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Family Umbelliferae
Kintsay
Apium graveolens L.
CELERY

Fan qin cai

Scientific names Common names
Apium graveolens Linn. Guichae (Tag.)
Apium dulce Mill. Kinchai  (Tag.)
  Kintsay  (Tag.)
  Quichay (Tag.) 
  Celery (Engl.) 

Other vernacular names
ARMENIAN: Lakhod garos.
BENGALI : Chanu, Randhuni.
CHINESE: Qin, Fan qin cai, Ch'in-nst'ai
CROATIAN: Celer.
CZECH: Celer.
DANISH: Strandselleri, Vild selleri.
DUTCH: Bladselderij, Groene selder.
FINNISH: Ruokaselleri, Selleri.
GUJARATI: Ajamoda, Bodi ajamoda.
HEBREW : Carpas reychani, Kerfes rihani, Karpass rehani, Seleri.
HINDI: Ajmud, Bari ajmud.
HUNGARIAN: Zeller.
ITALIAN: Sedano, Sedano comune.
JAPANESE: Oranda mitsuba.
MALAY: Daun sop.
MARATHI: Ajmoda.
NORWEGIAN: Hageselleri, Selleri.
POLISH: Seler, Selery zwyczajne.
PERSIAN: Karafs.
RUSSIAN: Sel'derei.
SANSKRIT : Ajmoda, Ajamoda.
SLOVAKIAN: Zelerové semená (seeds).
SLOVENIAN: Zelena.
SPANISH: Apio, Apio borde, Apio de agua, Api (Catalan).
SWEDISH: Blekselleri, Selleri.
TAMIL: Ajmod.
TELUGU: Ajumoda.
THAI: Khuen chai (Khen chaai), Phak khao puen, Phak puem, Phak puen
TURKISH : Kereviz, Yabanî kerevizi.
URDU Ajmod (Ajmud).

Botany
Kintsay is an erect herb, seldom growing over 30 centimeters in height. The Chinese variety has short stems. Leaves are pinnate, with large, deeply-lobed segments, on long petioles. Peduncles are short, less than 1 centimeter in length, and borne opposite the leaves. Flowers are borne in umbels, very small, and greenish white. Fruit is very small, with narrow ridges.

Distribution
- A biennial of Europe and northern Asia which has been cultivated from fairly remote times.
- Introduced in the Philippines.
- Two forms are cultivated in the Philippines: (1) In the lowlands, the small Chinese form, known as "kinchai," raised extensively by the Chinese and common in the Manila markets. (2) Baguio kind has a thicker and larger leaf stalk and is blanched, much smaller than the high-grade celery cultivated in temperate zones.

Properties
- Considered anti-inflammatory, deobstruent, diuretic, resolvent, pectoral, tonic, carminative, emmenagogue, diuretic, adjunct to purgatives, lithotriptic, stimulant, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac.
Possible antioxidant.

Constituents
- The plant yields a glucoside, apiin; a volatile oil, mannite and inosite.
- Bulb yields a volatile oil, 0.009%; glutamine; asparagine; tyrosine; mannitol.
- Fruit contains a volatile oil, 2.5-3%; apigenin; protein, 1.3%; choline, linase.
- Volatile oil: d-limonene; a-pinene; cineole; cymene; a-terpineol.

- Seeds are a rich source of phenolic constituents such as flavonoids, anthrons, xanthons and tannins.
- Study yielded two phthalide compounds, 3-n- butylphthalide and sedanenolide. (17)
- The major components of volatile oil were β-pinene, camphene, cumene, limonene, α-thuyene, α-pinene, β-phellendrene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, sabinene and terpinolene. (26)

Parts used and preparation
Entire plant.

Uses
Culinary / Nutritional
- Petioles and leaves are used for seasoning local dishes, especially pansit, chop suey, bachoi, etc.
- Excellent source of calcium and iron; contains vitamins A, B, and C.
- Seeds are rich in iron and vitamins, including A, B and C.
- Celery juice before meals as appetite suppressant; after meals as a digestive.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, plant decoction is used as a diuretic and emmenagogue.
- Poultice of plant with barley meal used as deobstruent and resolvent.
- Used as a tonic and carminative adjunct to purgatives.
- Used as diuretic, lithontriptic and alexipharmic.
- Root used as alterative and diuretic, given in anasarca and colic.
- Antiasthmatic (bronchodilation): Pound seeds, wrap in thin cloth and inhale frequently.
- Used for hypertension, flatulence, indigestion.
- Decoction of seeds for bronchitis and asthma; also for liver and spleen diseases.
- Seeds used as stimulant and cordial.
- Arthritic and rheumatic disorders.
- Seed infusions used for rheumatoid arthritis and gout.
- Celery roots used as aphrodisiac.
- In Mexico, decoction of root used to diminish milk.
Others
Perfumery use:
The volatile oil is of value in perfumery, where it is used in combination with various perfumes, both as fixative and/or as additional scent.

