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Family Apiaceae
Apium graveolens L.

Fan qin cai

Scientific names Common names
Apium celleri Gaertn. Apyo (Tag.)
Apium decumbens Eckl. & Zeyh. Guichae (Tag.)
Apium dulce Mill. Kinchai  (Tag.)
Apium graveolens Linn. Kintsay  (Tag.)
Apium integrilobum Hayata Quichay (Tag.) 
Apium lobatum Gilib. [Invalid] Celery (Engl.) 
Apium lusitanicum Mill.  
Apium maritimum Salisb.  
Apium palustre Thore  
Apium rapaceum Mill.  
Apium vulgare Bubani  
Carum graveolens (L.) Koso-Pol.  
Celeria graveolens (L.) Britton  
Selinum graveolens (L.) E.H.L.Krause  
Seseli graveolens (L.) Scop.  
Sium apium Roth  
Sium graveolens (L.) Vest  
Apium graveolens L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Karafs.
ARMENIAN: Lakhod garos.
BENGALI : Chanu, Chiluri, Randhuni.
CHINESE: Qin, Qin cai, Fan qin cai, Ch'in-nst'ai
CZECH: Celer.
DANISH: Strandselleri, Vild selleri.
DUTCH: Bladselderij, Groene selder.
FINNISH: Ruokaselleri, Selleri.
GERMAN: Echte sellerie, Eppich, Sellerie.
GREEK: Udasaliyon.
GUJARATI: Ajamoda, Bodi ajamoda.
HEBREW : Carpas reychani, Kerfes rihani, Karpass rehani, Seleri.
HINDI: Ajmud, Bari ajmud.
ITALIAN: Sedano, Sedano comune.
JAPANESE: Oranda mitsuba, Serori.
KOREAN: Sel-reo-ri, Sel-reo-ri si-deu, Selleori, Sellori.
LAOTIAN: Si sang.
LATVIAN: Selerijas.
MALAY: Daun sop, Elderi.
MALTESE: Krafes.
MARATHI: Ajmoda, Bodiajamoda, Ahmud.
NEPALI: Jangali jwanu.
NORWEGIAN: Hageselleri, Selleri.
PERSIAN: Karafs.
POLISH: Seler, Selery zwyczajne.
PORTUGUESE: Aipo, Salsao.
RUSSIAN: Sel'derei, Selderej.
SANSKRIT : Ajmoda, Ajamoda, Ugragandhika, Vastamoda, Hayagandha, Brahmakoshi.
SLOVAKIAN: Zelerové semená (seeds), Zeler.
SPANISH: Apio, Apio borde, Apio de agua, Api (Catalan).
SWEDISH: Blekselleri, Selleri.
TAMIL: Ajmod.
TELUGU: Ajumoda.
THAI: Khuen chai (Khen chaai), Phak khao puen, Phak puem, Phak puen
TURKISH : Kereviz, Yabanî kerevizi.
URDU Ajmod (Ajmud).

Kintsay is an erect herb, seldom growing over 30 centimeters in height. The Chinese variety has short stems. Leaves are pinnate, with large, deeply-lobed segments, on long petioles. Peduncles are short, less than 1 centimeter in length, and borne opposite the leaves. Flowers are borne in umbels, very small, and greenish white. Fruit is very small, with narrow ridges.

- A biennial of Europe and northern Asia which has been cultivated from fairly remote times.
- Introduced in the Philippines.
- Two forms are cultivated in the Philippines: (1) In the lowlands, the small Chinese form, known as "kinchai," raised extensively by the Chinese and common in the Manila markets. (2) Baguio kind has a thicker and larger leaf stalk and is blanched, much smaller than the high-grade celery cultivated in temperate zones.

- Considered anti-inflammatory, deobstruent, diuretic, resolvent, pectoral, tonic, carminative, emmenagogue, diuretic, adjunct to purgatives, lithotriptic, stimulant, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac.
- Possible antioxidant.

- In Unani system of medicine, considered stimulant, cardiac tonic, carminative,diuretic and antiseptic.

- The plant yields a glucoside, apiin; a volatile oil, mannite and inosite.
- Phytoconstituent studies have yielded glycosides, steroids, and various types of phenolics including furanocoumarins, flavones and trace elements (sodium, potassium, calcium, and iron). Roots yield falcarinol, falcarindiol, panaxidol, and polyacetylene 8-O-methylfalcarindiol. Stem yielded pectic polysaccharides (apiuman) containing d-galacturonic acid, 1-rhamnose, 1-arabinose, and d-galactose.   
- GC-MS study of leaf volatile oil yielded 2 compounds. Main compounds were 1.dodecanol, 9-octadecen-12-ynoic acid, methyl ester, and tetradecence-1-ol-acetate. (
- Studies on seed have reported caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, apiin, apigenin, rutaretin, ocimene, bergapten, and isopimpinellin. Seed oil is composed of palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid petroselinic acid, d-limonene, selinene, terpineol, and santolol. (
- Bulb yields a volatile oil, 0.009%; glutamine; asparagine; tyrosine; mannitol.
- Fruit contains a volatile oil, 2.5-3%; apigenin; protein, 1.3%; choline, linase.
- Volatile oil: d-limonene; a-pinene; cineole; cymene; a-terpineol.

