Kupea is a small evergreen much-branched
subshrub growing to 1.5 meters. Stems are semi-woody, slender and crooked.
Leaves are green, opposite, stalkless and numerous on the branches,
narrow-lanceolate, up to 1.5 centimeters long. Flowers are small, purplish violet
to light purple with green calyx.
- Recently introduced
to the Philippines.
- Popular as a hedge plant.
- Propagated by stem cuttings.
• Study isolated
two new ellagitannin dimers, cuphiins D1 and D2, with six known compounds
including oenothein B and woodfordin C from the aerial part of Cuphea
• Contains flavone pigments.
• Aerial parts yielded diterpenes and flavonoids: friedelan-3β-ol (1), ursolic acid (2), methyl gallate (3), quercetin (4), quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (5), 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D- glucose (6) and manitol (7). (7)
• Methanol extract of aerial parts yielded valoneic acid dilactone (1), 1,3−O−digalloyl-4-,6hexahydroxydiphenoyl- β-D−4C1-glucopyarnose (2), gallic acid (3), genistein-7-O-β-D-4C1 glucopyranoside (4), myricetin−3 − O− β-D−4C1-glucopyarnoside (5), 3, 4, 5-trimethoxy benzoic acid (6), vanilice acid (7) and quercetin (8). (see study below) (8)
- No recorded folkloric
medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Brazil, used to treat
high cholesterol and triglycerides.
- In French Guiana, stem
and leaf macerated in rum and rubbed onto sprains. Leaf infusion used
for colds and chills.
- In Bangladesh, used as tonic and insect repellent; also used for dermatitis. (9)
Lowering : Biochemical analysis of animals treated with
aqueous extract showed a significant reduction of plasma cholesterol
in rats; no effect was noted on glucose and triglyceride levels. (1)
Cuphilin / Anti-Tumor Activity:
(1) Study isolated cuphilin D1 (CD1), a new macrocyclic hydrolyzable tannin,
has been shown to exert in vivo and in vitro antitumor activity. Further
study showed CD1 induced cytotoxicity to HL-60 cells (human promyelocytic
leukemia cells. The CD1-induced apoptosis was attributed to inhibition
of Bcl-2 expression in HL-60. (2) Cuphiin D1 (CD1) significantly inhibited the growth of human cervical carcinoma, i.e. HeLa cells, with less cytotoxicity to normal primary-cultured cervical fibroblasts. CD1 also inhibited Bcl-2 expression in HeLa cells and may account for the Cd1-induced apoptosis. (2)
• Anti-Tumor / Anti-Cancer: Study isolated four macrocylic tannin dimers: cuphiin D1, cuphiin D2, cenothein B and woodfordin C. All significantly inhibited the growth of the human carcinoma cell lines KB, HeLa, DU-145, Hep 3B and the leukemia cell line HL-60. Results suggest the anti-tumor effects of the compounds are not only related to their cytotoxicity on carcinoma cell lines but also on some host-mediated mechanism. (5)
• Antioxidant / Cytotoxic: Study evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of a methanolic extract of aerial parts of C. hyssopifolia. The antioxidant activity in DPPH testing was comparable to that of ascorbic acid at 98.35%. It showed moderate cytotoxic activity along tested cell lines viz MCF7 (breast carcinoma cell line), HEP2 (larynx carcinoma cell line), HCT116 (colon carcinoma cell line) and HEPG2 (liver carcinoma cell line. (see constituents above) (8)