Studies
Hepatoprotective:
Hepatoprotective activity of Apium graveolens and Hygrophila auriculata against paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication in rats: Study showed both extract of seeds to possess significant hepatoprotective activity. (1)
Antioxidant / Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Oxidative Stress:
Effect of celery (Apium graveolens) extracts on some biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride: Study of both extract of roots and leaves are showed antioxidant activity probably involving flavonoids and other antioxidant compounds. (2)
Anti-Toxicity / Apigenin: Pretreatment with Ag extract effectively alleviated most of the VPA-induced effects suggesting a protective role against experimental VPA toxicity. Apigenin was a major factor of the Ag extract. (3)
Nematicidal / Antifungal / Mosquitocidal: Study of AG seeds isolated and characterized compounds sedanolide, senkyunolida-N and senkyunolide-J which showed nematicidal, antifungal, and mosquitocidal activities. (4)
Mosquito Repellent / G10: (1) A comparative evaluation of G10, a celery-based topical mosquito repellent product, with Insect Block 28 and standard 25% DEET showed G10 and IB28 exhibited similarly powerful repellent activities with 100% protection, DEET was effective with 99.68% protection. (2) Study showed AG offers a potential against Ae. aegypti, particularly in its markedly repellent effect.
Antipyretic: Antipyretic effect of celery (Apium graveolens) extracts in mice: Study showed extracts of celery leaf decreased the pyrogenic effect of 12% yeast suspension.
(5)
Essential Oil / Cercaricidal: Essential oil of the fresh aerial parts of Ag at its flowering stage yielded: a- and B-pinene, myrcene, limonene, cis-B-ocimene, g-terpinene, cis-allo-ocimene, trans-farnesene, humulene, apiol, B-selinene, senkyunolide and neocnidilide. Study showed a cercaricidal and chemotactic effect. (6)
Hypolipidemic: Study of the ethanol extract of A. graveolens in adult male albino rats showed significant decrease of total cholesterol, trigylcerides and LDL, and a significant increase in HDL cholesterol. (7)
Hypolipidemic / No Hypoglycemic Effect: Study on the intraperitoneal effects of AG on serum glucose and lipid levels of diabetic rats showed no significant hypoglycemic effect but could possibly lead to appropriate changes in blood lipid profiles. (8)
Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of the aqueous and hexane extracts of AG showed both fractions exhibited remarkable anti-inflammatory effect supporting is traditional use in diseases associated with inflammation. (10)
Hepatoprotective / Anti-Inflammatory: Methanolic extract of A. graveolens seeds tested against Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) induced hepatotoxicity in rats showed hepatoprotective activity with a significant recovery of biochemical parameters. (12)
Learning / Memory Benefits in Diabetic Rats: Study showed chronic oral administration of AG could enhance consolidation and recall capability of stored information only in diabetic animals and did not affect spatial memory of diabetic animals. (13)
Anti-Mosquito Potential / Aedes aegypti: A crude seed extract of Apium graveolens was investigated for anti-mosquito potential, including larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities against Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Results showed larvicidal activity against fourth instar larvae, slight adulticidal activity and repellency. (15)
Anticancer / Apoptosis Induction / Cytotoxic Activities: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of Apium graveolens seeds for antiproliferative effect in vitro on two human cell lines (DLA, Dalton's lymphoma ascites; L929, Mouse lung fibroblast). The methanolic extract of seed showed cytotoxicity and provoked DNA fragmentation, a sign of induced apoptosis. Results suggest a potential candidate for an anticancer drug. (18)
Vasorelaxant / Antihypertensive Effect: Study investigated the vasorelaxant effect of organic extracts from Apium graveolens. All the extracts caused concentration-dependent relaxation in precontracted aortic rings, attributed to secondary metabolites and probably mediated by calcium antagonism. Results suggest an ideal source for lead compounds to design potential vasorelaxants and antihypertensive agents. (19)
Adaptogenic Activity: Study investigated the adaptogenic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Apium graveolens in experimentally induced stress models in mice and rats. The extracts showed increased increase in anoxia stress tolerance time and swimming endurance time. Results showed the ethanolic extract with greater adaptogenic property than the aqueous extract. (20)
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitory and Antixoxidant Activity: Study of a methanolic seed extract of Apium graveolens showed significant in vitro ACE inhibitory potency and strong antioxidant activity. (21)
Carbon Tetrachloride induced Hematotoxicity: Study investigated the role of aqueous extract of A. graveolens seeds against hematotoxicity induced by CCl4 in female rats. Results showed two-week consumption to be safe at tested doses, and caused improvement in hematological parameters and protection of hematopoietic cells from the damaging effects of CCl4. (22)
Carbon Tetrachloride induced Hematotoxicity: A crude ethanol extract of seed yielded phototoxic compounds which offer potentials activity against Aedes aegypti, particularly through toxic and growth disruptions activities. Results suggest a promising candidate for commercial bioinsecticide development.
(23)
Nephrocalcinosis / Increase Urinary Ca++ Excretion: Study evaluated the effect of A. graveolens in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in rabbit models with induced nephrocalcinosis by a large dose of oxalic acid. Results showed significant reduction in calcium deposition in the renal parenchyma, a significant diuretic effect that accentuates urinary calcium excretion. (24)
Effect on Protease Inhibitor (Ritonavir) Induced Dyslipidemia: Study investigated the protective effect of an ethanolic extract of A. graveolens (celery seeds) on protease inhibitor induced dyslipidemia in mice. Results suggest the ethanolic extract showed potential for improving the lipid profile ad liver lipids deranged by ritonavir, with a efficacy approaching fenofibrate. (25)
Antiulcerogenic / Antibacterial: Study investigated the antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens extracts of aerial parts. Results showed dose-dependent inhibition of gastric lesions, similar to omeprazole. The essential oil was strongly inhibitory against E. coli and moderately inhibitory against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. (26)
Effect on Reproductive Hormones: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of leaves on the pituitary-gonad axis in young male mice of Balb/C. Results showed a dose-dependent negative effect of celery extracts in the pituitary-gonad axis in male mice, with significant decrease in FSH and decrease in LH and testosterone concentrations. (27)
Insecticidal: Musca domestica, the housefly, breeding in human and animal excreta and a wide variety of domestic rubbish, can act as a vector for many diseases .Study showed an Apium graveolens extract to have insecticidal activity against Musca domestica. A. graveolens contains flavonoid and saponin believed to have potential as insecticide. (28)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Small scale commercial production.
 


