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Family Meliaceae
Lansium domesticum Correa

Da guo lan sa

Scientific names  Common names 
Aglaia aquea (Jacq.) Kosterm. Boboa (Bis.)
Aglaia domestica (Correa) Pellegr. Buahan (Mbo., Sul.)
Aglaia dookoo Griff. Bulahan (Bis.)
Aglaia intricatoreticulata Kosterm. Buan (Mbo.)
Aglaia merrillii Elmer Bukan (Bis.)
Aglaia sepalina [Kosterm] Kosterm. Kaliboñgan (Mbo.)
Aglaia steenisii Kosterm. Lansones (Tag., Bik.)
Amoora racemosa Ridl. Lanzones (Tag.)
Lachanodendron album Reinw. ex Blume Tubua (Bag.)
Lachanodendron domesticum (Correa) Nees Langsat (Engl.) 
Lansium aqueum (Jack) Miq. Longkong tree (Engl.)
Lansium domesticum Correa  
Lansium domesticum var. aqueum Jack  
Lansium domesticum var. pubescens Koord. & Valeton  
Lansium javanicum M.Roem.  
Lansium pedicellatum Kosterm.  
Lansium sepalinum Kosterm.  
Taeniochlaena polyneura G.Schellenb.  
Lansium domesticum (Osbeck) K.C.Sahni & Bennet is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BURMESE: Duku, Langsat.
CHINESE: Lan sa, Lan sa guo, Da guo lan sa.
DANISH: Sød duku. Langsat, Langsep.
DUTCH: Doekoe , Kokosan, Langsep.
FRENCH: Duku Doux à Large Fruit, Duku Doux à Petit Fruit, Langsep.
GERMAN: Süßer Duku, Dukubaum, Ecther lansabaum, Lansibaum.
INDIA: Longkong.
INDONESIAN: Langsat, Duku, Kokosan.
ITALIAN: Duku dolce, Lansio, Lanzone.
JAPANESE: Duku, Ransa.
KOREAN: Long kong, Lang sat.
MALAY: Ceroring, Dookkoo, Duki, Duku, Kokosan.
PORTUGUESE: Arbol-do-duku, Duku-doce, Arbol-do-lanza.
SPANISH: Arbol de duku, Arbol de lanza, Duku dulce, Lanzon.
THAI: Duku, Langsat waan, Long gong, Longkong.

Gen info
- Lansium domesticum, commonly known as lansones or langsat, is a species of tree in the family Meliaceae, commercially cultivated for its edible fruits.
- There are many cultivars, the two most commonly grown as 'Duku' and 'Langsat'.
- In the Philippines, the most commonly cultivated cultivars are the 'Paete' and the 'Jolo'. 'Duku' and 'Longkong' are also commercially cultivated. Other notable varieties include 'Concepcion', named after Concepcion, Talisay, Negros Occidental from the Philippines, and 'Uttaradit', a cultivar that is a regional specialty of Uttaradit province, Thailand. (

• Lansones is a tree growing to a height of 4 to 15 meters. Leaves are alternate, 20 to 40 centimeters long, with 5 to 7 leaflets, oblong to oblong-elliptic, 7 to 18 centimeters in length, and pointed at both ends. Flowers are small, yellow and borne on spikes, solitary or fascicled on the trunk or larger branches. Fruit is yellowish-white, occurring in bunches on a single stem, ellipsoid or globose, 2 to 4 centimeters long, with bitter seeds that are surrounded by a translucent pulp (arillus). The outer skin is thin and tough, abundant in a milky juice. The pulp occurs in five sections with one well-developed seed.

• The tree is average sized, reaching 30 meters (98 ft) in height and 75 centimeters (30 in) in diameter. 30 years old trees grown from seed and planted at 8 × 8 meter spacing can have a height of 10 meters and diameter of 25 cm. The trunk grows in an irregular manner, with buttress roots showing above ground. The tree's bark is a grayish color, with light and dark spots. Its resin is thick and milk colored. Pinnately compound leaves are odd numbered, with thin hair, and 6 to 9 buds at intervals. Buds are long and elliptical, approximately 9 to 21 centimeters (3.5 to 8.3 in) by 5 to 10 centimeters (2.0 to 3.9 in) in size. Upper edge shines, and the leaves themselves have pointed bases and tips. Stems of the buds measure 5 to 12 millimeters (0.20 to 0.47 in). Flowers are located in inflorescences that grow and hang from large branches or the trunk; the bunches may number up to 5 in one place. They are often branched at their base, measure 10 to 30 centimeters (3.9 to 11.8 in) in size, and have short fur. Flowers are small, with short stems, and are perfect. Sheathe is shaped like a five lobed cup and is colored a greenish-yellow. Corona is egg-shaped and hard, measuring 2 to 3 millimeters (0.079 to 0.118 in) by 4 to 5 millimeters (0.16 to 0.20 in). There is one stamen, measuring 2 millimeters (0.079 in) in length. Top of the stamen is round. Pistil is short and thick. Fruit can be elliptical, ovoid or round, measuring 2 to 7 centimeters (0.79 to 2.76 in) by 1.5 to 5 centimeters (0.59 to 1.97 in) in size. Fruits look much like small potatoes and are borne in clusters similar to grapes. Larger fruits are on the variety known as duku. It is covered by thin, yellow hair giving a slightly fuzzy aspect. Skin thickness varies with the varieties, from 2 millimeters (0.079 in) to approximately 6 millimeters (0.24 in). With the skin removed, the fruit resembles peeled garlic in appearance, with around five white, translucent lobes, some of which contain a flat, bitter tasting seed. Seeds are covered with a thick, clear-white aril that tastes sweet and sour. (29)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Cultivated for its fruit in Luzon, particularly the Quezon and Laguna Provinces, and occurs wild in Mindanao and Basilan.
- Also native to Borneo, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand. (28)

