- The Musaceae family comprises three genera: Musa, Ensete, and Musella. Musa is the largest group, with about 35 species encompassing the wild and domesticated bananas and plantains.
- Musa species are further divided into sections according to DNA: Musa with 22 chromosomes, Callimusa with 20 chromosomes, and Ingentimusa with 14 chromosomes.
- In India, as food item consumption, banana ranks fourth after rice, wheat, and milk.
Lakatan was first described as Musa paradisiaca in the 19th century by Francisco Manuel Blanco in his Flora de Filipinas.
- The letter "c" of Lacatan was changed to "k" to differentiate it from "Lacatan", the American name for the tall Cavendish cultivar known as 'Bungulan" in the Philippines.
- Lakatan bananas are diploid banana (triploid, according to Promusa) cultivars from the Philippines—one of the most common banana cultivars, along with Latundan and Saba bananas. (8)
- A molecular and cytological analysis of Lakatan accessions at the ITC places the cultivar in the AAA genome group.
- Lakatan should not be confused with Cavendish banana Masak Hijau, also known as "Lacatan" or "Jamaican Lacatan" in Latin America and the West Indies.
- With respect to banana cultivation, India has more than 90 distinct clones, depending on the contribution of Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. It is the largest producer and consumer with annual production of 11.7 million tonnes on 404,000 Ha, contributing to 27% of the world production and about 37% of the total fruit crop production in the country.
- In the Philippines, Musa acuminata Colla cv. Lakatan and Musa balbisiana Colla cv. Saba are two of the most popular banana cultivars in the Philippine local market.
The major banana export is the Cavendish variety.
Musa acuminata is a large perennial rhizomatous herb growing 5 to 9 feet. Stem is unbranched pseudostem. The height of the pseudostem (from the base of the pseudostem to the emerging point of the peduncle) is 2.7-2.8 m. Leaf sheath possessing brown black mark. Leaves are simple, very large and arranged spirally to form a compact crown. Lamina, glaucous, entire, oblong, truncate with distinct midrib, lateral nerves parallel. Adaxial surface of the lamina is green; the abaxial surface is waxy and green with a tinge of purple. Midrib is greenish yellow above and tinged with red underneath. Inflorescence paniculate, mixed spadix. Each group of flower covered by a large spathe-like bract. Bract is yellowish with a tinge of purple. Bisexual flowers grow in rows with about twenty flowers per bract. Stamens as long as perianth. Ovary yellowish green, glabrous. Fruits are elongated berries. Seeds with hard testa, black, irregularly angular. (6)
- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Nicobar Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam, (2)
- Most abundant bioactive substance in stem extract is tannin, which contains polyphenols.
- Preliminary testing revealed saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides, phenolic compound,
α-amino acids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, reducing sugar, starch, tannins, and terpenoids. (see study below) (3)
- Nutritional profile of banana: Carbohydrates 22.84 g, sugars 12.23 g, dietary fiber 2.6 g, fat 0.33 g, protein1.09 g, vitamin A equiv 3 µg, thiamin (B1) 0.031 mg, riboflavin (B2) 0.073 mg, niacin (B3) 0.665 mg, pantothenic acid (B5) 0.334 mg, pyridoxine (B6) 0.367 mg, folate (B9) 20 µg, vitamin C 8.7 mg, calcium 5 mg, iron 0.26 mg, magnesium 27 mg, phosphorus 22 mg, potassium 358 mg, and zinc 0.15 mg. (10)
- Aqueous, methanolic, and ethanolic extracts of pseudostems have been found to contain a good amount of anitioxidants along with various phytochemicals like carbohydrate, protein, and phenolic compounds.
- Banana psudostem sap is considered antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antihemorrhagic.
- Studies have suggest antioxidant, wound healing, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive , antidiabetic properties.
All plant parts.
- The most popular dessert banana in the Philippines.
- Flowers are edible, eaten as vegetable; in India, used to prepared 'Gudhakk'. Tribals use stem and leaf ash to prepare 'alkalai water'. (3)
- In Sri Lanka, the blossom is used in a popular dishes consumed as curry, boiled or used as deep fried salad. (7)
- All plant parts including fruits, peel, pseudostem, corm, flowers, leaves, sap and roots have been used in traditional medicine, for various diseases such as fever, cough, bronchitis, dysentery, allergic infections, sexually transmitted diseases, among many others. (7)
- Malay women bathe with a decoction of banana leaves for 15 days after childbirth. (10)
- In Africa, peels used for healing wounds and heat burns.
