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Family Marsileaceae
Kaya-kayapuan
Marsilea crenata C. Presl

FOUR LEAVES CLOVER

Scientific names Common names
Marsilea crenata C. Presl Kaya-kayapuan, (Tag.)
  Banig-usa (Tag.) 
  Dwarf four leaf clover (Engl.)
  False pepperwort (Engl.)
  Four leaves clover (Engl.) 
  Water clover (Engl.) 
Marsilea crenata C. Presl is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AUSTRALIAN: Nardoo.
JAVANESE: Semanggi.

Botany
Kaya-kayapuan is an aquatic, herbaceous fern. Rootstock are slender, creeping, branched, the stipes of the sterile fronds 2 to 12 centimeters high, slender. Leaves are arranged in two rows on long, the young leaves sightly downy, on trailing, wiry stems. Leaflets are 4, light to dark green, obovate-cuneate, glabrous, 10 to 15 centimeters long or smaller in terrestrial forms, rounded and slightly crenate or subentire at the apex , the lateral margin entire, straight, cuneately narrowed to the sessile base. Sporocarps (spore bearing organ found near the rootstock) are covered with brown hairs when young, becoming glabrous and nearly so, oblong, about 3 millimeters long, rounded, slightly compressed, somewhat clustered or solitary, their pedicels 5 millimeters long or less, the upper basal tooth prominent.

Distribution
- Widely distributed in the Philippines; in muddy places, ditches, shallow pools, and rice fields.
- Found in Indonesia, Malaysia, India, and Sri Lanka.

Constituents
- Study for bioactives yielded alkaloids, saponins, phenolics and flavonoids. Protein content was as high as 4.4 mg/g. (7)

Properties
- Prepared drug sweet tasting with cooling nature.
- Diuretic, antiphlogistic and tranquilizer.

Parts used
· Entire plant.

Uses
Edibility / Culinary
· Leaves are used in Indonesian East Javanese cuisine, served with sweet potatoes and peanut sauce. (1)
· In Thailand, leaves are used in Isan cuisine, as Phak waen and eaten raw with Nam phrik chili dip. (
1) In Thailand, young plants are consumed all year round. Young shoots or whole plant is eaten raw or parboiled (4)
Folkloric
· Neurasthenia, edema.
· Dosage: 15 to 25 gms of dried material or 30 to 60 gms fresh material in decoction.

Studies
No Effect on Endometrial Histopathology:
Study of 96% ethanolic extract of semanggi leaf on female mice showed no significant histopathologic endometrial effect. (2)
Antioxidant / Flavonoid Content: Study evaluated the flavonoid content and antioxidant activity from ferns such as D. esculentum, Marsilea crenata and D. querciforia. The flavonoid content of M. crenata was 11.202 mg/g dried. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH assay where M. crenata showed 27.644 inhibition on ethanol extraction. (3)
Phenolic Content / Antioxidant Activity: Study evaluated five Thai vegetables for phytochemical contents, phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Marsilea crenata extract exhibited the highest phenolic content (3.6041 mg GAE/g dry weight) and showed the most potent antioxidant activity on DPPH assay (IC50=248.94µg/ml). The Marsilea extract also yielded alkaloids. (5)
Early Detection of Lead Stress: Study showed that Pb concentration tends to inhibit the plant growth and suggests its potential use as an early detection remediation process. (6)

Availability
Wildcrafted. 

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update October 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Marsilea crenulata Desv. [as Marsilea diffusa Lepr.] Revue générale de botanique, vol. 6: t. 4 (1894) [L. Trabut] / PlantIllustrations.org
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Marsilea crenata / Meneerke bloem / CC-BY-SA-3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0, GFDL, License migration redundant / click on photo to see source image / Wikipedia
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Marsilea crenata / Wikipedia
(2)
THE EFFECTS OF FEEDING 96% ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SEMANGGI (Marsilea crenata Presl) OVERVIEW OF FEMALE MICE ENDOMETRIUM HISTOPATHOLOGY / Tim Peneliti : Lully Hanni Endarini Prof. Dr. Sukardiman, MS, Apt / penelitian.unair.ac.id
(3)
Determination of flavonoid content and antioxidant activity from ferns by ultrasonic extraction / Jutarat Tawekijpokai*, Jindarat Pimsamarn / TIChE International Conference 2011, November 10 – 11, 2011 at Hatyai, Songkhla THAILAND
(4)
Children's traditional ecological knowledge of wild food resources: a case study in a rural village in Northeast Thailand / Chantita Setalaphruk and Lisa Leimar Price* / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2007, 3:33 / doi:10.1186/1746-4269-3-33
(5)
Phytochemical Screening, Total phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Selected Local Northeastern
Vegetables
/ Prasertsung C, Padumanonda T*, Tiyaworanan S, Mahakunakorn P / PP-PS-058-KKU / The 4th Annual Northeast Pharmacy Research Conference of 2012
(6)
Early Detection of Lead Stress on Marsilea Crenata Using Biolectricity Measurement / Arry Y. Nurhayati, Yuda C. Hariadi, P. Lestari / Procedia Environmental Sciences, Volume 28, 2015, Pages 57–66
(7)
Bioactives in three Philippine edible ferns / VICTOR B. AMOROSO, APRIL JOIE D. LAGUMBAY, RAINEAR A. MENDEZ, REGGIE Y. DE LA CRUZ, ANNABELLE P. VILLALOBOS / Asian International Journal of Life Sciences, Vol 23, No 2 (2014)
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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