HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT


Family Rubiaceae
Landrina
Spermacoce hispida (Linn.)
SHAGGY BUTTON WEED

Scientific names Common names
Borreria hispida (Linn.) K. Schum. Landrina (Tag.)
Borreria articularis var hispida (L.) Sivar. & Manilal Ligad-ligad (Sul.)
Spermacoce avana R.Br. ex G.Don Shaggy button weed (Engl.)
Spermacoce hispida Linn. Jointed buttonweed (Engl.)
Spermacoce mutilata Blanco  
Spermacoce rigida Salisb.  
Spermacoce hispida L. is an accepted name The Plant List
Borreria hispida (L.) K. Schum. Tropicos
There is some disagreement over the correct name for this species. We are using the original name, Spermacoce hispida, which has been accepted for conservation and is treated as the correct name in the 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families' and many other recent publications. However, some other authorities still accept Borreria hispida. (Plants for a Future: Ken Fern) Useful Tropical Plants

Other vernacular names
TAMIL: Nathaichuri.

Botany
Landrina is a procumbent, branched, hairy or rough herb, 10 to 14 centimeters long. Branches are greenish or purplish, ascending, stout and 4-angled. Leaves are ovate, spatulate, or elliptic, 1 to 3.5 centimeters long, 0.8 to 1.7 centimeters wide, pointed or rounded at the tip. Flowers are 4 to 6, occurring in whorls in the axils of leaves. Calyx-teeth are linear-lanceolate. Corolla is pale blue or white, 5 to 10 millimeters in length. Fruit is a hairy capsule about 5 millimeters long. Seeds are oblong, granulate, opaque, unusually variable, 3 millimeters or less in length.

Distribution
- From the Batan Islands to Batangas and Laguna in Luzon, and in Mindoro, Panay and Basilan, in open, dry places at low and medium altitudes,
- Also occurs in India to China and Malaya.

Constituents
- Methanolic extract yielded flavonoids and amino acids.
- Various extracts of whole plant yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates and glycosides, phytosterols, fixed oil and fats, saponins, phenolic compounds and tannins, protein and amino acid, coumarins, and flavonoids.

Properties
- Roots possess properties similar to sarsaparilla.
- Considered alterative, tonic, cooling, demulcent, aphrodisiac, constipative.
- Used as antieczemic, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antidysentery.

Parts used
Leaves.

Uses

Culinary
- In the Konkan, the plant is eaten with other herbs as vegetable.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, leaves are brewed in decoction and used as astringent for hemorrhoids.
- In Martinique, plant is used as tonic and stimulant. Also used for hemorrhoids.
- Leaves applied to the head in cases of headache, with it cooling effect, somewhat allaying the pain.
- The seeds in confection are cooling and demulcent; used for dysentery and diarrhea.
- Seeds considered by some as aphrodisiac.
- Used as alternative therapy for diabetes.
- In Siddha medicine, seeds used to cure diarrhea; roots used as tonic.
- Used for headaches, constipation, hypertension, scabies, IBS, erysipelas, mouth ulcers, abscesses, and as antifertility medicine.