Last Update November 2013

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCES / CELERI GRAVEOLENS - USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 660
OTHER IMAGE SOURCES / Flora von Deutschland Österreich und der Schweiz (1885) / Apium graveolens / Dieses Buch ist Teil von www.biolib.de der virtuellen biologischen Bibliothek / Kurt Stueber, 2007 / GNU Free Documentation / caliban.mpiz-koeln.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Hepatoprotective activity of Apium graveolens and Hygrophila auriculata against paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication in rats / Anubha Singh and S S Handa / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 49, Issue 3, 15 December 1995, Pages 119-126 / doi:10.1016/0378-8741(95)01291-5
(2)
Effect of celery (Apium graveolens) extracts on some biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride / Popovie Mira et al / PTR. Phytotherapy research • 2006, vol. 20, no7, pp. 531-53
(3)
Apium graveolens modulates sodium valproate-induced reproductive toxicity in rats / Alaaeldin A. Hamza, Amr Amin / Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology
(4)
Mosquitocidal, Nematicidal, and Antifungal Compounds from Apium graveolens L. Seeds
(5)

Antipyretic effect of celery (Apium graveolens) extracts in mice
/ M Bursac et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, Volume 44, Issue 8 October 2006 , pages 581 - 584 / DOI: 10.1080/13880200600896801
(6)
The essential oil of Apium graveolens var. secalinum and its cercaricidal activity / M M Saleh et al / Pharmacy World & Science • Volume 7, Number 6 / December, 1985 / DOI 10.1007/BF01959202
(7)
Hypolipidemic Effects of Seed Extract of Celery (Apium graveolens ) in Rats / Kamal Mansi et al /
RESEARCH ARTICLE, 2009 | Volume : 5 | Issue : 20 | Page : 301-305
(8)
The Effect of Administration of Apium Graveolens Aqueous Extract on the Serum Levels of Glucose and Lipids of Diabetic Rats / M Roghani et al / Iranian Journal of endocrinology and Metabolism, Volume 9, Number 2, 2007
(9)
Field evaluation of G10, a celery (Apium graveolens)-based topical repellent, against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand / B. Tueten, W. Choochote et al / Parasitology Research, Volume 104, Number 3 / February, 2009 / DOI 10.1007/s00436-008-1224-9
(10)
Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of isolated fractions from Apium graveolens seeds in mice / Mina Ramezani, Sima Nasri, Narguess Yassa / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology, August 2009, Vol. 47, No. 8, Pages 740-743
(11)
Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L., against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) / Wej Choochote, Benjawan Tueteum et al / December, 2004 Journal of Vector Ecology
(12)
Modulation of di- (2- ethylhexyl) phthalate induced hepatic toxicity by Apium graveolens L. seeds extract in rats / G C Jain, Hemant Pareek, B S Khajja et al / African Journal of Biochemistry Research Vol.3 (5), pp. 222-225, May, 2009
(13)
The Effect of Chronic Administration of Apium graveolens Aqueous Extract on Learning and Memory in Normal and Diabetic Rats / Mehrdad Roghani et al / Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Autumn 2001, Vol 1, No 1
(14)
Sorting Apium names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.