- Seeds are a rich source of phenolic constituents such as flavonoids, anthrons, xanthons and tannins.
- Study yielded two phthalide compounds, 3-n- butylphthalide and sedanenolide. (17)
- The major components of volatile oil were β-pinene, camphene, cumene, limonene, α-thuyene, α-pinene, β-phellendrene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, sabinene and terpinolene. (26)
- Study isolated two phthalide compounds, 3-n-butylphthalide and sedaneolide. (34)
- Nutrient analysis of 1 cup diced and raw celery (101.00 grams) yield 16 calories, vitamin K 33%DV, molybdenum 11%, folate 9%, potassium 8%, fiber 6%, manganese 5%, vitamin B2 5%, pantothenic acid 5%, copper 4%, calcium 4%, vitamin C 4%, vitamin B6 4%, magnesium 3%, vitamin A 3%. (37)
- Proximate analysis yielded 50% moisture in aerial parts and seeds of the plant. Leaves yielded vitamin C 60.35 mg/100gm; seeds, 1.34 mg/100gm. Elemental analysis of roots yielded K 5100 µg/g, P 4099 µg/g, Ca 674 µg/g, Ni 4.41 µg/g, Cd 1.94 µg/g, Se 0.41µg/g. Maximum K was found in the roots, followed by stems. Phytochemical screening of seeds yielded steroids, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. (38)
- Preliminary TLC study for furanocoumarins in blade and petiole of two cultivars of ribbed celery showed the presence of psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, and simple coumarin, umbelliferone. Additionally, isopimpinelline was detected by HPLC. (63)
- Seed essential oil yielded the presence of flavonoids, lactones, and terpenoids as major constituents. (see study below) (64)

Parts used
Entire plant, roots, leaves, seeds.

Culinary / Nutritional
- Petioles and leaves are used for seasoning local dishes, especially pansit, chop suey, bachoi, etc.
- Excellent source of calcium and iron; contains vitamins A, B, and C.
- Seeds are rich in iron and vitamins, including A, B and C.
- Celery juice before meals as appetite suppressant; after meals as a digestive.
- In the Philippines, plant decoction is used as a diuretic and emmenagogue.
- Poultice of plant with barley meal used as deobstruent and resolvent.
- Used as a tonic and carminative adjunct to purgatives.
- Used as diuretic, lithontriptic and alexipharmic.
- Root used as alterative and diuretic, given in anasarca and colic.
- Antiasthmatic (bronchodilation): Pound seeds, wrap in thin cloth and inhale frequently.
- Used for hypertension, flatulence, indigestion.
- Decoction of seeds for bronchitis and asthma; also for liver and spleen diseases.
- Seeds used as stimulant and cordial.
- Arthritic and rheumatic disorders.
- Seed infusions used for rheumatoid arthritis and gout.
- Celery roots used as aphrodisiac.
- In Unani medicine, considered diuretic and lithotriptic.
- In
Mexico, decoction of root used to diminish milk.
- In
Arab medicine, leaves used to help cool the stomach and liver, act as diuretic, help menstrual problems and kidney stones. Also, believed to stimulate semen production and relieve bad breath. (53)
- Perfumery:
The volatile oil is of value in perfumery, where it is used in combination with various perfumes, both as fixative and/or as additional scents.