- Rituals / Superstitions: In folklore, because of its continuous reproduction, it is considered by Hindus as a symbol of fertility and prosperity. Leaves are deposited on doorsteps of houses where marriages are taking place. Early Hawaiians used the plant as a truce flag in wars. Elsewhere, the plant is installed in the corner of a rice field as a protective charm. (10)
(Studies include those on Musa acuminata colla cv Lakatan and other M. acuminata cultivars)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Stem: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of Musa acuminata through the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa ß (NF-kB) after 3 days of application of M. acuminata stem extract (MASE) gel on oral mucosal wound on male Rattus norvegicus (Wistar). Results showed application of MASE on mucosal wound reduces the expression of TNF-α and NF-kB at all concentrations tested. MASE 50% showed strongest anti-inflammatory effect. (3)
• Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Peel: Study evaluated antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of M. acuminata C. peel. Antimicrobial activity of various crude extracts were tested against six strains of microorganisms i.e., B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, B. pumilus, C. albicans, and E. coli, by agar well diffusion method. Total phenolic content of the ethanol extract was higher than that of the watery extract. The banana peels showed antioxidant activity with the 95% ethanol extract more effective than the water extract in free radical scavenging activity. However, the two extracts showed lower antioxidant activity than standard BHT. The ethanol extract showed highest antimicrobial activity against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus with 14 mm inhibition zone diameter. (5)
• Antibacterial: Study evaluated methanol plant extract against 3 strains of bacteria by agar diffusion method using paper disc. The extract contained carbohydrate, fixed oil, amino acid, tannins and steroids. The extract showed inhibition in growth of C. diphtheria, B. pyogenes, and P. aeruginosa. (6)
• Stabilization of Sunflower Oil: Study (Ling et al, 2015) demonstrated the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts in stabilizing sunflower oil under accelerated storage (65°C). After 24 days of storage, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 mg extract of banana peel/L showed significantly lower peroxide value and total oxidation value (TOTOX) compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. (7)
• Shelf Life and Ripening Days: Study evaluated low cost methods of proloning shelf-life of bananas in the Philippine setting focusing on simple chemical treatment methods. Results showed significant differences--the longest ripening days was seen in treatments and groups immersed10, 20, 30 min) in T2 (50g/L potassium aluminum sulfate and water solution). The treatment also showed highest final weight after 22 days of shelf-life and minimal cost of production. (9)
• Mitigation of Quorum Sensing Mediated Biofilm and Virulence of P. aeruginosa / Peels: Study evaluated the QS-mediated antibiofilm and antivirulence potential of M. acuminata peel methanol extract and its bioactive metabolites 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5HMF) against Pseudomoas aeruginosa. Results showed the methanol peel extract significantly inhibited the biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa at 400 µg/ml-1 concentration, which also inhibited the production of biofilm proteins, biofilm adherence, EPS and CSH productions. Anti-virulence potential was confirmed through numerous inhibition assays. The qPCR analysis confirmed down-regulation of QS regulated virulence genes expression upon treatment with the extract. Results suggested ideal antibiofilm and antivirulence potential of MAM and its bioactive compound 5HMF, and confirms the ethnopharmacological value of the peels against Pseudomas aeruginosa infections. (12)
• Silver and Gold Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Anticancer / Flowers: Study reports on the green synthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles from flower extract of M. acuminata colla. GC-MS analysis yielded compounds 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (z,z)- and n-hexadecanoic acid in the crude extracts of the samples. The NPs showed activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The AgNPs showed best antibacterial activity. The IC50s for MCF-7 and VERO cells were 30.0 µg/ml and 55.0 µg/ml, respectively. (13)
• Dermal Wound Healing / Peel: Study evaluated the efficacy of topical administration of an alcoholic peel extract of M. acuminata Colla on cutaneous wound healing including expression of VEGF and re-epithelization on dermal wounds in rats. Full thickness excision wounds were made on the back of rat and M. acuminata extract was topically applied. Formation of granulation tissue was noted indicating VEGF and collagen. Extract increase cellular re-epithelization and collagen synthesis at the wound site. Results showed all doses tested have wound healing activity in wound contraction and period of epithelization. The increase of VEGF expression was greater in extract treated group. Tensile strength was significantly increased. (14)
