Kulutkulutan erect, more or less hairy,
branched annual, often half-woody shrub, growing to a height
of 0.5 to 1.5 meters. Leaves are variable, usually orbicular to rhomboid-ovate,
2 to 6 centimeters in length, entire or 3-lobed, the upper ones oblong
to ovate-lanceolate, smaller and not lobed. Flowers are yellow,
numerous, about 6 millimeters long, borne on dense axillary fascicles.
Fruit is small, rounded, hairy, covered with hooked, smooth spines.
- Very common in open
waste places in all islands and provinces, at low and medium altitudes.
- Certainly introduced.
- Now pantropic.
- Plant yields carbohydrate glycosides, phytosterols, steroids, flavonoids, tannin, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. (6)
- Study yielded yielded ß-sitosterol, friedelin, friedelinol quercetin, 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone
and rosmarinic acid. (4)
- Study isolated four flavonoids from the leaves of Triumfetta procumbens viz. apigenin 7-O-glucuronide, luteolin 7-O-glucuro- nide, schaftoside and kaempferol 3-O-(p-coumaroylglucoside). (12)
- Roots, bark,
leaves are mucilaginous and in decoction are astringent.
- Root considered styptic, aphrodisiac, galactagogue, diuretic, cooling.
- Studies have suggested antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, diuretic, and immune-modulating properties.
- Pounded or decoction of roots used for intestinal
- Decoction of roots and leaves used in decoction as emollient. Also employed as antiblennorrhagic.
- Zulu women use a hot infusion of roots used to facilitate childbirth or hasten inception of parturition.
- Bark and fresh leaves used in diarrhea.
- Roots, bark, and leaves are mucilaginous; considered astringent in infusion or decoction.
- Pounded roots given for intestinal ulcers.
- Leaves, flowers, and roots used in gonorrhea and leprosy.
- In Rwanda, used
as abortifacient and for snake bites.
- In Kenya root infusion applied to site of snake bites. In Tanzania powdered leaves are tied to the affected site and decoction taken orally once a day. (13)
- In Nepal, leaves
used for boils. Plant paste used for boils, pimples, and blisters.
Quisumbing's compilation and other studies list T. bartramia and T. rhomboidea as synonyms. Others list them as separate species. The section includes studies for both.
• Antitumor / Antioxidant: Study evaluated a methanol extract of TR for antitumor and antioxidant activities against Dalton's ascites lymphoma bearing Swiss albino mice. Results showed significant antitumor and antioxidant
activity in vivo. (1)
• Antimicrobial / Essential Oil: Antimicrobial tests showed mild activity
against E coli and Enterococcus hirae. The main constituents were trans-B-caryophyllene,
kessane and caryophyllene oxide. (2)
• Immune Modulating: Triumfetta rhomboidea was one of the Rwandan
medicinal plants studied for complement modulating activity. (3)
• Phytochemicals: Study
yielded ß-sitosterol, friedelin, friedelinol quercetin, 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone
and rosmarinic acid. (4)
• Antibacterial: Study
yielded carbohydrate glycosides, phytosterols, steroids, flavonoids, tannin, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. Results showed TR exhibited good antibacterial action. (6)
• Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of T. bartramia and I. glandulifera with Silymarin as standard drug. Results showed significant hepatoprotective activity with good regenerative areas and reduction of liver necrosis. (9)
• Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of R. rhomboidea in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant dose dependent decrease in blood glucose levels, comparable to glibenclamide. (10)
• Diuretic / Roots: Study evaluated the diuretic activity of alcohol and aqueous extracts of roots in Wistar albino rats. Both extracts showed significant dose dependent diuretic activity with significant increase in urinary output and urine concentrations of urine Na+ and K+. (11)