Studies
Cardiac Benefits:
Study showed BHE-treated rat hears showed improved post-ischemic ventricular function and reduced myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Results suggest BHE has a potential as a plant-based nutraceutical for the management of cardiovascular diseases. (1)
Antibacterial: Study of extracts of Borreria hispida showed antibacterial activity against B subtilis, B pumilus, S aureus, P aeruginosa, E coli and K. pneumonia, with the methanolic extract found to be the most effective. Results supports its use as remedy for superficial bacterial and fungal infections in traditional medicine. (2)
Antioxidant: In an vitro study, a methanolic extract of whole plant of Borreria hispida yielded a high amount of flavonoids, and suggests a potential source of natural antioxidant. (3)
Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Activity / Seeds: K3, a 35 KDa protei, was purified from the seeds of Borreria hispida. The F3 protein exhibited cytotoxic activity, with dose-dependent antiproliferative and apoptotic activity against lung (A549) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. (6)
Constipation Activity : Study evaluated constipation activity of Spermacoce hispida using albino Wistar rats, using the extract in an irritable bowel model in lieu of loperamide. (7)
Antihyperlipidemic Activity : Study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic effect of Spermacoce hispida seed-flavonoid rich fraction by a dose-dependent study. Results showed significant reduction of total cholesterol, triglycerides, plasma phospholipids, free fatty acids, LDL cholesterol, and VLDL-C, with significant elevation of HDL. Activity was attributed to the presence of ursolic acid, quercetin, isorhamnetic, and hesperetin. (8)
Free Radical Scavenging Potential: Study evaluated in vitro free radical scavenging potential of various extracts of whole plant of Borreria hispida. The methanolic extract showed strong antioxidant activity by inhibiting DPPH and superoxide anion scavenging and iron chelating activities. It contained a noticeable amount of total phenols and can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as possible food supplement. (9)
Antihyperlipidemic Activity: Study evaluated an ethanolic seed extract for antihyperlipidemic activity against triton-WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Results showed it effectively suppressed the triton induced hyperlipidemia, suggesting a potential protective role in coronary heart disease. (10)
Anti-Nociceptive: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract for anti-nociceptive activity using an acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions and Tail immersion models. Results showed significant analgesic potential compared to standard drug Aspirin and Pentazocine. (11) Study evaluated the analgesic activity of aqueous extract of S. hispida on theraml and chemical induced pan in adult albino mice. Results showed analgesic activity, with all test doses showing significant delayed reaction time in hot-plate method and reduced number of writhing in chemical method. (21)
Anti-Cancer / Ovarian Cancer Cell Line / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated a leaf extract for antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. The extract dose dependently inhibited growth of cell lines in human ovarian cancer cell line PA 1, and also showed to be a rich source of antioxidants. (12)
Hepatoprotective / Nitrobenzene Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of an ethanolic extract of whole plant against nitrobenzene induced hepatic damage in rats. Histopathological analysis showed severe centrilobular necrosis, fatty infiltration and lymphocyte infiltration. Treatment resulted in decreased liver marker enzymes activity and lipid peroxidation levels with increase in antioxidant status. (13)
Antimicrobial / Seed Oil: Study evaluated various extracts of seed oil for antimicrobial activity. Studies on Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms reveal the methanolic extract to show significant activity compared to other solvents taken for extraction. (14)

Acute Toxcity Study / Seeds: Study evaluated the hydroalcoholic extract of seeds of Spermacoce hispida in albino wistar rats in single doses of 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kbw. No mortality or clinical signs of toxicity were observed. The LD50 and maximum tolerable dose was greater than 2000 mg/kbw. (17)
Constipation Activity: Study evaluated the constipative activity of S. hispida using albino Wistar rats in the setting of irritable bowel syndrome using the extract in lieu of loperamide. (18)
Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study of an ethanolic extract of Spermacoce hispida against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats showed significant protective effect from hepatic damage. (19)

Cardioprotective / Mitochondrial Energy Production / Seeds: Study evaluated the effects of pretreatment with S. hispida on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in heart mitochondrial function in experimental rats. Results showed a protective effect which can be attributed to the activation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. (20)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update September 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Taxon: Borreria articularis var. hispida / Flora of Pakistan / Credit: M. Rafiq : / efloras