Hepatoprotective activity of Apium graveolens and Hygrophila auriculata against paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication in rats: Study showed both extract of seeds to possess significant hepatoprotective activity. (1)
Antioxidant / Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Oxidative Stress / Roots:
Effect of celery (Apium graveolens) extracts on some biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride: Study of both extracts of roots and leaves are showed antioxidant activity probably involving flavonoids and other antioxidant compounds. (2)
Anti-Toxicity / Apigenin: Pretreatment with Ag extract effectively alleviated most of the VPA-induced effects suggesting a protective role against experimental VPA toxicity. Apigenin was a major factor of the Ag extract. (3)
Nematicidal / Antifungal / Mosquitocidal: Study of AG seeds isolated and characterized compounds sedanolide, senkyunolida-N and senkyunolide-J which showed nematicidal, antifungal, and mosquitocidal activities. (4)
Mosquito Repellent / G10: (1) A comparative evaluation of G10, a celery-based topical mosquito repellent product, with Insect Block 28 and standard 25% DEET showed G10 and IB28 exhibited similarly powerful repellent activities with 100% protection, DEET was effective with 99.68% protection. (2) Study showed AG offers a potential against Ae. aegypti, particularly in its markedly repellent effect.
Antipyretic / Leaves: Antipyretic effect of celery (Apium graveolens) extracts in mice: Study showed extracts of celery leaf decreased the pyrogenic effect of 12% yeast suspension.
(5) Study of A. graveolens leaves crude extract showed antipyretic effects in male rabbit model. (67)
Essential Oil / Cercaricidal: Essential oil of the fresh aerial parts of Ag at its flowering stage yielded: a- and B-pinene, myrcene, limonene, cis-B-ocimene, g-terpinene, cis-allo-ocimene, trans-farnesene, humulene, apiol, B-selinene, senkyunolide and neocnidilide. Study showed a cercaricidal and chemotactic effect. (6)
Hypolipidemic: Study of the ethanol extract of A. graveolens in adult male albino rats showed significant decrease of total cholesterol, trigylcerides and LDL, and a significant increase in HDL cholesterol. (7)
Hypolipidemic / No Hypoglycemic Effect: Study on the intraperitoneal effects of AG on serum glucose and lipid levels of diabetic rats showed no significant hypoglycemic effect but could possibly lead to appropriate changes in blood lipid profiles. (8)
Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of the aqueous and hexane extracts of AG showed both fractions exhibited remarkable anti-inflammatory effect supporting is traditional use in diseases associated with inflammation. (10)
Hepatoprotective / Anti-Inflammatory: Methanolic extract of A. graveolens seeds tested against Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) induced hepatotoxicity in rats showed hepatoprotective activity with a significant recovery of biochemical parameters. (12)
Learning / Memory Benefits in Diabetic Rats: Study showed chronic oral administration of AG could enhance consolidation and recall capability of stored information only in diabetic animals and did not affect spatial memory of diabetic animals. (13)
Anti-Mosquito Potential / Aedes aegypti: A crude seed extract of Apium graveolens was investigated for anti-mosquito potential, including larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities against Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Results showed larvicidal activity against fourth instar larvae, slight adulticidal activity and repellency. (15)
Anticancer / Apoptosis Induction / Cytotoxic Activities: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of Apium graveolens seeds for antiproliferative effect in vitro on two human cell lines (DLA, Dalton's lymphoma ascites; L929, Mouse lung fibroblast). The methanolic extract of seed showed cytotoxicity and provoked DNA fragmentation, a sign of induced apoptosis. Results suggest a potential candidate for an anticancer drug. (18)
Vasorelaxant / Antihypertensive Effect: Study investigated the vasorelaxant effect of organic extracts from Apium graveolens. All the extracts caused concentration-dependent relaxation in precontracted aortic rings, attributed to secondary metabolites and probably mediated by calcium antagonism. Results suggest an ideal source for lead compounds to design potential vasorelaxants and antihypertensive agents. (19)
Adaptogenic Activity: Study investigated the adaptogenic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Apium graveolens in experimentally induced stress models in mice and rats. The extracts showed increased increase in anoxia stress tolerance time and swimming endurance time. Results showed the ethanolic extract with greater adaptogenic property than the aqueous extract. (20)
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitory and Antixoxidant Activity: Study of a methanolic seed extract of Apium graveolens showed significant in vitro ACE inhibitory potency and strong antioxidant activity. (21)
Carbon Tetrachloride induced Hematotoxicity: Study investigated the role of aqueous extract of A. graveolens seeds against hematotoxicity induced by CCl4 in female rats. Results showed two-week consumption to be safe at tested doses, and caused improvement in hematological parameters and protection of hematopoietic cells from the damaging effects of CCl4. (22)
Bioinsecticide Potential / Seed: A crude ethanol extract of seed yielded phototoxic compounds which offer potentials activity against Aedes aegypti, particularly through toxic and growth disruptions activities. Results suggest a promising candidate for commercial bioinsecticide development.
Nephrocalcinosis / Increase Urinary Ca++ Excretion: Study evaluated the effect of A. graveolens in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in rabbit models with induced nephrocalcinosis by a large dose of oxalic acid. Results showed significant reduction in calcium deposition in the renal parenchyma, a significant diuretic effect that accentuates urinary calcium excretion. (24)
Effect on Protease Inhibitor (Ritonavir) Induced Dyslipidemia: Study investigated the protective effect of an ethanolic extract of A. graveolens (celery seeds) on protease inhibitor induced dyslipidemia in mice. Results suggest the ethanolic extract showed potential for improving the lipid profile ad liver lipids deranged by ritonavir, with a efficacy approaching fenofibrate. (25)
Antiulcerogenic / Antibacterial: Study investigated the antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens extracts of aerial parts. Results showed dose-dependent inhibition of gastric lesions, similar to omeprazole. The essential oil was strongly inhibitory against E. coli and moderately inhibitory against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. (26)
Effect on Reproductive Hormones: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of leaves on the pituitary-gonad axis in young male mice of Balb/C. Results showed a dose-dependent negative effect of celery extracts in the pituitary-gonad axis in male mice, with significant decrease in FSH and decrease in LH and testosterone concentrations. (27)
Insecticidal: Musca domestica, the housefly, breeding in human and animal excreta and a wide variety of domestic rubbish, can act as a vector for many diseases .Study showed an Apium graveolens extract to have insecticidal activity against Musca domestica. A. graveolens contains flavonoid and saponin believed to have potential as insecticide. (28)
Hypotensive / Cardioinhibitory: Study evaluated aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery for effects on mean blood pressure of anesthetized rabbits and contractility of isolated rat atria. Results showed hypotensive, negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, which could be partially mediated through stimulation of muscarinic receptors. The ethanol extract exhibited greater inhibitory effect than the aqueous extract. (30)
Antibacterial / Cardioinhibitory / Leaves: Study of water and alcoholic extracts of leaves in vitro showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus. Findings showed significant antibacterial, diuretic and attenuating effect in correcting the urinary system affection and damage resulting from intraperitoneally induced Staphylococcus aureus infection. (31)
Antiulcer / Antisecretory / Cytoprotective: Study evaluated an ethanol extract for antigastric ulcer activity using various experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. Pretreatment with celery extract produced dose dependent reduction in all experimentally induced gastric lesions, with ability to replenish depleted levels of gastric wall mucus and gastric mucosal non-protein sulfhydryl, with increase in gastric mucosal malondialdehyde. Results suggest AG extract significantly protects gastric mucosa and suppresses basal gastric secretion, possibly through its antioxidant potential. (32)
Protection Against DOX-Induced Toxicities / Leaves and Stalks: Study showed potential protective effect of A. graveolens against cumulative DOX-induced cardiac, hepatic, and hematologic toxicity in male rabbits probably through a mechanism related to direct and indirect antioxidant effects. (33)
Increased Spermatogenesis / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract on histological properties of testis and number of sexual cells in male rats. Results showed increased spermatogenesis in male rats, with no destructive effects on testicular tissue. (35)
Increased Spermatogenesis / Leaves: Study showed a hydroalcoholic extract of celery improved the destructive effects of propylene glycol on the testes and sexual cells. Celery is a strong antioxidant due to its flavonoids, and antioxidants can directly or indirectly impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis to increase sperm count and fertility. Findings suggest celery can be considered a medicinal herb for infertility. (36) Study evaluated the effect of an aqueous extract of leaves on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Results showed a remarkable increase in seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume, and number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Results indicate celery leaf extract may improve the spermatogenesis process and sperm fertility parameters. (40)
Protective Against Doxorubicin-Induced Toxic Effects: Study evaluated the potential protective effect of A. graveolens against cumulative DOX-induced toxic effects to the heart, liver, and blood components in male rabbits. The cardiotoxic, hepatotoxic, and hematotoxic effects of DOX may be attributed to the combination of free radical oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Results showed a protective effect through a direct and indirect antioxidant property, and suggests a supportive care agent during anticancer treatment. (41)
Mosquito Repellent Activity: Study evaluated the mosquito repellency of ethanolic preparation of hexane-extracted A. graveolens and compared with 15 commercial mosquito repellents including the widely used DEET. Commercial repellents, except DEET formulations, showed lower repellency than that of A. graveolens extract. Applied on human skin under field conditions, the extract plus 5% vanillin showed strong repellent action against a wide range of mosquito species belonging to various genera. Apium graveolens is a potential candidate for development of a commercial repellent that may be an alternative to conventional synthetic chemicals, especially in community vector control applications. (42)
• Effect on Delivery Rate, Weight and Gender Ratio / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of celery leaf on delivery rate in female rats, weight, and gender ration of infants. Results showed no significant difference in delivery rate (p>0.05). Consumption of celery leaf can increase the number of infants, and is associated with weight loss. Changes could be associated with compounds such as phytosterols and flavonoids (ß-cystosterol and quercetin). (43)
