-Genus Albizzia comprises approximately 150 species. mostly trees and shrubs native to tropical and subtropical Asia and Africa. (39)
Lañgil is a large, deciduous, unarmed tree, attaining a height of 12 meters or more. Leaves are about 25 centimeters long, with 4 to 8 pinnae, each 15 centimeters long. Leaflets are obliquely oblong, 6 to 8, and 2 to 5 centimeters long. Flower heads are numerous, white, fragrant, 3 to 4 centimeters in diameter, on long peduncles up to 6 centimeters long. Corolla is greenish-yellow. Calyx is half as long as the corolla. Pods are oblong, 15 to 20 centimeters long, 2 to 3 centimeters wide, flat, shining, straw-colored and containing 6 to 10 seeds.
- Planted as an avenue and shade tree in Ilocos Sur, Bataan and Laguna Provinces and in Manila, Palawan and Busuanga.
- Native of tropical Asia and Africa.
- Introduced in most tropical countries.
- Bark contains saponin and tannin, 7 to 11 percent.
- Bark also contains a resin, a substance allied to catechin, and a red coloring matter.
- Studies have yielded saponins (albiziasaponins A, B and C), tri-O-glycoside flavonols, triterpenoids, triterpene alcohol (lupeol), polyphenols and an unusual glycoside, albizinin, alkaloids, anthraquinone glycosides, sapogenins aromatic acids.
- Methanolic extract of root isolated one new fatty acid ester 2' α- hydroxy octyl hexadecanoate (hydroxyoctyl palmitate) and two new phenolic acid glucosidic ester characterized as salicylic acid-2-O–β-D-glucofuranosyl-6'-octadec-9"-enoate (salicylic acid arabinosyl oleate) along with a fatty acid phytoconstituent, docosenoic acid, and two known fatty acid esters trricosanyl hexadecanoate and hexacosanyl octadec-9-en-1-oate, respectively. (17)
- Hydroalcoholic extract of pods yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, and saponins; flowers yielded steroids, terpenoids, and saponins.
(see study below) (22)
- Stem bark yield catechin, betulinic acid and its glycosides, albizzia saponins A, B and C, isomer of leucocyanidin, melacacidin, leuco-anthracyanidin, lebbecacidin, friedelin, β-sitosterol, phenolic glycoside, albizinin and anthraquinone glycosides. (Chulet R, Pradhan P, Kaushik N. Pharmacognostical potential of Albizzia lebbeck Benth, PharmExpt, 2010. (29)
- Alcoholic extract of flowers isolated a novel ß-lactam derivative, albactam, together with six known compounds, two of which are triterpenes ß-amyrin and 11α, 12α-oxidotaraxerol, two ceramide derivatives and two flavonoids, kampferol 3-O-rutinoside and rutin. (see study below) (30)
- Dichlormethane and n-butanol extracts of flowers isolated 11 compounds identified as benzyl 1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), benzyl 6-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl β-D-glucopyranoside (2), linalyl β- D- glycopyranoside (3), linalyl 6-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl -β-D-glucopyranoside (4), 2E-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosid (5), 1-O-[6-O-α-L arabinopyranosyl β-D-glucopyranoside] – (2E, 6E-)- farnesol (6), creoside (7), rodiooctanoside (8), 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene (9), luteolin (10) and ethyl fructose (11). (see study below) (32)
- Phytochemical screening of bark yielded tannin, alkaloid, flavonoid, terpenoid, phlobatannin, saponin, steroid, and cardiac glycosides. (see study below) (40)
- Methanolic seed extract yielded alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, saponins, steroids, and tannins. (see study below) (41)
- Phytochemical screening of bark extracts yielded steroids and sterols, triterpenoids, tannins and phenolic compounds, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, gums and mucilages, proteins and amino acids. (see study below) (50)
- Bark and seeds considered astringent.
- Flowers considered cooling and emollient.
- Considered anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-allergic, nootropic, anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, antiulcer, antispermatogenic.
- Studies have suggest antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antiallergic, antiasthma, antitrypanosomal, anti-ulcer, hepatoprotective, nootropic, thrombolytic properties.
Bark, leaves, seeds, flowers.
- Powder of the bark used to strengthen spongy and ulcerative gums.
- Juice of leaves used in ophthalmia.
- Decoction of leaves used internally as a remedy for night-blindness.
- Bark and seeds are astringent; used for diarrhea, dysentery and hemorrhoids.
- Powdered bark used for ulcers and snake bite wounds.
- Used for coughs, flu, abdominal tumors.
- Flowers are emollient, applied as cataplasm on furuncles, boils.
- Flowers believed to cause retention of seminal fluid.
- Seeds used for ophthalmic diseases.
- Seed oil used for leprosy.
- Seeds are crushed and made into paste and applied to enlarged cervical glands.
- In Ayurveda, plant is a component of many preparations. Bark decoction used for asthma, seasonal cough and cold. Used to treat poisoning, herpes, cough and colds, asthma, and itching. For poisoning, flower juice is extracted by squeezing, triturated with sugar and black pepper for nasal instillation or for oral intake in snake bites. (23)
- Bark: In Java bark sometimes used as soap.
- Veterinary: In India, milk of sheep mixed with latex of A. lebbeck leaves used as eye drops to cure conjunctivitis. (37)
- Fodder: Grown in some areas as fodder for camels, water buffalo, and cattle. Leaves are good sources of protein and carbohydrate. (47)
• Apiculture: White fragrant flowers attract bees that produce iigh-colored honey. (47)
• Wood: Yields a decorative dark brown heartwood with black streaks. Wood can be used for general construction, furniture, paneling, turnery, parquet. (47)
• Tannin: In India, bark used for tanning fishing nets. (47)
• Tannin: Dried and pounded, bark can be used as soap. (47)
• Anticonvulsant Activity: Study showed the ethanolic extract of the leaves of A lebbeck exhibited anticonvulsant activity. The effect was attributed to the methanolic fraction of the chloroform soluble part of the extract which was also found to be anxiogenic and a general depressant of the central nervous system. (1)
• Antimicrobial: Study screened the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Albizzia lebbeck against some pathogens isolated from diarrheal patients. Results showed the methanol extracts of AL was effective against E coli and Salmonella strains associated with infectious diarrhea. (2)
• Phytochemical Screening: Study yielded the presence of alkaloids, tannins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, proteins and amino acids. (3)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated various solvent extracts for anti-inflammatory activity. A petroleum ether and ethanol extracts at 400 mg/kg showed maximum inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan, dextran, cotton pellet and Freund's adjuvant. Results supporting its folkloric use in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. (4)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study on AL extract demonstrated significant analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing test and radiant heat tail-flick method) and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema model) properties. (5)
• Free Radical Scavenging Activity / Anti-Arthritic: Study of the methanol extract of AL which exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity was studied for its antioxidant potential in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. Results concluded that Albizzia lebbeck ME possesses strong anti-arthritic and antioxidant properties. (6)
• Review / Anti-Asthma: Albizzia lebbeck is included in a review of anti-asthmatic herbal drugs. The effect of the stem bark extract is attributed to a mast cell stabilizing activity. .
• Anti-Allergic / Mast Cell Stabilizing: Study investigated the anti-allergic activity of the standard extract of AL with respect to catechin, a polyphenolic phytomarker. Results support the conclusion that AL has potent mast cell stabilizing property. The inhibitory potential of catechin could be due to modulation of two important effector functions- histamine release and cytokine expression of antigen-IgE activated mast cells. (9)
• Immunomodulatory: The immunomodulatory effect of the bark of AL was evaluated studying humoral and cell mediated immune responses. The lebbeck treated mice developed higher serum antibody titers compared to the control group. Delayed type hypersensitivity response was suppressed in mice treated with AL extract. (10)
• Anti-Ulcer: Study showed the 70% ethanolic extract of the plant possesses antiulcer properties. The effect may be attributed to the polyphenolic compounds present in the plant. (11) Study evaluated the anti-ulcer activity of A. lebbeck bark extract against pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcers in rats. Results showed significant reduction in incidence of ulcers, with accelerated healing. The effect was comparable to standard drug Pantoprazole. The antiulcer property was attributed to gastric mucin protection and regeneration. (37)
• Inhibitory Effects on Reproductive System of Male Rats: Study in male rats brought about a significant decrease in the weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate, with reductions in sperm count and motility. (12)
• Atopic Allergy / Bark: The bark decoction has been used by Ayurvedic healers for bronchial asthma and eczema. Study evaluated the effect of A. lebbeck bark decoction on degranulation rate of sensitized peritoneal mast cells of albino rats challenged with horse serum antigen. Results showed A. lebbeck has significant cromoglycate-like action on mast cells and also inhibited the early processes of sensitization and synthesis of reaginic-like antibodies. (13)
• Antioxidant / Anti-Diabetes: Study in alloxan diabetic rats showed Albizzia lebbeck is a promising plant in respect to its antioxidant potential to alleviate diabetes. (14)
• Compositional Studies / Antioxidant Potential / Pods and Seeds: Study evaluated the composition and antioxidant potential of various parts of the A. lebbeck plant. Carbohydrates was a major component while saponin was a major antinutrient in both pods and seeds; amino acids showed arginine and lysine in excessive amounts; potassium was high; linoleic acid was a major fatty acid in pod and seed oil; a-tocopherol was a major component in the oil. Various assays showed potent antioxidant potential. (15)
• Phytochemical Screening / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study of leaf extract yielded alkaloids, glycoside, tannins, saponins, flavanoids, and carbohydrates. An ethyl acetate extract showed inhibitory effect against E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and B. cereus. (16)
• Nootropic / Anxiolytic: Study evaluated a saponin containing n-butanolic fraction extracted from dried leaves on cognitive behavior and anxiety in albino mice. Results showed significant improvement on retention ability. It significantly inhibited passivity and hypothermia induced by baclofen (a GABA agonist). Results suggest nootropic and anxiolytic activity of the saponin probably through involvement of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). (18)
• Diuretic: Study evaluated the diuretic activity of a methanolic extract in rats using metabolic cages and furosemide as standard. Results showed significant increase in volume of urine, urinary concentration of Na+ K+, and Cl-. (19)
• Cytotoxic Saponin / Anti-Cancer: Study of a methanolic extract of stem bark isolated a new cytotoxic saponin. The saponin exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against human squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2 and HSC-3.) (20)
Na+ K+, and Cl-. (19)
• Antibacterial / Flowers and Pods: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of flowers and pods of Albizzia lebbeck. Antimicrobial testing of pods showed activity against S. typhi 'A' and E. coli. (see constituents above) (22)
• Antibacterial: Study investigated the antibacterial effect of A. lebbeck against selective human pathogens. Among the different solvents, the ethyl acetate extract solvent showed greatest antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, E. coli, Shigella spp. and Salmonella typhi. (24)
