Kolinta is an erect, smooth, branched shrub, growing up to 1 to 2 meters high, with slender axillary spines. Leaves are elliptic to elliptic-ovate, 6 to 12 centimeters long, narrowed, and pointed at both ends. Flowers are yellow and axillary, with the upper ones in spikes. Bracts and calyx are green, with the outer bract usually foliaceous. Corolla is about 4 centimeters long.
- In thickets and waste places, in and about towns, at low altitudes.
- Also occurs in tropical Africa, Asia, and Malaya.
- Large amount of neutral and acid resin soluble in light petroleum ether.
- Leaves yield alkaloids, glycosides and tannin.
- Phytochemical analysis of
leaves yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannin, and phenolic compounds. (See study below) (18)
- An ethanolic extract yielded a new compound, balarenone (1), along with three known compounds, pi- pataline (2), lupeol (3) and 13,14-seco-stigmasta-5,14-diene-3-α -ol (4) and three different derivatives of compound (2), 7,8-epoxypipataline (5), 8- amino-7-hydroxypipataline (6) and 7,8-dibromopipataline (7). (See study below) (20)
- Phytochemical analysis of hydromethanolic extract of whole plant yielded glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, and tannins. (Maji et al., 2011). Ethanolic extract yielded balarenone, pipataline, lupeol, prioniside A, prioniside B, and prioniside C. (Ata et al., 2007; Kosmulalage et al., 2007). Aerial parts yielded glycosides viz., barlerinoside, verbascoside, shanzhiside methyl ester, 6-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester, barlerin, acetylbarlerin, 7-methoxydiderroside, lupulinoside. (Taneja and Tiwari, 1975; Chen et al., 1998; Singh et al., 2005; Ata et al., 2009). (23)
- Considered diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge.
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, anthelmintic, anticataract, antifertility, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, analgesic properties.
Leaves, tops, roots, juice.
- In the Philippines, decoction of leaves and tops used for bathing in cases of febrile catarrh.
Whole plant used for urinary and paralytic affections, rheumatism, jaundice, hepatic obstruction and dropsy.
- In Abyssinia, used as febrifuge.
- Paste of roots is applied to boils and glandular swellings.
- In the Konkan, dried bark is given in whooping cough; for anasarca, the juice of the fresh bark with milk.
- In catarrhal afflictions of children with fever and phlegm, two teaspoons of a mixture of the juice of leaves in honey or sugar and water, twice daily.
- For rain soaked feet, juice of the leaves applied to the feet to prevent cracking and laceration.
- Juice of leaves mixed with honey applied to bleeding gums; also used as ear drops for otitis.
- In indigenous systems of medicine in India, stem, leaves and flowers are used for fever, toothaches, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, whooping cough. Roots used as tonic and diuretic.
- In Thailand and India, decoction of leaves and flowers used for viral fever.
- In West Bengal used by the Santals as abortifacient: 3 gm of fresh root is crushed with about 100cc of pochai (alcohol from rice) or Mahua (alcohol from flowers of Bassia latifolia, given once daily in the early morning for 3 to 5 consecutive days in induce abortion up to 3 months pregnancy.
- In Ayurveda, known as sahachara, baana, kurantaka, kuranta, koranda, korandaka, shairiya and pita-saireyaka. (23)
- In India, flowers are used internally for the treatment of migraine, internal abscesses, edema, hemoptysis, urethral discharges, seminal disorders and to reduce obesity. Leaves used for the treatment of gastric ulcers.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Arthritic: Study of 'TAF' fraction from methanol-water extract of B prionitis exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity against different animal test models and significant anti-arthritic activity in adjuvant-induced polyarthritis test in rats. (1)
• Hepatoprotective: Study ethanol extract of aerial parts exhibited significant and concentration dependent hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride, galactosamine and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. (2)
• Anti-Diabetic: Study of the alcoholic leaf extract of Barleria prionitis showed a significant decrease of blood glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin. (3)
• Antifertility / Reduction of Spermatogenesis: Study of isolated fractions of BP root methanolic extract in rats showed a significant reduction of spermatogenesis, with significant reduction of sperm motility. (4)
• Antifertility / Spermatogenesis Effects: Study showed root extract to exhibit interference with spermatogenesis. The antifertility effects seem to be mediated by a disturbance in testicular somatic cells functions (Leydig and Sertoli cells) resulting in the physio-morphological events of spermatogenesis. (7)
• Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory Activity / Flowers: Results showed the ethanolic extract of the flower of B. prionitis possess significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity. (5)
• GTS (glutathione S-transferase) and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition: Screening of crude extracts of B prionitis showed GST inhibitory activity and AChE inhibition. GTS are considered responsible for decreasing the effectiveness of anticancer / antiparasitic agents and AChE inhibitors have potential applications in the treatment of cardiac disorders and Alzheimer's disease.(6)