• No Considerable Effect on Male Hormones / Leaves: Phytoestrogenic compounds may affect the pituitary-gonadal axis. This study evaluated the efficacy of hydroalcoholic extracts of celery leaves on serum testosterone, LH, and FSH in male rats. Oral administration of the celery leaf extract at dose of 200 mg/kbw for 20 consecutive days resulted in a significant decrease of LH (p<0.05). Levels of FSH and testosterone did not show a significant decrease. Results showed that in the administered dose, the celery extract does not have any considerable effect on secretion of hormones in male rats. (44)
• Antioxidant / Hypoglycemic / Amelioration of Stress Related Diabetic Complications / Seeds: Study investigated an n-butanol extract of celery for antioxidant activity in its ability to ameliorate lipid peroxidation in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results moderation of blood glucose within normal range, enhanced body weight gain, and normalization of activities of all antioxidant systems. Results suggests the n-butanol seed extract may have a potent role in ameliorating stressful complications in diabetes mellitus. (45)
• Antispasmodic / Seeds: Study of a petroleum ether extract of seeds showed antispasmodic activity against acetylcholine induced contraction in guinea pig ileum. (46)
• Toxicological Study / Anti-Inflammatory / Seeds: An alcoholic extract of seed underwent toxicological evaluation in a male and female model of rats in doses of 0, 150, or 5,000 mg/kg per day. All animals survived treatment with no visible or behavioral signs of toxicity. There were toxicologically significant sub-chronic effects of oral A-CSE in rats. In a model of chronic pain and inflammation in rats, 1500 mg/kg per day was shown to be as effective as either naproxen (30 mg/kg) or ibuprofen (100 mg/kg) (47)
Caution / Interaction of Celery Tablets with Thyroxine: There are anecdotal reports on the potential interaction between thyroxine and celery seed tablets—cases where the use of celery seed tablets on patients maintained on thyroid medications caused a decrease in thyroid functions. Physicians and pharmacists should communicate this potential interaction to patients. (49)
• Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Induction of Apoptosis / Human Prostatic Carcinoma Cell Line: Study evaluated the anti-cancer effect of an ethanolic extract A. graveolens on human prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCap. Results showed an antiproliferative effect exerted by A. graveolens extract triggered by induction of apoptosis. The expression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) was down-regulated by treatment of A. graveolens extract. (50)
• Antibacterial / Essential Oil: Study evaluated essential oils extracted from the seeds of five plants (Apium graveolens, Crimminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Ferula copoda, and Trachyspermum amni) for antimicrobial activity against pathogens isolated from ENT and urinary tract infections. All the oils showed considerable antimicrobial effect. The oil of Apium graveolens showed more activity against Strept. pyogenes, followed by E. coli and Staph. aureus. (51)
• Anticonvulsant / Effect on Brain Tissue Oxidative Damage in PTZ-Induced Seizures: Study evaluated the antioxidant and CNS depressant effects of an aqueous extract of A. graveolens on brain tissue oxidative dame in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure models in rats. Results showed the aqueous extract of aerial parts possess anticonvulsant activity accompanied by an antioxidant effect on the brain. (52)
• Antidepressant / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the chemical composition of essential oil and its antidepressant effect in mice and its effect on motor balance, serum and brain antioxidant capacity. Assessment of depression was done with forced swimming and open field tests and motor balance with Rotarod, along with measurements of serum and brain antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde levels. Results showed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemical neurotransmitter-regulating properties. (54)
• Antioxidant / Review: Study is a systematic review of the antioxidant activity of celery. It reports on the properties of celery leaves and seeds. Celery yields compounds such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, apigenin, luteolin, tannin, saponin, and kaempferol, with powerful antioxidant characteristics to remove free radicals. (55)
• Effect on Delivery Rate, Weight and Gender Ration / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of celery leaf on delivery rate in female rats, weight, and gender ration of infants. Results showed delivery rate in experimental groups was not significant (p>0.05). Consumption of leaf can increase the number of infants, and was associated with weight loss. Difference in gender ration was not statistically significant. Changes may be associated with compounds such as phytosterols and flavonoids. (56)
• Effect on Metabolic Syndrome / Review: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of multiple conditions viz. hypertension, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, and hyperglycemia, associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This review summarized the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of celery components on insulin action, glucose, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure. (57)
• Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition Kinetic / Anti-Gouton Metabolic Syndrome / Review: Study has suggest celery has potential anti-gout effect. A flavonoid was shown to inhibit activity of xanthine oxidase enzyme up to 85.44%. This study investigated the type of inhibition kinetics of an ethanol crude extract and fraction. Results showed competitive inhibition. Fraction 6 showed highest activity (85.08%). The active compounds were identified as 5,77-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one and 2,3-dihydro-6-hydroxy-5-benzofuran carbooxylic acid. (58)
• Antioxidant / Neuroprotective / Ameliorative Effect on Parkinson-like Symptoms: Study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of A. graveolens extract against a Parkinson's disease (PD) model induced by MPTP in C57BL/6 mice. Behavioral testing included a rotarod apparatus, a narrow beam test, a drag test, grid walk test, a swimming test, and resting tremor evaluation. Monoamine oxidase A and B activity, lipid peroxidation activity, and superoxida anion levels were measured. A. graveolens at dose of 375 mg/kg demonstrated the highest effect and led to significant improvements in behavioral performance, oxidative stress parameters, and monoamine oxidase A and B. The extract also increased the number of neurons immunopositive for tyrosine hydroxylase expression. (59)
• Effect on Thyroid Function: Study showed celery can induce hyperthyroidsim after oral celery extract consumption for weight loss. A 36-year old female patient on a dietary intake of 6 g/day of celery in powder form for weight reduction showed a weight loss of 26 kg during 78 days of celery extract consumption. Patient presented with blurred vision, palpitation, and nausea. TSH was 0.001 mIU/l with a T4 of 23 ng/dl. Study concludes hyperthyroidism may be induced by celery extract consumption and may be a side-effect of frequent celery extract consumption. (60)
• Antihypertensive Effect / Seed: Study investigated the effects of various seed extracts on blood pressure in normotensive and deoxycorticosterone acetate-induced hypertensive rats. Spironolactone was used as diuretic and positive control. NBP (n-butylphthalide), an antihypertensive constituent, was highest in the hexanic extract, 3.7 and 4 times higher than the methanolic and aqueous ethanolic extracts. Results concluded celery seed extracts have antihypertensive properties, attributable to NBP, with potential in treatment of chronic elevated BP. (61)
• Fertility and Ovarian Effects / Seed: Study investigated the effects of aqueous extract of seeds on fertility of adult female rats through its effect on diameter of both ovary and uterus and number of ovarian follicles. Results showed increase in ovarian and uterine weights. Microscopically, there was noticeable increase in thickness of ovary and uterus muscle layer, increase in numbers of primary and secondary Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. (62)
• Larvicidal / Repellent / Irritant Potential against Dengue Vecotr / Ae. aegypti / Seed Essential Oil: Study evaluated the efficacy of eco-friendly and biodegradable seed essential oil for efficacy against dengue vector, Ae. aegypti. Results suggest celery seed essential oil can be used as an efficient larvicide and repellent against Ae. aegypti. (64)
• Effect of A. graveolens and Cinnamon zeylanicum on Metabolic and Ovarian Oxidative Injury in Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Study compared the role of hydroalcoholic extract of Apium graveolens and C. zeylanicum on metabolic changes and ovarian oxidative injury in a rat model of PCOS. Results showed extracts of both AG and CZ exhibited useful impacts in the regulation of FBS, insulin, lipid profile, and oxidative stress markers in the palliation of PCOS complications. (65)
• Effect on Creatinine and Urea Level / Ethylene Glycol Induced Rats: Study showed an ethyl acetate fraction of celery herb had a effective activity at dose of 150 mg/kbw, as evidenced by a reduction in urea and creatinine level on male wistar rats induced by ethylene glycol. (66)
• Antihyperlipidemic Effect / Seeds: Study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Apium gravelens and chloroform and aqueous fractions in olive oil-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Atorvastatin was standard drug. Phytochemical screening yielded terpenoid, tannin, alkaloid, glycoside, flavanoid, and sterols. Results showed acute treatment caused stimulatory effect on HDL level and inhibition in TC and TG elevation induced by olive oil. (68)
• Antihyperuricemia / Anti-Gout / Clinical Trial: A single, blind, randomized standard control study evaluated the efficacy of A. graveolens in lowering serum uric acid level in the blood or 40 patients with hyperuricemia. At the end of the study, there was significant reductions in joint pain and serum uric acid levels. There was a statistically significant difference between test and control groups. Results were encouraging for the treatment of hyperuricemia. (69)
• Formula Jamu Antihipertensi (FJA) / Captopril: A jamu formulation containing six plant extracts: three blood pressure reducing components i.e. leaves of Apium graveolens, Orthosiphon aristatus, and Centella asiatica, and three components for improving physical fitness i.e., leaves of P. niruri, rhizomes of C. xanthorrhiza and C. domestica. Synergism has been demonstrated with A. graveolens, O. aristatus, and C. asiatica. A. graveolens has been shown to have hypotensive, negative inotropic and chronotropic effects through stimulation of muscarinic receptors. The apigenin of A. graveolens has vasodilator and diuretic effects through effects on reduction of sodium stores, blood volume and cardiac output. Study showed FJA for 4 weeks is equally as effective as captopril in reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. (70)
• Effect on Isoprenaline Induced Myocardian Infarction: Study evaluated the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. graveolens on isoprenaline induced myocardial infarction in albino rats. Results showed reduction in cholesterol, along with decrease in cardiac marker enzymes LDH, CPK and SGOT. The level of lipidperoxide in the liver and heart tissue was also reduced compared to control. (71)

