterpenoids. (48)
• Hypolipidemic Activity / Seeds: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of Cassia tora seeds extracts in two hyperlipidemic models of rat viz., triton injected and cholesterol rich HFD fed model of hyperlipidemia. The lipid lowering effect of C. tora seeds extract may be due to early clearance of lipids from circulation in the Triton model and may be due to reactivation of lipolytic enzymes as evidenced by increased PHLA. In cholesterol rich HFD fed hyperlipidemic animals, the seed extract stimulates PHLA and hepatic +LPL activity, both playing a key role in lipid metabolism the utilization in the body. (49)
• Anticancer Activity / Antimetastatic Effects in Vivo: Study evaluated the in vitro anticancer effects in TCA8113d human tongue carcinoma cells. Cassia tora significantly induce apoptosis in cancer cells (p<0.05) by upregulating BAX, caspase-3, and caspase-9, and by downregulating Bcl-s. Results showed Cassia tora exhibited most potent in vivo anticancer effects, induced apoptosis, had anti-inflammatory activities and exerted in vivo anti-metastatic effects, (50)
• Reversible Antifertility Effect in Male Rats: Study evaluated the effects of Cassia tor on the reproductive function of male rats in a safe, orally effective, and reversible fertility regulating agent. Results showed decreased testes and accessory sex organs weights, sperm motility, density, and testosterone level in rats which may be due to androgen suppression effects that caused inhibition of spermatogenesis resulting in reduction of fertility in treated male rats. (51)
• Antiangiogenesis: Study investigated the cytotoxic effect and antiangiogenic effect of leaf extracts on C. tora and C. sophera on human cancer cell lines and chick embryo respectively. Various leaf extracts were tested for antiproliferative activity using MTT assay on HCT15 and HepG2 cell lines. Results showed both plants were toxic to tested cell lines with increasing concentrations and time. EA extract of Cassia tora was more toxic on Hep G2 cell line, while EA and methanol extracts of both plants showed strong antiproliferative effect. (52)
• Nephroprotective / Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity / Seeds: Study evaluated the effect of oral administration of methanol extracts of seeds of Cassia tora in cisplatin induced acute renal failure in Swiss albino mice. Results showed significant dose dependent nephroprotective activity. (53)
• Antioxidant / Protective Against Oxidative-Stress Induced DNA and Cell Membrane Damage: Study evaluated the antioxidant and protective effect of C. tora against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage. The CtEA inhibited free radical-induced red blood cell hemolysis and cell membrane morpphology better than CtME. It also showed better protection against free radical-induced DNA damage. (see constituents above) (54)

- Wild-crafted. 
- In the cybermarket, available in a variety of commercial products.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated February 2018 / December 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Leguminosae - Cassia tora - Cassia filiqua quadrangulari./ From: Hortus elthamensis seu plantarum rariorum quas in horto suo Elthami in Cantio coluit vir ornatissimus et praestantissimus Jacobus Sherard / by Johann Jacob Dillenius. London, the author, 1732. Engraving (uncut, unpressed sheet 300 x 485 mm; impression 200 x 263 mm). / Meemelink
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Senna tora Blanco1.122-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Charota or Chakod (Cassia tora L. syn. Cassia obtusifolia L.)

Isolation of chrysophanic acid-9-anthrone, the major antifungal principle of Cassia tora. / Acharya TK, Chatterjee IB. / Lloydia. 1975 May-Jun;38(3):218-20.
Anthraquinones of edible wild vegetable Cassia tora stimulate proliferation of human CD4+ T lymphocytes and secretion of interferon-gamma or interleukin 10
Volume 14, Issue 4, pages 411–423, December 2007 / DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4522.2007.00096.x
Effects of Cassia tora Fiber Supplement on Serum Lipids in Korean Diabetic Patients / Sung-Hee Cho, Tae-Hee Kim, Nan-Hee Lee, Ho-Sang Son, Il-Jin Cho, and Tae-Youl Ha. Journal of Medicinal Food. Fall 2005, 8(3): 311-318./ doi:10.1089/jmf.2005.8.311.
A possible reflex mechanism of hypotensive action of extract from Cassia tora seeds / Koo A, Chan WS, Li KM. / Am J Chin Med (Gard City N Y). 1976 Autumn;4(3):249-55.