• Effect of Environmental Sites and Conditions on Heavy Metal Contents: Study showed the accumulation of heavy metals in medicinal plants depends upon the climate of the locality, air pollution, soil contamination, and other environmental factors where the plants grow. Study reports on the comparative content of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cr, and Cd) from plant samples collected from different sites under varying environmental factors. (25)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves in Wistar rats. Results showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and significant inhibition of cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation. (26)
• Anti-Asthma Effect / Stem Bark: Study investigated the anti-asthma effect of stem bark decoction in 81 patients. Results showed good response in 56% of patients (28 cases) and fair response in 38% (19 cases, and poor response in 6% (3 cases). There was a significant increase in PEFR (peak expiratory flow rate) and decreases in total WBC, eosinophil count, and ESR. (27)
• Anti-Trypanosomal Effect / Pericarp: A methanol extract of A. lebbeck pericarp showed anti-trypanosomal activity against T. cruzi. Seeds and pericarp showed no antiplasmodial activity. (28)
• Catechin / Stem Bark: Study describes the isolation of catechin from a methanol extract of stem bark by a simple and cost effective preparative TLC method. Catechin can be used as a phytomarker for marker-based standardization of extracts and formulations containing stem bark of A. lebbeck. (29)
• Albactam / Anti-Platelet Aggregation / Flowers: A novel ß-lactam derivative, albactam, isolated from an alcoholic extract of flowers, showed significant anti-aggregatory activity against adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid induced guinea-pigs' platelet aggregation in vitro. (see constituents above) (30)
• Hepatotoxicity / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the effect of oral administration of A. lebbeck aqueous stem bark extract administered orally for 24 days to albino rats. Results showed significant hepatotoxicity in rats with elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and TBIL concentrations. (31)
• Hepatoprotective / Flowers: Study of a total alcoholic extract of A. lebbeck flowers showed highly significant (P<0.001) protective effect on CCl4-induced liver toxicity. (see constituents above) (32)
• Thrombolytic Activity / Bark: Study of a crude methanol extract of bark and its fractions were screened for thrombolytic activity. The methanol soluble fraction showed good thrombolytic activity with 53.13 ±0.30% clot lysis compared to 66.98 ±0.15% by standard Streptokinase. (33)
• Antidiabetic / Lipid / Antioxidant / Lipid, Cardiac and Hepatic Benefits / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of powdered stem bark in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Results showed antihyperglycemic effect with a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and enhanced plasma insulin level. It also decreased TC, TG, LDL-c, and VLDL-c, with increase in HDL-c (p<0.05). Treatment also showed marked increase in glutathione, GPx, catalase, SOD, and decreased lipid peroxidation. Histopath showed decreased pancreatic, liver, and cardiac damage. (34)
• Antioxidant / Roots: Study of an ethanolic root extract showed in-vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging, NO scavenging, H202, and reducing power assays. (35)
• Antifertility Activity / Spermatogenic Effects / Pods: Study evaluated the antifertility activity of methanolic extract of pods showed spermatogenic arrest in male albino rats. (36)
• Effect on Pulmonary Eosinophilia: Thirty five cases of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia were treated with shirish flower for six weeks, at dose of 200 mg twice daily with water. Results showed excellent response in 82% of cases. (39)
• Lebbeckalysin / Antiproliferative Toward Tumor Cells: Study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of lebbeckalysin by testing its inhibitory effect on growth of human hepatoma (HepG2) cells and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. (39)
• Cytotoxicity / Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Bark: Study evaluated various extracts of bark of A. lebbeck for biological activities. All extracts showed moderate antimicrobial activity with gram positive bacteria showing more sensitivity than gram negative bacteria. Extracts showed significant cytotoxic activity with the hexane extract most lethality to brine shrimp nauplii. Of the extracts, the hexane extract showed most potent free radical scavenging activity. (see constituents above) (40)
• Anti-Venom Activity / Seed: Viperid venom-induced chronic local-toxicity continues even after anti-snake venom treatment. Study evaluated the traditional antidote A. lebbeck seed extract as complementary treatment against Echis carinatus S. (Viperidae) venom (ECV)-induced local toxicity. The A. lebbeck methanolic seed extract demonstrated significant neutralization of ECV enzymes that contribute to local tissue damage and hemostatic alterations. Results supports the anecdotal use of A. lebbeck as antivenom in complementary medicine. (41)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated various leaf extracts of A. lebbeck for antibacterial activity against selective human pathogens. The ethyl acetate extract showed greater antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa (20mm), P. mirabilis (10mm), K. pneumonia (15mm), E. coli (12mm), Shigella spp. (17mm) and S. typhi (10mm). (42)
/ Bark: Study evaluated the in vitro antimalarial activity of ethanolic bark extract of A. lebbeck against Plasmodium falcifarum chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (MRC2) and CQ-resistant (RKL9) strains. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, terpenes and phytosterols. Results showed antiplasmodial efficacy in vitro against P. falcifarum as evidenced by high SI values. The ED50 <100 mg/kg against P. berghei categorizes the bark extract as active antimalarial. (43)
• Hepatoprotective Activity / HepG2 Cells: Study evaluated the invitro hepatoprotective activity of solvent extracts of Albizzia lebbeck, Cassia occidentalis, and Swertia chirata on HepG2 cells against paracetamol (PCM) as liver damage inducing agent. The methanol extracts of A. lebbeck, CO, and SC showed most efficient hepatoprotective activity against PCM on HepG2 cell lines with Silymarin as control. The maximum cell viability of 131.6 ± 9.39% was observed in the methanol seed extract of A. lebbeck (50 µg/mL). (44)
• Anti-Metastatic / Antiproliferative / Breast Cancer Models / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the cytotoxicity, antiproliferative and antimetastatic potential of A. lebbeck methanolic extract in MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 cell models of breast cancer. Cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative effect on the two models were both concentration- and time-dependent. The extract also showed high anti-metastatic effect which was concentration dependent. (45)
• Neuropharmacological Effects / Leaves: Study evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of a methanol extract of A. lebbeck leaves in Swiss albino mice using open field and hole cross tests for evaluation of locomotor effect and elevated plus maze and light/dark box tests for anxiolytic activity. Results showed the crude extract of leaves possesses significant CNS depressant, anxiolytic, and sedative properties. (46)
• Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles / Antioxidant. Cytotoxic, antimicrobial / Stem Bark: Study reports on the green synthesis of stable ZnO NPs using various concentrations of zinc nitrate and stem bark extracts of A. lebbeck. The biosynthesized ZnO NPs showed strong antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cell lines. (48)
/ Toxicity Study / Bark: Study evaluated chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of bark of A. lebbeck for hypoglycemic activity in adult Wistar albino rats using normoglycemic glucose loaded and STZ induced hyperglycemic rat models. Methanol and aqueous extracts showed significant reduction in blood glucose comparable to metformin, with the ME showing more promising effect than the aqueous extract. Oral toxicity study showed no mortality and sign of toxicity at dose of 2000 mg/kg. (see study above) (50)
• Analgesic / Antipyretic / Aerial Parts / Leave: Study evaluated a macerated alcoholic extract of aerial parts of A. lebbeck leaves for analgesic activity by tail flick model and anti-pyretic activity by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in Wistar rats. Acute toxicity study showed no signs of toxicity up to doe level of 2000 mg/kg. At extract does of 200 and 400 mg/kbw, results showed significant (p<0.05) and dose-dependent analgesic and antipyretic activity in the animal models. (51)
• Antimalarial / Plasmodium falcifarum 3D7 Strain: Study evaluated the antiplasmodial activity of various extracts of A. lebbeck against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive Plasmodium flacifarum 3D7 strain and cytotoxicity against THP-1 cell line. The methanol extract of leaf and leaf petiole, ethyl acetate extract of leaf and stem bark showed significant antimalarial activity with IC50 values of 5-50 µg/ml (p<0.05 and <0.001, respectively). All the extracts were non toxic to THP-1 cells. (52)
• Antifertility Effects / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Albizzia lebbeck on the histology of male and female reproductive organs of alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. Results showed the aqueous extract of leaves causes spermatogenic and oogenic arrest in male and female rats, respectively. Further studies were suggested to identify active ingredients responsible for the antifertility effects. (54)