- Wild-crafted.
- Small scale commercial production.
- Celery seed tablets in the cybermarket.

              Abuse and Plagiarism of the Compilation on Philippine Medicinal Plants Under the Guise of Fair Use

Updated December 2019 / April 2017 / April 2016

Photos / Content © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCES / CELERI GRAVEOLENS - USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 660
OTHER IMAGE SOURCES / Flora von Deutschland Österreich und der Schweiz (1885) / Apium graveolens / Dieses Buch ist Teil von www.biolib.de der virtuellen biologischen Bibliothek / Kurt Stueber, 2007 / GNU Free Documentation / caliban.mpiz-koeln.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Hepatoprotective activity of Apium graveolens and Hygrophila auriculata against paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication in rats / Anubha Singh and S S Handa / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 49, Issue 3, 15 December 1995, Pages 119-126 / doi:10.1016/0378-8741(95)01291-5
Effect of celery (Apium graveolens) extracts on some biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride / Popovie Mira et al / PTR. Phytotherapy research • 2006, vol. 20, no7, pp. 531-53
Apium graveolens modulates sodium valproate-induced reproductive toxicity in rats / Alaaeldin A. Hamza, Amr Amin / Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology
Mosquitocidal, Nematicidal, and Antifungal Compounds from Apium graveolens L. Seeds

Antipyretic effect of celery (Apium graveolens) extracts in mice
/ M Bursac et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, Oct 2006; 44(8): pp 581 - 584 / DOI: 10.1080/13880200600896801
The essential oil of Apium graveolens var. secalinum and its cercaricidal activity / M M Saleh et al / Pharmacy World & Science • Volume 7, Number 6 / December, 1985 / DOI 10.1007/BF01959202
Hypolipidemic Effects of Seed Extract of Celery (Apium graveolens ) in Rats / Kamal Mansi et al /
RESEARCH ARTICLE, 2009 | Volume : 5 | Issue : 20 | Page : 301-305
The Effect of Administration of Apium Graveolens Aqueous Extract on the Serum Levels of Glucose and Lipids of Diabetic Rats / M Roghani et al / Iranian Journal of endocrinology and Metabolism, Volume 9, Number 2, 2007
Field evaluation of G10, a celery (Apium graveolens)-based topical repellent, against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand / B. Tueten, W. Choochote et al / Parasitology Research, Volume 104, Number 3 / February, 2009 / DOI 10.1007/s00436-008-1224-9
Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of isolated fractions from Apium graveolens seeds in mice / Mina Ramezani, Sima Nasri, Narguess Yassa / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology, August 2009; Vol 47, No 8: pp 740-743 / https://doi.org/10.1080/13880200902939283
Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L., against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) / Wej Choochote, Benjawan Tueteum et al / December, 2004 Journal of Vector Ecology
Modulation of di- (2- ethylhexyl) phthalate induced hepatic toxicity by Apium graveolens L. seeds extract in rats / G C Jain, Hemant Pareek, B S Khajja et al / African Journal of Biochemistry Research Vol.3 (5), pp. 222-225, May, 2009
The Effect of Chronic Administration of Apium graveolens Aqueous Extract on Learning and Memory in Normal and Diabetic Rats / Mehrdad Roghani et al / Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Autumn 2001, Vol 1, No 1
Sorting Apium names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.

Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L., against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) / Wej Choochote, Benjawan Tuetun, Duangta Kanjanapothi, Eumporn Rattanachanpichai, Udom Chaithong, Prasong Chaiwong, Atchariya Jitpakdi, Pongsri Tippawangkosol, Doungrat Riyong, and Benjawan Pitasawat / Journal of Vector Ecology, December 2004
Isolation of 3-n-Butyl Phthalide & Sedanenolide from Apium graveolens Linn. / Syed Sufiyan Fazala*, Mohammad Mansoor Ansarib, Rajeev K Singlac, Salim Khand / Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2012; 2(3): 258-261
Induction of Apoptosis and Cytotoxic Activities of Apium graveolens Linn. Using in vitro Models /
Varadharajan Subhadradevi, kalathil Khairunissa, Kuppusamy Asokkumar, Muthuswamy Umamaheswari Andhichettiyar Sivashanmugam and Puliyath Jagannath / Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 9 (1): 90-94, 2011 ISSN 1990-9233 © IDOSI Publications, 2011
Vasorelaxant activity of extracts obtained from Apium graveolens: Possible source for vasorelaxant molecules isolation with potential antihypertensive effect / Vergara-Galicia Jorge*, Jimenez-Ramirez Luis Ángel, Tun-Suarez Adrián, Aguirre-Crespo Francisco, Salazar-Gómez Anuar, Estrada-Soto Samuel, Sierra-Ovando Ángel, Hernandez-Nuñez Emmanuel / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013; 3(10): 776-779 / doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60154-9
Evaluation of Adptogenic Activity of Extracts of Apium graveolens on Mice and Rats
./ Vasanth Kumar and Chandrashekhar Sultanpur / Pharmacologia, 2012, 3: 611-616 / DOI: 10.5567/pharmacologia.2012.611.616
In vitro angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of seed extract of Apium graveolens Linn. / Muthuswamy Umamaheswari*, Mathew Puthenpurackal Ajith, Kuppusamy Asokkumar, Thirumalaiswamy Sivashanmugam, Varadharajan Subhadradevi, Puliyath Jagannath, Arumugam Madeswaran / Annals of Biological Research, 2012, 3(3):1274-1282
Role of Aqueous Extract of Apium graveolens Seeds Against the Haematotoxicity Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Female Rats / Orass S. Khuon / Department of Basic Sciences / College of Nursing / University of Thi –Qar / Iraq./ iasj.net
A potent larvicidal and growth disruption activities of Apium graveolens (Apiaceae) seed extract on the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) / Khondkar Ehteshamul Kabira, Rajput Muhammed Tariqb, Shakil Ahmedc, Muhammad Iqbal Choudharya*
Apium graveolens accentuates urinary Ca +2 excretions in experimental model of nephrocalcinosis
/ Faruk H Al Jawad, Rafi A.M Al Razzuqi, Ali A Al Jeboori / International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 2011, Vol 5, No 2, pp 100-102.
Effect Of Celery (Apium Graveolens) Seeds Extract On Protease Inhibitor (Ritonavir) Induced Dyslipidemia / QS Ahmed, K Sayedda. / NJIRM. 2012; 3(1): 52-56
Antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens essential oil
/ Baananou S, Bouftira I, Mahmoud A, Boukef K, Marongiu B, Boughattas / Nat Prod Res. 2012 Aug 30.
The Effect of Celery (Apium graveolens) Extract on the Reproductive Hormones in Male Mice / Mehrdad Modaresi, Gholamreza Ghalamkari, Alireza jalalizand / APCBEE Procedia, Volume 4, 2012, Pages 99–104
The Potential Test of Ethanol Celery leaf (Apium graveolens) Extract as an Insecticide on housefly (Musca domestica) Using Spraying Method / Dr.Aswin, Dr.Endang, Tan Shu Zhen
Unani description of Tukhme Karafs (Seeds of Apium graveolens Linn) and its Scientific reports
/ I. Mohammed Tabarak Hussain, Ghufran Ahmed, Nasreen Jahan and Mehar Adiba / International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol. 2(11), 88-93, November (2013)
/ Suzana Branković, Dušanka Kitić, Mirjana Radenković, Slavimir Veljković, Milica Kostić, Bojana Miladinović and Dragana Pavlovic / Acta Medica Medianae 2010; 49(1): pp 13-16 / UDC: 613.26:615.322
Studying the therapeutic effect of watery & alcoholic extracts extract of Apium graveolens leaves on urinary tract infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus in rabbits / Noor Sami Aboud Nawar Jasim Hussein Hana Kadum Al-Musawi / Journal of Babylon University Pure and Applied Sciences, 2014; 22(2)
Gastric antiulcer, antisecretory and cytoprotective properties of celery (Apium graveolens) in rats / Tawfeq Al-Howiriny, Abdulmalik Alsheikh, Saleh Alqasoumi, Mohammed Al-Yahya, Kamal ElTahir, and Syed Rafatullah / Pharmaceutical Biology, July 2010, Vol. 48, No. 7 , Pages 786-793 / doi:10.3109/13880200903280026
Effect of Apium graveolens Leaves and Stalks in Reducing the Side Effects of Doxorubicin in Male Rabbits / Haider Ridha Salman, Batool Amein Al-Khafaji, Nisreen J. Mohammed / Medical Journal of Babylon 10:1 , 2014 / doi:1812-156X-10-1
Isolation of 3-n-Butyl Phthalide & Sedanenolide from Apium graveolens Linn
/ Syed Sufiyan Fazal, Mohammad Mansoor Ansari, Rajeev K Singla, , Salim Khan / Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2012; 2(3): 258-261
The Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Apium graveolens Leaf on the Number of Sexual Cells and Testicular Structure in Rat / Wesam Kooti; Esrafil Mansouri; Maryam Ghasemiboroon; Mahmoud Harizi; Damoon Ashtary-Larky; Reza Afrisham / Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. 2014 November; 9(4): e17532.
Protective effects of celery (Apium Graveolens) on testis and cauda epididymal spermatozoa in rat / Wesam Kooti, Esrafil Mansori, Maryam Ghasemiboroon, Mahmoud Harizi, Ashraf Amirzarga / Iran J Reprod Med., May 2014; 12(5): pp 365-366
Celery / World's Healthiest Foods
Investigation of Mineral Constituents of Apium graveolens L available in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa- Pakistan
Kalsoom Qureshi, Farrukh Tabassum, Neelam, Muhammad Amin, Muhammad Zain Akram, Muhammad Zafar / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2014; 3(4): 234-239
Celery / Common names / Flowers of India
Apium graveolens L. / Synonyms / The Plant List
Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L.) leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats
/ Ameneh Hardani, Mohammad Reza Afzalzadeh,* Ashraf Amirzargar, Esrafil Mansouri, and Zakieh Meamar / Avicenna J Phytomed. 2015 Mar-Apr; 5(2): 113–119.
Effect of Apium graveolens Leaves and Stalks in Reducing the Side Effects of Doxorubicin in Male Rabbits / Haider Ridha Salman, Batool Amein Al-Khafaji, Nisreen J. Mohammed / Medical Journal of Babylon 10:1, 2014 / doi:1812-156X-10-1
Repellent properties of celery, Apium graveolens L., compared with commercial repellents, against mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions / Benjawan Tuetun, Wej Choochote, Duangta Kanjanapothi, Eumporn Rattanachanpichai, Udom Chaithong, Prasong Chaiwong, Atchariya Jitpakdi, Pongsri Tippawangkosol, Duangrat Riyong and Benjawan Pitasawat / Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol10, No11, pp 1190–1198, Nov 2005 / doi:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01500.x
The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Apium graveolens L. Leaf on Delivery Rate in Female Rats, and Weight and Gender Ratio of Infants / Esrafil Mansori, Maryam Ghasemiboroon, Majid Asadi Samani, Fatima Alamiri, Damoon Ashtari, Larky, Najmeh Kafash Farkhad, Wesam Kooti, * Ameneh Hardani, and Ashraf Amir Zargar / Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. / Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. / doi: 10.17795/jjnpp-28802.
The effects of celery leave extract on male hormones in rats / Wesam Kooti, Maryam Ghasemi-boroon, Mehri Ghafourian, Majid Asadi-Samani*, Mahmoud Harizi, Naim Sharafi-Ahvazi, Reza Afrisham / J HerbMed Pharmacol. 2015; 4(2): 56-60.