• Antifungal / Antimicrobial: Study of methanolic extract of bark showed more potent activity against all test oral fungi (S. cerevisiae, C. albicans strains) than the standard drug Amphotericin B. Even crude extracts showed good activity against dental caries-causing oral pathogens. (8)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Roots: Various root extracts were tested for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The aqueous extract was the most active with significant dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. (9)
• CNS Activity / Antidepressant Effect: Study evaluated the CNS activity of a 70% ethanol extract of leaves in Swiss albino mice. Results suggested B. prionitis exhibited antidepressant activity in the tested animal models. (11)
• Topical Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of different species of Barleria against croton oil induced edema in female rats. The chloroform extract of B. prionitis showed the best topical activity with 88.31 per cent inhibition of ear edema. (13)
• Mast Cell Stabilization and Membrane Protection: Study evaluated the membrane stabilization and mast cell protection activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of B. prionitis whole plant. Results showed dose-dependent inhibition of hypo-saline induced erythrocyte membrane hemolysis and induced mast cell degranulation . The results validate the anti-inflammatory activity and supports its traditional usage for inflammatory disorders. (14)
• Anti-Diabetic / Leaves and Roots: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of various parts of B. prionitis using alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaf and root caused significant reduction in blood glucose, an effect almost equipotent to chlorpropamide. (15)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of B. prionitis against S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. vulgaris, K. pneumonia, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Results showed significant activity against all tested pathogens. (16)
• Antimicrobial / Bark Extracts / Oral Diseases: Study evaluated various bark extracts for antifungal activity on two Candida albicans strains and Saccharomyces cerevisiae causing oral diseases in humans and antibacterial activity against four oral bacteria, viz., S. mutans, S. aureus, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. The methanolic extract showed more potent activity against all tested oral fungi than standard drug amphotericin B. The methanolic extract was also most effective against all four oral bacteria. (17)
• Antihypertensive Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the antihypertensive activity of a methanolic extract of leaves using DOCA salt induced antihypertensive model. Results showed significant antihypertensive effect. Phytochemical analysis yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins,, tannin and phenolic compounds. (18)
• Nootropic Activity / Memory Function / Leaves: Study evaluated a leaf extract for effects on cognitive dysfunction and influence on brain cholinergic system in experimental rats. Results showed the leaf extract enhances memory function possibly mediated through the brain cholinergic system. (19)
• Antibacterial / Glutathione S-Transferase and AChE Inhibitory Activity: Study yielded a new compound, balarenone (1) along with three known compounds 4, 5 and 6, three derivatives of compound 2 (5,6 and 7). Compounds 1,2, and 4 exhibited antibacterial activity against B. cereus and P. aeruginosa. Compounds 1-4 showed activity against GST and AChE. (See constituents above) (20)
• Immunomodulatory Activity / Aerial Parts: Study investigated in vivo and in vitro immunomodulatory activities of the iridoids fractions of B. prionitis aerial parts. Results showed potent immunostimulatory activity, stimulating both the specific and non-specific immune mechanisms. (21)
• Anti-Arthritic Activity / Leaves: Study investigated the anti-arthritic potential of ethyl acetate fractions of chloroform extract of leaves of B. prionitis against formaldehyde-induced acute non- immunological and Freund's Complete Adjuvant-induced chronic immunological arthritis in rats. Results showed dose-dependent and significant inhibition of edema in both acute and chronic models. (24)
• Anticataract Potential / Leaves: Study evaluated the anticataract potential of B. prionitis using Selenite and Galactose induced cataract models. Results showed oral administration of Barleria prionitis significantly delayed the onset and progression of cataract in Selenite as well as Galactose induced cataract. BP reverses cataract parameters by virtue of its antioxidant potential. (25)
• Antioxidant Potential / Leaf and Stem: Study investigated the antioxidant potential of different extracts of BP leaf and stem, measured against DPPH as compared to standard ascorbic acid and BHA. Methanolic extracts of both leaf and stem should highest IC50 values of 63.41±0.32, 81.69±0.40 respectively. Antioxidant activity was attributed to phenolic contents. (26)
• Gastroprotective / Anti-Ulcer / Leaves: Study evaluated the gastroprotective activity of leaf extracts using experimental in-vivo models. The chloroform extract and ethyl acetate fraction prevented gastric ulceration caused by indomethacin. Also, the EA fraction inhibited gastric secretion in pylorus ligated rats. (27)