(15)
Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L., against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) / Wej Choochote, Benjawan Tuetun, Duangta Kanjanapothi, Eumporn Rattanachanpichai, Udom Chaithong, Prasong Chaiwong, Atchariya Jitpakdi, Pongsri Tippawangkosol, Doungrat Riyong, and Benjawan Pitasawat / Journal of Vector Ecology, December 2004
(16)
EFFECT OF APIUM GRAVEOLENS AND AND INSULIN ON BIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF LIVER ENZYME AND GLUCOSE URINE / Adnan, jasim.m.; raid.salih.h. / uobabylon.edu
(17)
Isolation of 3-n-Butyl Phthalide & Sedanenolide from Apium graveolens Linn. / Syed Sufiyan Fazala*, Mohammad Mansoor Ansarib, Rajeev K Singlac, Salim Khand / Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2012; 2(3): 258-261
(18)
Induction of Apoptosis and Cytotoxic Activities of Apium graveolens Linn. Using in vitro Models /
Varadharajan Subhadradevi, kalathil Khairunissa, Kuppusamy Asokkumar, Muthuswamy Umamaheswari Andhichettiyar Sivashanmugam and Puliyath Jagannath / Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 9 (1): 90-94, 2011 ISSN 1990-9233 © IDOSI Publications, 2011
(19)
Vasorelaxant activity of extracts obtained from Apium graveolens: Possible source for vasorelaxant molecules isolation with potential antihypertensive effect / Vergara-Galicia Jorge*, Jimenez-Ramirez Luis Ángel, Tun-Suarez Adrián, Aguirre-Crespo Francisco, Salazar-Gómez Anuar, Estrada-Soto Samuel, Sierra-Ovando Ángel, Hernandez-Nuñez Emmanuel / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013; 3(10): 776-779 / doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60154-9
(20)
Evaluation of Adptogenic Activity of Extracts of Apium graveolens on Mice and Rats
./ Vasanth Kumar and Chandrashekhar Sultanpur / Pharmacologia, 2012, 3: 611-616 / DOI: 10.5567/pharmacologia.2012.611.616
(21)
In vitro angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of seed extract of Apium graveolens Linn. / Muthuswamy Umamaheswari*, Mathew Puthenpurackal Ajith, Kuppusamy Asokkumar, Thirumalaiswamy Sivashanmugam, Varadharajan Subhadradevi, Puliyath Jagannath, Arumugam Madeswaran / Annals of Biological Research, 2012, 3(3):1274-1282
(22)
Role of Aqueous Extract of Apium graveolens Seeds Against the Haematotoxicity Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Female Rats / Orass S. Khuon / Department of Basic Sciences / College of Nursing / University of Thi –Qar / Iraq./ iasj.net
(23)
A potent larvicidal and growth disruption activities of Apium graveolens (Apiaceae) seed extract on the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) / Khondkar Ehteshamul Kabira, Rajput Muhammed Tariqb, Shakil Ahmedc, Muhammad Iqbal Choudharya*
(24)
Apium graveolens accentuates urinary Ca +2 excretions in experimental model of nephrocalcinosis
/ Faruk H Al Jawad, Rafi A.M Al Razzuqi, Ali A Al Jeboori / International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 2011, Vol 5, No 2, pp 100-102.
(25)
Effect Of Celery (Apium Graveolens) Seeds Extract On Protease Inhibitor (Ritonavir) Induced Dyslipidemia / QS Ahmed, K Sayedda. / NJIRM. 2012; 3(1): 52-56
(26)
Antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens essential oil
/ Baananou S, Bouftira I, Mahmoud A, Boukef K, Marongiu B, Boughattas / Nat Prod Res. 2012 Aug 30.
(27)
The Effect of Celery (Apium graveolens) Extract on the Reproductive Hormones in Male Mice / Mehrdad Modaresi, Gholamreza Ghalamkari, Alireza jalalizand / APCBEE Procedia, Volume 4, 2012, Pages 99–104
(28)
The Potential Test of Ethanol Celery leaf (Apium graveolens) Extract as an Insecticide on housefly (Musca domestica) Using Spraying Method / Dr.Aswin, Dr.Endang, Tan Shu Zhen


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