Hypolipidemic activity of seeds of Cassia tora Linn / Umesh K. et al / . Journal of Ethnopharmacology Vol 90, Issues 2-3, February 2004, Pages 249-252 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.10.007
In vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cassia tora / Deore SL, Khadabadi SS, Kamdi KS, Ingle VP, Kawalkar NG, Sawarkar PS, Patil UA, Vyas AJ / International Journal of ChemTech Research, Vol.1, No.2, pp 177-179, April-June 2009
Antibacterial activity of antipsoriatic herbs: Cassia tora, Momordica charantia and Calendula officinalis / Roopashree TS, Raman Dang et al / International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products Vol. 1(3), pp. 20-28, Sep/Oct 2008
Inhibitory activities of Cassia tora and its anthraquinone constituents on angiotensin-converting enzyme. / Hyun, Sook Kyung, Lee, Hyang et al / Phytotherapy research / 2009-Feb; vol 23 (issue 2) : pp 178-84 /
Anthraquinones from the Seeds of Cassia tora with Inhibitory Activity on Protein Glycation and Aldose Reductase / Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin Vol. 30 (2007) , No. 11 2207

Studies on antiinflammatory effect of Cassia tora leaf extract (fam. Leguminosae) / Tapan Kumar Maity, Subhash C Mandal et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 12 Issue 3, Pages 221 - 223 / DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199805)12:3<221::AID-PTR221>3.0.CO;2-L
Hepatoprotective effects of Cassia tora on CCl4 induced liver damage in albino rats / A Vetrivel Rajan, N Shanmugavalli et al / Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.2 No 3 (Mar. 2009)
Leaves of Cassia tora as a novel cancer therapeutic – An in vitro study / C. S. Rejiya, T R Cibin and Annie Abrahan / Toxicology in Vitro, Volume 23, Issue 6, September 2009, Pages 1034-1038 / doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2009.06.010
Effect of butanol fraction from Cassia tora L. seeds on glycemic control and insulin secretion in diabetic rats / Jeongsu Nam and Hyunju Choi / Nutr Res Pract. 2008 Winter; 2(4): 240–246, Publ online 2008 December 31 / doi: 10.4162/nrp.2008.2.4.240.
Antioxidant Activity and Antigenotoxicity of Cassia tora
/ Gow-Chin Yen and Chi-Hao Wu /
In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Cassia tora Linn. / Sirappuselvi S. and Chitra M. / International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol. 1(6), 57-61, October (2012)
In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Topical Cream of Cassia tora L. Leaves Extract / V. Gupta1 D. S. Rathore, Niraj P. Kansara, and A. M. Badiger / Dataset Papers in Pharmacology, Vol 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.7167/2013/243949
A study on trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. protease inhibitory activity in Cassia tora (L.) syn Senna tora (L.) Roxb. seed extract / Vinayak R Tripathi, Shailendra Kumar, Satyendra K Garg / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, July 2011, 11:56
Leaves of Cassia tora as a novel cancer therapeutic – An in vitro study / C.S. Rejiya, T.R. Cibin, Annie Abraham / Toxicology in Vitro, Vol 23, Issue 6, Sept 2009, Pp 1034–1038 /
Preclinical Evaluation and Antiasthmatic Activity of Cassia Tora Linn. Leaves / Tamhane Adesh S et al / IJRAP 3(2), Mar-Apr 2012.
Cassia tora L. Creams Inhibit Psoriasis in Mouse Tail Model / Manmohan Singhal* and Niraj Kansara / Pharmaceutical Crops, 2012, 3, 1-6
PHARMACOLOGY ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CASSIA TORA LEAVES / R.T. Chavan∗, V.L. Deshmukh and A.S. Kadam / Recent Research in Science and Technology 2011, 3(5): 12-14
Evaluating Cassia tora Linn. Seeds for their Antimicrobial Potential with Special Reference to Skin Infections / Pharmacy Infopedia
Evaluation of Cassia tora Seeds for their Antioxidant and Antiulcer Activity / N.S. Gill, A. Sharma, R. Arora and Dr. M. Bali / Journal of Medical Sciences, 2011, Vol 11, No 2, pp 96-101 / DOI: 10.3923/jms.2011.96.101
Study on phytochemical and neuropharmacological effects of cassia tora leaves / Mohiuddin, Mohammed / Dissertation / Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka,Bangalore
In vitro anthelmintic activities of cassia tora stem bark / Swati Pokale*, Sagar Shedage / Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci., 2(3), 2011, 291-294
Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of Cassia tora Mucilage on Sulphadimidine Suspension / A.S. Mann*, N.K. Jain and M.D. Kharya / Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 1, 2007, 63-67
Sorting Senna names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Senna tora (L.) Roxb./
Synonyms / The Plant List
Study on trypsin inhibitory activity by cassia tora seeds
/ Mirza Tanim Ullah Baig, Zia H Khan, Nazia D Khan / International Journal of Applied Research 2015; 1(9): 751-753
Anti-psoriatic activity of flavonoids from Cassia tora leaves using the rat ultraviolet B ray photodermatitis model / Vijayalakshmi A * , Madhira Geetha / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.24 no.3 Curitiba May/June 2014 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2014.07.010
Phytochemical and Biological Potential of Cassia tora Linn. / Khomendra Kumar Sarwa*, Mithun Rudrapal, Manabendra Debnath, Atul Kumar and Vinod Kumar Verma / European Journal of Medicinal Plants 4(8): 946-963, 2014
Estimation of Phytochemical Components from Cassia Tora and To Study Its Larvicidal Activity. / Ms. Swati Supare, Dr. Mansi Patil / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention, Vol 4, Issue 6, June 2015, pp 11-16
Proximate and Phytochemical Analysis of Cassia Tora Leaves / Rahimullah Shaikh, Imran Zainuddin Syed / Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Science Volume 2 ~ Issue 8 (2015) pp: 01-03
Toxicological Evaluation of Gum (Galactomannans) Isolated from Senna tora Seeds  / Harshal A Pawar and KG Lalitha / J Drug Metab Toxicol 6:193 / doi: 10.4172/2157-7609.1000193
Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of Cassia tora L. Seeds / Noha Fathalla, Mokhtar Bishr, Abdel Nasser Singa and Osama Salama / IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, Vol 10, Issue 1, Ver IV; Jan-Feb 2015: pp 01-08
Process for the preparation of herbal extract of cassia tora leaves for treating anxiety disorders  / Inventors: Meena Rajnikant Rathod, Bhupendra Dhanvantrai Shetia et al / EP2411030A1 / EP Application
Phytochemical Study, Antimicrobial and Anticancerous Activity of Cassia tora Linn / Sabyasachi C, Kaniz WS, Anupam B, Manas B / Research & Reviews: Research Journal of Biology
Wound healing activity of leaves of Cassia tora Linn. / Vandana Janghel, Nilesh Gupta and Umesh K. Jain / Pelagia Research Library Der Pharmacia Sinica, 2012, 3 (5): pp 511-515
Protective effects of Cassia tora leaves in experimental cataract by modulating intracellular communication, membrane co-transporters, energy metabolism and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway / V. Sreelakshmi & Annie Abraham / Pharmaceutical Biology, 55:1, 1274-1282 / DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2017.1299769
Extraction of Hypotensive Principles from Seeds of Cassia Tora / Anthony Koo, J.C.C. Wang, and K.M. Li / Am. J. Chin. Med. 04, 245 (1976) / https://doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X76000330|
Phytochemical screening, and antihelminthic activity of leaf and root extracts of Cassia tora plant / Aashish Shrestha, Kamana Ghimire, Amit Kumar Gupta, Priyanka Pokhrel, Janmonjoy Banerjee Hemanta Khanal, Mahalaxmi Pradhananga / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research, Vol 5, No 4 (2017) / DOI:https://doi.org/10.18231/2348-0335.2017.0011
Anthraquinones Isolated from Cassia tora (Leguminosae) Seed Show an Antifungal Property against Phytopathogenic Fungi / Young-Mi Kim, Chi-Hoon Lee, Hyo=gyung Kim, and Hoi-Seon Lee / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52(20): pp 6096–6100 / DOI10.1021/jf049379p
Indigenous and underutilized Senna tora (L.) Roxb. is a potential species for food, feed, medicine and climate change adaptation  / Jamago, J. M. Llausas-Valleser, J. E. Galleron, G. N. Racines, A. G. M. / Crop protection newsletter: 2014 / University Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños
Anthraquinones and flavonoids of Cassia tora leaves ameliorate sodium selenite induced cataractogenesis in neonatal rats  / V Sreelakshimi and Annie Abraham / Food & Function, Issue 2 (2016)
HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY oF CASSIA TORA SEEDS IN HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS / Vishnu Kumaf, Brijesh Rathore, Sharique Ahmad, Farzana Mahdi, Ramesh Chander, et / Era's Journal of Medical Research, Vo1 No1, Jul-Dec 2014
Cassia tora L. (Jue‑ming‑zi) has anticancer activity in TCA8113 cells in vitro and exerts anti‑metastatic effects in vivo
/ Xin Zhao, Qiang Wang, Yu Qian, Liang Pang / Oncology Letters, March 2013, Vol 5, Issue 2 / https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2012.1097
Reversible Antifertility Effect of Cassia tora Linn in Male Rats / Samiya Khan,, Pratap Chand Mali**/ Int. J. Life. Sci. Scentif Res., 3(5): pp 1415-1423
In vitro and In vivo Effects of the Leaf Extracts of Cassia tora and Cassia sophera in Reducing the Cytotoxicity and Angiogenesis / Sumangala Rao and C. Suresh / British Biotechnology Journal 3(3): 377-389, 2013
Nephro-protective Activity of Methanol Extract of “Cassia tora” Seeds in Cisplatin Induced Nephrtoxicity in Mice / Raghuram Akinapelli*, S.N Sri Harsha, D. Yashwanth Kumar / Faculty of Pharmacy, PACIFIC University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India / Pharma Research Library
Evaluation of Cassia tora Linn. against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage / R Sunil Kumar, Ramesh Balenahalli Narasingappa, Chandrashekar G Joshi, Talakatt K Girish, Ummiti J S Prasada Rao, Ananda Danagoudar / Journal of Pharmacy & BioAllied Sciences (2017), Vol 8, Issue 1: pp 33-43

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