- The rind yields 6% lansium acid which is toxic.
- The fresh peeling yielded a volatile oil, a resin, and some reducing acids.
- The resin is believed to be nontoxic and protective to the stomach against alcohol.
- The outer skin of the fruit is rich in tannin.
- From the seeds, two toxic and bitter substances and traces of an alkaloid.
- The fruit pulp contains sucrose, saccharose, fructose and glucose.
- Study isolated a new tetranortriterpenoid from the seeds: methyl 2-[4-(3-fur­yl)-6b,10a-dihydr­oxy-3a,7,9,9-tetra­methyl-6,10-dioxo-2,3,3a,6b,7,8,9,10,10a,11-deca­hydro-1aH,4H,6H-benzo[h][1]benzoxireno[3,2,1a-de]isochro­men-8-yl]acetate, C27H32O9. (22)
- Study yielded five tetranoterpenoids, domesticulide A-E (1-5) from the seed. The seed extract was rich in limonoids.
- Yields triterpenoid lansiolides with antimalarial activity.

- Seeds yielded two tetranortriterpenoids, kokosanolide A (1) and C (2), together with 3 onoceranoid-type triterpenoid: kokosanolide B (3), 8,14-secogammacera-7,13-diene-3,21-dione (4) and a mixture of 8,14-secogammacera-7,14(27)-diene- 3,21-dione (5) and compound 4 isolated from the bark. (see study below) (13)
- Food value per 100 g of edible portion: Moisture 86.5 g; protein 0.8 g; carbohydrates 9.5 g, fiber 2.3 g; calcium 20 mg; phosphorus 30 mg; vitamin A 13 IU; thiamine 89 mcg; riboflavin 124 mcg; ascorbic acid 1 mg. (3)
- Phytochemical screening of stem bark infusion showed presence of flavonoids, terpenoids/steroids, tannins, phenols, and saponins. (31)

- Bark is considered antipyretic, anthelmintic, and astringent.
- Studies have shown anti-malarial, antioxidant, antimelanogenesis, antibacterial, anticancer, antipyretic, repellent, pigmentation reducing, diuretic, larvicidal, wound healing, skin whitening properties.

Parts utilized
Bark, fruit, leaves, seeds.

-The fruit pulp is succulent and delicious, eaten fresh out of hand; candied or preserved in syrup.
- Decoction of bark and leaves used for dysentery.
- Peel, rich in oleoresin, used for diarrhea and intestinal spasms.
- Crushed seeds used for fevers.
- Astringent bark used for dysentery and malaria.
- Powdered bark used for scorpion stings.
- Bark resin used for flatulence and gastrointestinal colic, for swellings, and as antispasmodic.
- Grounded seeds mixed with water as vermifuge and antipyretic.
- Tincture prepared from the dried rind used for diarrhea and abdominal colic.
- In Java. seeds are used as vermifuge and antipyretic.
- In East Kalimantan, Indonesia, decoction of bark used for malaria.
- In Thailand, peel and flesh used as facial toners, wash gels, and masks, as well as skin moisturizer and whitening cream.
- In the Pakuli region of Palu, bark used for treatment of malaria. Bark decoction used to reduce pain and fever.
- Repellent: The dried fruit skins when burned emit an aromatic smell which repels mosquitoes. In Java, used as incense in room of sick people. (3)
- Wood: Light brown wood is tough and durable; used as house pots and for making tools and handles. (3)
- Poison: The juice of the bark and fruit is recorded as used for poison arrow.