• Antioxidant / Peel: Study evaluated the use of banana peel extract as an antioxidant in freshly squeezed orange juices and juices from concentrates. Results showed increased free radical scavenging capacity on adding banana peel extracts on both types of orange juices. There was remarkable increase in antioxidant capacity using ABTS radical. Adding 5 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice did not substantially modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the juices. (15)
• Flavonoids / Antioxidant / Antidiabetic / Leaves and Fruits: Study evaluated and compared anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities of M. acuminata (Simili radjah, ABB) fruits and leaves fractions. Leaf fractions exhibited higher biological activities than the fruit. The ethyl acetate fraction of leaf showed highest total phenolic content (911.9 mg GAE/g) and highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 9.0 µg/ml). It also showed most effective inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and α-amylase inhibition. The anti-inflammatory activity of n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions of leaf were higher than the positive control. Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin) were identified as the bioactive compounds with antioxidant and antidiabetic activities from the EA fraction of leaf. (16)
• Modulation of Serum Cholesterol and Glucose Level / Blossom: Study evaluated the hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effect of banana blossom in high-cholesterol fed rats. Results showed lower serum total cholesterol, non-HDL level, and serum glucose concentrations (p<0.05). Lower AST level in banana blossom fed rats showed reduction in oxidative stress induced by high cholesterol diet. Results suggest banana blossom incorporated experimental diet may help modulate the hypercholesterolemic and hypoglycemic responses in Wistar rats. (17)
• Antidiabetic of Serum Cholesterol and Glucose Level / ADMET / Blossom: In this study, molecular docking was done to predict the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of compounds from M. acuminata Colla peel against human intestinal α-glucosidase. Eleven of 87 compounds were found to have better or comparable binding affinity with standard acarbose, namely: sesamin, quercetin-7-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-rutinoside, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, myricetin-3-rutinoside, quercetin, kaempferol-3-rhamnoside-7-glucoside, stigmasterol, and ß-sitosterol. The prediction of ADMET properties and drug-likeness revealed how the best binding compounds may behave inside the body. Promising potential were shown by (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and quercetin in molecular docking and their ADMET properties suggest potential as lead compounds for drug development. (18)
• Antidiabetic / Fruit Peel: Study evaluated the blood glucose lowering effect of Musa acuminata Colla fruit peel (MACFP) ethanol extract in experimentally induced diabetic rats. Results showed that MACFP ethanol extract at doses of 250, 375, and 500 mg/kbw have the same effect as the positive control (glibenclamide) in lowering blood glucose level on diabetic rats (p<0.05). MACFP ethanol extract at dose of 500 mg/kbw showed highest percentage of decrease in blood glucose (42.62%), followed by 375 mg/kbw (37.26%) and 250 mg/kbw (24.12%). (20)
• Hair Tonic / Corm: Banana waste, especially corms, has potential as a source of haircare products due to its active compound, anthraquinone, which is known to promote hair growth. Study assessed preparations of hair tonic shampoo containing Musa acuminata Colla corm extract (8%, 10%, and 12%) for organoleptic properties (color, form, and odor), homogeneity, pH, density, viscosity, rheology, foam height and stability, and surface tension. Results showed the hair tonic shampoo formulas prepared from M. acuminata corm have good characteristics. (21)
• Anti-Browning / Tonic / Corm: Millions of dollars are lost annually in the food industry due to discoloration of fruits and vegetables caused by a pronounced reaction called enzymatic browning, which is caused by the activity of polyphenol oxidase enzyme present in most fruits and vegetables. Study investigated the antibrowning effects of aqueous extract of ginger and essential oil of cinnamon bark on PPO enzymatic activity in Annona muricata and Musa acuminata (ash plantains). Results showed 48.10% inhibitory activity on PPO activity in Musa acuminata. Results showed cinnamon bark oil and ginger can prevent PPO enzyme activity to preserve the essence and nutritional benefits of fruits and vegetables. (22)
• Antioxidant / Antihypertensive: Study evaluated proteins from Lakatan and its components responsible for its health benefits. In silico analysis determined the presence of bioactive peptides. Results showed that a 14.697 kDa lectin may release antioxidative and antihypertensive peptides upon digestion. Crude/total proteins and digests were subjected to antioxidative assay using DPPH and spectrophotometric Angiotensin-Coverting Enzyme (ACE) inhibition assay. DPPH assay showed strong antioxidative activity of 54.00% from undigested crude/total proteins. ACE assay showed highest inhibition (43.03%) after 24 h digestion time. Study shows Lakatan has potential as a cheap source of antioxidants and antihypertensive function food, which can be explored for drug development. (23)