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Potential Role of Borreria hispida in Ameliorating Cardiovascular Risk Factors / HR Vasanthi, S Mukherjee, I Lekli, D Ray, G Veeraraghavan, DK Das / J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2009 Jun;53(6):499-506.
(2)
EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF WHOLE PLANT OF Borreria hispida (Linn) / A. Kottai Muthu et. al. / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR) Vol.1(2), 2010, 127-130 /
(3)
In- vitro antioxidant studies of various extracts of whole plant of Borreria hispida (Linn) / C.D.Shajiselvin, A.Kottai Muthu / RJPBCS Volume, 1 Issue 2 Page No. 17, April – June 2010
(4)
Pharmacognostical and Proximate Analysis of Leaves of Borreria Hispida. / A J Ptel, Patel Jatin, Macwan Carol, Patel Mayuree, Soni Arun / Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research Issue 2 (Vol. 1) 2011
(5)
Isolation Of Active Components Derived From Whole Plant Of Borreria hispida (Linn.) / C.D .Shaji Selvin1, A. Kottai Muthu*and D.Satheesh Kumar / International Journal Of Ayurvedic And Herbal Medicine 2:2 (2012) 240:247
(6)
Induction of Apoptotic Effects of Antiproliferative Protein from the Seeds of Borreria hispida on Lung Cancer (A549) and Cervical Cancer (HeLa) Cell Lines / S. Rupachandra and D. V. L. Sarada / BioMed Research International, Volume 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/179836
(7)
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING STUDY AND CONSTIPATION ACTIVITY OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA L. (RUBIACEAE) BY USING ALBINO RATS / Muthuboopathi, G.; Padmalatha, K.; Sundar, S.; Poojitha, K.; Hindu Addala, V. / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research;Dec2013, Vol. 4 Issue 12, p4669
(8)
ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC EFFICACY OF FLAVONOID-RICH FRACTION FROM SPERMACOCE HISPIDA SEED ON HIGH-FAT-DIET FED RATS: A DOSE-DEPENDENT STUDY / K. KAVIARASAN, R. MOHANKUMAR, S. NARASIMHAN, P. VISWANATHAN andK. V. PUGALENDI* / Journal of Food Biochemistry, Volume 35, Issue 6, pages 1627–1636, December 2011 / DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.2010.00482.x
(9)
IN VITRO EVALUATION OF FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING POTENTIAL OF VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF WHOLE PLANT OF Borreria hispida (Linn) / C.D.Shajiselvin1and A.Kottai Muthu* / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences V1(2)2010
(10)
Antihyperlipidaemic Activity of Spermacoce Hispida Ethanolic Extract in Triton WR-1339 Induced Hyperlipidaemic Rats / G. Sivaelango, P. Senthil Kumaran, P. Kumaravel, P. Revathi and A. Jaswan / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (02); 2012: 95-98t
(11)
Anti-nociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of Spermacoce hispida L. / Sundhararajan R* and Ravichandiran V / (2012) Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci., 3(1), 173-175
(12)
Leaves of Spermacoce hispida as a Novel Cancer Therapeutic – An In Vitro Study
/ Rathi M.A., Meenakshi P., Kumar D. Guru, Raj C. Arul, Sunitha M., Gopalakrishnan V.K.* / Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology: 2011, Volume 4, Issue 8.
(13)
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA LINN.EXTRACT AGAINST NITROBENZENE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS / M.A. Rathi, L.Thirumoorthi, M. Sunitha, P. Meenakshi, D. Gurukumar and V.K. Gopalakrishnan* / Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology 4 (2) 201-205 (2010)
(14)
Anti-Microbial Studies of Spermacoce Hispida Seed Oil / T. Rajkumar / International Journal of Innovative Pharmaceutical, 1(1), 2013, 62-70.
(15)
Spermacoce hispida L. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(16)
Borreria hispida (l.) K.Schum / Tropicos
(17)
An Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Seeds of Spermacoce Hispida Linn, in Albino Wistar Mice as Per OECD Guidelines 425
/
Dhevi R*, Elango V, Gayathri K, Mohamed Shabi M / AJPHR
(18)
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING STUDY AND CONSTIPATION ACTIVITY OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA L. (RUBIACEAE) BY USING ALBINO RATS / Muthuboopathi, G.; Padmalatha, K.; Sundar, S.; Poojitha, K.; Hindu Addala, V. / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research;Dec2013, Vol. 4 Issue 12, p4669
(19)
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA.LINN AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (CCl4) INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS. / M.Karthikeyan*,Wawdhane S.S.,
M.Kannan, S.Rajasekar / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, January - 2011, Vol 2, Issue 11, Article 6
(20)
EFFECT OF SEEDS OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA LINN ON MITOCHONDRIAL ENERGY PRODUCTION IN ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTED RATS / R. Dhevi*, V. Elango / IAJPR. 2015; 5(8): 2531-2535
(21)
ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA IN MICE / Vinayak Meti , Chandrashekar K , Shishir Mishra

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT