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Family Euphorbiaceae
Kaya-an
Phyllanthus virgatus G.Forst.
SEED-UNDER-LEAF
Xi ye you shou

Scientific names Common names
Diasperus beckleri (Müll.Arg.) Kuntze Kaya-an (Bag.)
Diasperus conterminus (Müll.Arg.) Kuntze Kayut-bulang (Bag.)
Diasperus depressus Kuntze Seed-under-leaf (Engl.)
Diasperus multiflorus (F.Müll. ex Müll.Arg.) Kuntze Virgate leaf-flower (Engl.)
Diasperus miquelianus (Müll.Arg.) Kuntze  
Diasperus pedunculatus (Kostel.) Kuntze  
Diasperus virgatus (G.Forst.) Kuntze  
Macraea oblongifolia Wight  
Macraea ovalifolia Wight  
Melanthesa anceps (Vahl) Miq.  
Melanthesa rupestris Miq.  
Phyllanthus anceps Vahl  
Phyllanthus beckleri Müll.Arg.  
Phyllanthus conterminus Müll.Arg.  
Phyllanthus eboracensis S.Moore  
Phyllanthus filicaulis Benth.  
Phyllanthus minutiflorus F.Muell. ex Müll.Arg.  
Phyllanthus miquelianus Müll.Arg.  
Phyllanthus patens Miq. ex Müll.Arg.  
Phyllanthus pedunculatus Kostel.  
Phyllanthus pratensis Pancher ex Baill.  
Phyllanthus simplex Retz.  
Phyllanthus trachygyne Benth.  
Phyllanthus virgatus G. Forst.  
Phyllanthus weinlandii K.Schum.  
Seed-under-leaf is a common name shared by: Phyllanthus niruri and P. simplex.
Phyllanthus simplex Retz. is a synonym of Phyllanthus virgatus G.Forst. The Plant List
Phyllanthus virgatus G.Forst. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Huang zhu zi cao, Xi ye you shu.
HINDI: Bhui aonla.
INDIA: Gadhausiri.
NEPALESE: Bhuii amalaa (P. virgatus)


Botany
Kaya-an is a slender, erect, simple or slightly branched, smooth, annual herb, 20 to 50 centimeters in height. Stems are flattened, and usually purplish. Leaves are two-ranked, oblong-linear, 1.5 to 3 centimeters long, and 6 to 9 centimeters wide. Flowers are very small, solitary, and borne on the axils of the leaves. Capsules are smooth, depressed-globose, and 3 to 3.5 millimeters in diameter.

Distribution
- Common throughout the Philippines, in open grasslands, fallow rice lands, etc., at low and medium altitudes.
- Also occurs in India to southern China, Malaya, and Polynesia.

Constituents
- Phytochemical screening yielded an abundance of phenolics, tannins and flavonoids.
- Leaf yielded phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, sugars, saponins, amino acids, volatile oil.

- Study of chemical composition of leaves yielded four compounds: vanillin, β-daucossterol, β-sitosterol and rutin. (10)

Properties
- Studies have shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, antifungal, hepatoprotective properties.

Parts used
Leaves, flowers, seeds.

Uses

Folkloric
- Hindus use equal parts of the fresh leaves, flowers, and fruit, and cumin seeds with sugar, made into an electuary for the cure of gonorrhea - a teaspoon is given twice daily.
- Bruised fresh leaves, mixed with buttermilk, used as a wash to cure itches in children.
- In Thailand, used for liver ailments.
- In India, leaf juice used for jaundice and diabetes.
- In Chota Nagpur, roots is used as external application for mammary abscesses.


Studies
Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Phenolic Contents:
P. simplex ether extract showed significant concentration-dependent scavenging of DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. It also showed significant inhibition of NO production and significant inhibition of carragennan-induced paw edema. Results show significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities which was attributed to its high phenolic content. (1)
Anti-Diabetic / Antioxidant: Study of MeOH and aqueous fractions of PS demonstrated significant antioxidant and antidiabetic potential and suggest therapeutic value in diabetes and related complications. (2)
Anti-Cancer / Antioxidant / Roots and Rhizomes: Study of ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts from the roots and rhizomes of P. simplex against DAL and EAC cell lines showed significant anti-cancer activity, with the alcoholic extract showing more cancer dead cells than the EA extract. (3)
Anthelmintic: Study showed the ethanolic extract was more potent than other extracts against Indian round worm Pheretima posthuma. The comparison drug was piperazine citrate. (5)
Anti-Inflammatory: Ethanolic and acetone extracts from the whole plant showed significant activity at the doses of 400 mg/K with inhibition of both acute and sub-acute anti-inflammatory models. (6)
Anti-HBV Effect: Study showed the water and alcohol extract of P. simplex had an inhibitory effect on the HBsAg. (7)
Antioxidant / α-Amylase Inhibitory Property: A methanol extract of P. virgatus exhibited strong antioxidant and oxidative DNA damage protective activity, correlating with its phenolic content. Also, the ME strongly inhibited the α-amylase activity. Results provide basis for the potential future use for the treatment and management of diabetes as well as related conditions of oxidative stress. (11)
Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity / Mitochondrial Effect: In a comparative study of three Phyllanthus species, the methanolic extract of P. virgatus showed the highest free radical scavenging activity and highest inhibition of peroxidation. Also, the extract showed the strongest cytotoxic effect to human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The extract impaired hepatic energy metabolism by acting as mitochondrial uncoupler and inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation. The mitochondrial effects may be intimately involved in the cytotoxic action on HepG2 cells. (12)
Hepatoprotective / Cd2+-Induced Loss of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential: A methanol extract of P. virgatus was shown to block the collapse of mitrochondrial transmembrane potential induced by CdCl2 in a dose-dependent manner. Results postulate the extract may act by blocking Ca2+ uniporter to impeded Cd2+ influx into the mitochondria and/or by inhibiting Cd2+-induced PTP opening. (13)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of P. virgatus against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in male wistar rats. Results showed significant in-vivo/in-vitro antioxidant activity in different models and significant (p<0.01) hepatoprotective activity. (15)
Antidiabetic / Antihyperlipidemic: Study evaluated a methanolic extract and its purified fractions on hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Results showed a strong anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic impact of the extract and fractions coupled with potent antioxidative property. (16)
Antianaphylactic / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of a hydroalcoholic extract of leaves on experimental anaphylactic conditions using passive cutaneous anaphylaxis on different rat models. Results showed a dose dependent beneficial effect on leakage of Evan blue dye in skin challenged with antigen. The antianaphylactic activity may be due to its membrane stabilizing potential, inhibition of antigen induced histamine release and inhibition of release of various inflammatory mediators. (17)
Virgatusin / Antifungal: (-)-Virgatusin is a lignan isolated from Phyllantus virgatus used as a herbal drug for liver problems. Study of optically pure (-) - and (+)-virgatusin, a tetra-substituted tetrahydrofuran lignan, showed high antifungal activity against Colletotrichum lagenarium. (18)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Updated April 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Phyllanthus virgatus Forst. f. / Photo / Contributed by Allon / QIN, Haining, et al (eds.), 2010, China Checklist of Higher Plants, In the Biodiversity Committee of Chinese Academy of Sciences ed., Catalogue of Life China: 2010 Annual Checklist China. CD-ROM; Species 2000 China Node, Beijing, China/ Click on image to go to source page / © Catalogue of Life: Higher Plants in China / CHF