Antioxidant activity of n-butanol extract of celery (Apium graveolens) seed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats / Jabbar A. A. Al-Sa'aidi, Mohsen N. A. Alrodhan and Ahmed K. Ismael / Research in Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Vol. 4(2), pp. 24-29, November 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/RPB12.002
Evaluation of Antispasmodic Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Seeds of Apium graveolens Linn(PEESAG) on Acetylcholine Induced Contraction in Guinea Pigs Ileum- An experimental study / Nisar Ahmed, Md. Anzar Alam, Faizana Nasreen, Sadique Husain / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR), Dec 2016; Vol 6, No 12
A toxicological investigation of a celery seed extract having anti-inflammatory activity / M. C. Powanda • K. D. Rainsford / Inflammopharmacol / DOI 10.1007/s10787-010-0049-1 Inflammopharmacology
Natural Antioxidant Changes in Fresh and Dried celery (Apium graveolens) / Manal A. Sorour, Naglaa H. M. Hassanen, Mona H. M. Ahmed / American Journal of Energy Engineering, 2015; 3(2-1): 12-16 / doi: 10.11648/j.ajee.s.2015030201.13
Thyroxine interacts with celery seed tablets? / Geraldine Moses / Aust Prescr 2001;24:6-71 Jan 2001 / DOI: 10.18773/austprescr.2001.004
Apium graveolens Extract Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Induces Apoptosis in the Human Prostatic Carcinoma Cell Line LNCaP / Köken Tülay, Koca Buğra, Özkurt Mete, Erkasap Nilüfer, Kuş Gökhan, and Karalar Mustafa / Journal of Medicinal Food. December 2016, 19(12): 1166-1171 / doi:10.1089/jmf.2016.0061.
Preliminary Studies on the antibacterial properties of essential oil extracts from five folk medicines / Hameed Afzal, Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar / JPMA-Journal of Pakistan Medical Association
The Effects of Aqueous Extract of Apium Graveolens on Brain Tissues Oxidative Damage in Pentylenetetrazole-induced Seizures Model in Rat / Shadi Choupankareh, Farimah Beheshti, Sareh Karimi, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Hassan Rakhshandeh, Mohsen Rezaeipour, Mahmoud Hosseini / Current Nutrition and Food Science, 2017; 13(3) / DOI: 10.2174/1573401313666170316111315
An Updated Phytopharmacological Review on Medicinal Plant of Arab Region: Apium graveolens Linn / Abdulrahman Khazim Al-Asmari, Md., Tanwir Athar, and Saeed G Kadasah / Pharmacogn Rev, Jan-Jun 2017; 11(21): pp 13-18 / doi: 10.4103/phrev.phrev_35_16 / PMID: 28503047
Phytochemical Study and Antidepressant Effect of Essential Oil of Apium graveolens L. / Mehrdad Shahrani, Hossein Amini-Khoei, Zahra Mirzaeian, Ali Ahmadi, Zahra Lori Goeini / Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 2019; 27(4): pp 1-10 / https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i430179
A Review of the Antioxidant Activity of Celery (Apium graveolens L) / Wesam Kooti, MSc, Nahid Daraei, MSc / Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, Oct 2017; 22(4): pp 1029-1034 / doi: 10.1177/2156587217717415 / PMID: 28701046
The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Apium graveolens L. Leaf on Delivery Rate in Female Rats, Weight and Gender Ratio of Infants / Esrafil Mansouri,  Maryam Ghasemiboroon,  Majid Asadi Samani,  Fatima Alamiri et al /  Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products /
DOI : 10.5812/jjnpp.28802
Beneficial effects of celery (Apium graveolens) on metabolic syndrome: A review of the existing evidences / Narges Hedayati, Mehri Bemani Naeini, Arsh Mohammadinejad,  Seyed Ahmad Mohal=jeri / Phytotherapy Research, 33(12) / https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6492
Inhibition Kinetic of Apium graveolens L. Ethanol Extract and its Fraction on the Activity of Xanthine Oxidase and its Active Compound / Dyah Iswantini, Nadinah, Latifah Kosim Darusman and Trivadila / Journal of Biological Sciences, 2012; 12: pp 51-56 / DOI: 10.3923/jbs.2012.51.56 
The antioxidant and neurochemical activity of Apium graveolens L. and its ameliorative effect on MPTP-induced Parkinson-like symptoms in mice / Pennapa Chonpathompikunlert, Phetcharat Boonruamkaew et al / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018; 18, Article No 103 / doi:10.1186/s12906-018-2166-0
Effect of celery extract on thyroid function; Is herbal therapy safe in obesity? / Mohammad Bagher Maljaei, Seyedeh Parisa Moosavian, Omid Mirmosayyeb et al / International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2019; 10(1) / DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_209_17
Antihypertensive Effect of Celery Seed on Rat Blood Pressure in Chronic Administration / Maryam Hassanpour Moghadam, Mohsen Imenshahidi, and Seyed Ahmad Mohajeri / Journal of Medicinal FoodVol. 16(6) / https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2012.2664
HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF CELERY AQUEOUS SEEDS EXTRACT (APIUM GRAVEOLENS L.) ON OVARIES IN ADULT FEMALE RATS / Marwa Jamal Hussain, Ali Kareem Sarboot and Ehsan F. Hussein / Plant Archies, 2018; 18(2): pp 2717-2722
Identification and Profile of Furanocoumarins from the Ribbed Celery (Apium Graveolens L Var. Dulce Mill./ Pers.) / Agnieszka Najda, Jan Dyduch, Klaudia Swica, Magdalena Kaplan et al / Food Science and Technology Research, 2015; 21(1): pp 67-75 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.3136/fstr.21.67
Larvicidal, repellent, and irritant potential of the seed-derived essential oil of Apium graveolens against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) / Sarita Kumar, Monika Mishra, Naim Wahab, and Radhika Warikoo / Frontiers in Public Health, Sept 2014 / https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2014.00147
Investigating the Role of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Apium graveolens and Cinnamon zeylanicum on Metabolically Change and Ovarian Oxidative Injury in a Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / Fariba Khodaelfar, Seyyed Mohammad Bagher Fazljou, Arash Khaki et al / International Journal of Women's Health and Reproduction Sciences, Jan 2019; 7(1): pp 92-98
Marline Nainggolan, Kasmirul Ramlan Sinaga, Siti Morin Sinaga, Sony Eka Nugraha / INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF PHARMACY, 2018; 9(10)
The Antipyretic effects of Apium graveolens (Celery) leaves crude extract on Oryctolagus cuciculus (male rabbits). / Jimson Rey Q Intong, Hussein Paul Dimatingkal, Suwat Chongram et al / Thesis/Dissertations, Medicine, 2010 / University of Vusayas
Effect of Chloroform and Aqueous Basic Fraction of Ethanolic Extract from Apium graveolens l. In Experimentally-Induced Hyperlipidemia in Rats / Deepa Iyer, U K Patil /Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, 2011; 8(1) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.2202/1553-3840.1529
Efficacy of Apium graveolens (Bekh Karafs) in Hyperuricemia: A Randomized Single Blind Standard Control Study / M. A. Siddiqui, Nasimul H., Arshid Iqbal Wani / Research & Reviews: Journal of Medicine,, 2017; 17(2)
Formula Jamu Antihipertensi and captopril are equally effective in patients with hypertension / Atina Hussaana, Hadi Sarosa, Ulfah Dian Indrayani, Chodidjah†, Bagas Widiyanto, and Danis Pertiwi / Universa Medicina, May-August 2016; 35(2)
EFFECT OF HYDRO - ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Apium graveo- lens Linn ON ISOPRENALINE INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN ALBINO RATS. / Aravind R, Rajesh B, Gopakumar D, Verghese S, Pillai N.R and Nair H.J / Journal of Pharma Search, 2013; 8(3) / ISSN:0621-5370

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