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Phyllanthus simplex / Chouhan H S, Singh S K / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Oct 11;137(3):1337-44. Epub 2011 Aug 5.
(2)
Antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of various fractions of Phyllanthus simplex in alloxan diabetic rats / Jasemine Shabeer, Radhey Shyam Srivastava, Sushil Kumar Singh / Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Vol 124, No 1, 6 July 2009, Pp 34-38 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.04.015
(3)
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF IN VITRO ANTI CANCER ACTIVITY OF ETHYLACETATE AND ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF PHYLLANTHUS SIMPLEX Retz / Arasan Elayaraja, M Vijayalakshmi, and Devalarao Garikapati / An International Journal of Advances In Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol.1 (1) Sep-Oct-2010
(4)
Studies on Chemical Contituents and Antibacterial Activities of Phyllanthus Simplex Retz / China Papers /
(5)
Anthelmintic screening of various crude extracts of Phyllanthus simplex Retz / Arasan Elayaraja, M Vijayalakshmi, and Devalarao Garikapati / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, October – December 2010 RJPBCS
(6)
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC AND ACETONE EXTRACTS OF PHYLLANTHUS SIMPLEX RETZ. / Arasan Elayaraja, M.Vijayalakshmi and Devalarao Garikapati /
(7)
Anti-HBV Effect of Phyllanthus Simplex Extracts in Vivo and in Vitro
/ HUANG Zhengchang, DENG Xuelong, ZHU Yutong et al / JOURNAL OF GUANGZHOU UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE, 2000-03 / DOI: cnki:ISSN:44-1425.0.2000-03-022
(8)
Sorting Phyllanthus names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(9)
Phyllanthus virgatus G. Forst. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(10)
Chemical composition in the leaves of Phyllanthus simplex Retz. / Han Shu; Zhang Yun; Wang JunRu /
Journal Medicinal Plant 2012 Vol. 3 No. 3 pp. 21-22, 25
(11)
Antioxidant and α-Amylase Inhibitory Property of Phyllanthus virgatus L.: An In Vitro and Molecular Interaction Study / Arshya Hashim, M. Salman Khan, Mohd. Sajid Khan, Mohd. Hassan Baig, and Saheem Ahmad / BioMed Research International, Vol 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/729393
(12)
Cell death and impairment of mitochondrial functions induced by Phyllanthus virgatus: a comparison study / N Chudapongse, M Kamkhunthod, K Poompachee / lanta Med 2009; 75 - PE14 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1234575
(13)
Protective effect of Phyllanthus virgatus extract on Cd2+-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential /
Nuannoi Chudapongse , Matcha Kamkhunthod and Kanchana Poompachee / The FASEB Journal, 2007' 21:lb367
(14)
Phyllanthus virgatus / Synonyms / The Plant List
(15)
EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF Phyllanthus virgatus AGAINST EXPERIMENTAL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RATS / Paritala Deepthi* /
International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical & Clinical Research, Vol 5, Issue 2, 2015, pp 78-85.
(16)
ALLEVIATION OF HYPERGLYCEMIA AND HYPERLIPIDEMIA BY PHYLLANTHUS VIRGATUS FORST EXTRACT AND ITS PARTIALLY PURIFIED FRACTION IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / Arshya Hashim, M. Salman Khan*, Saheem Ahmad / EXCLI Journal 2014;13:809-824
(17)
Antianaphylactic Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extract of Phyllanthus Virgatus Leaves / Y. Narasimha Rao*, M. Prasada Rao, K. Bhagyalakshmi, M. Srikanth / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.8, No.7, pp 171-174, 2015
(18)
Antifungal Activity of Tetra-Substituted Tetrahydrofuran Lignan, (-)-Virgatusin, and Its Structure-Activity Relationship / Koichi Akiyama et al / Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 71 (4), 1028-1035: 2007
(19)
Ethnobotanical Studies on Japali Hanuman Theertham- A / Sacred Grove of Tirumala hills, Andhra Pradesh, India. / N. Savithramma, P. Yugandhar* and M. Linga Rao / Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol. 6(2), 2014, 83-88

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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