Anti-Malarial / Skin and Leaf Extracts: Lansium domesticum: skin and leaf extracts of this fruit tree interrupt the life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, and are active towards a chloroquine-resistant strain of the parasite (T9) in vitro: Study indicates extracts of LD are a potential source for compounds with activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum. (1)

Anti-Malarial / Tetratriterpenoids: Study yielded five tetratriterpenoids – domesticulide A-E from the seeds of Lansium domesticum together with 11 known triterpenoids. Eight of the compounds showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. (6)
Antioxidant: Extract of LD was shown to have antioxidant activity against DPPH free radical and anti-tyrosinase activity.
• Cosmeceutical: Review focuses on its medicinal, nutritional, and cosmeceutical value from its antioxidant, moisturizing, whitening and lightening effects. Dry extract of fruit, re-dissolved in propylene glycol is used for skin depigmentation and as a moisturizer. (3)
Skin Moisturizing / Lightening Effect: Study showed LD extract can significantly increase skin moisture and decrease the skin melanin index. (3)
Antimelanogenesis: LD methanol extract was one of the study extracts that showed strong inhibition of melanin production of B16 melanoma cells without significant cytotoxicity, presenting as a potential ingredient for skin-whitening cosmetics if their safety can be confirmed. (4)
Antibacterial: The air-dried fruit peel of LD yielded five onoceroid triterpenes; the air-dried seeds yielded one onoceroid triterpene (lansionic acid) and germacrene D. Studies of the compounds showed varying degrees of activity against P. aeruginosa, B subtilis, C albicans, A niger among others. (5)
Anti-Skin Tumor / Cycloartanoid Triterpene / Leaves: Study isolated a new cycloartanoid triterpene from the leaves of LD. Some of the natural product derivatives show significant inhibitory activity on skin-tumor promotion on the basis of Epstein Barr virus activation. (7)
Onoceramoid Triterpenes / Cytotoxicity: Study isolated three new natural onoceranoid triterpenes from the fruit peel of LD together with two known triterpenoids. The triterpenoids exhibited mild toxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). (8)
Onoceranoid-type Triterpenoids / Antibacterial: Study yielded a rare class of onoceranoid-type triterpenoids, lamesticumin a, lamesticumins B-F, lansic acid 3-ethyl ester and ethyl lansiolate and four known analogues from the twigs of LD.
Compounds 1-9 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. (9)
Fruit Peels / Nutrition and Medicinal Potential: Study evaluated the phytochemicals present in peels of selected fruits from Manila. All studied fruit peels (rambutan, lanzones, pomelo, longgan, mangosteen) showed the presence of reducing sugars and glycosides. In phytochemical screening, lanzones yielded highest in alkaloids and sugars. (11)
Anticancer / Young Fruit Extract: Study evaluated the antiproliferative activities and phytoconstituents of Longkong extracts. Highest total phenolic and flavonoid content were seen in the cold and hot methanol extract of stalks. Hot and cold chloroform young fruit extracts exhibited cytotoxic effect against cancer cells. Cold chloroform young fruit extracts showed the highest apoptotic effect against KB cells. (12)
Antifeedant / Triterpenoids: Study isolated two tetratriterpenoids and three onoceranoid-type triterpenoids. Triterpenoids 1-5 exhibited moderate to strong antifeedant activity against 4th stage instar larvae of Epilachna vigintioctopunctata. (see constituents above) (13)
Mosquito Repellent: Study evaluated the repellant effect of Lansium domesticum (lanzones) peel on mosquitoes. Results revealed that the effect of Lanzones peel as repellant is comparable to commercially available "katol," a popularly used insecticide vaporizer. (14)
Non-Genotoxic / Antioxidant: Study investigated the antioxidant and genotoxicity property of L. domesticum fruits, particularly seeds and skins. Results showed the skin of fruits possessed higher antioxidant potential than seeds. On genotoxicity study on TK6 human lymphoblasts using cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay, the ethanol extract of seeds were non-genotoxic to TK6 cells.
Antipyretic: Study investigated the antipyretic activity of LD seed extract on male rabbits with Brewer's yeast induced fever. Results showed a dose dependent antipyretic effect. (16)

Lansioside D / Antibacterial: Study isolated a major antimicrobial compound, lansioside D, from the fruit peel of L. domesticum. Evaluation showed remarkable activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and moderate activity against Gram-negative bacteria E. coli. (17)
Repellency of Peels to Nilaparvata lugens on Oriza sativa: Study evaluated the repellent potential of various concentrations of Lansium domesticum peel extract (0.1% to 0.5%) to Niloparvata lugens on Oryza sativa. Results showed repellent activity with the highest repellent activity was at 0.2% and the lowest, at 0.1%. (19)
Antioxidant / Seed: Study evaluated the antioxidant potential of L. domesticum seed extract
in while male rats. On measures of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), Lansium domesticum seed extract showed antioxidant potential with the optimum dose of 100 mg/kg.   (20)
Adsorption of Methylene Blue / Peel: Wastewater discharge from textile industries includes residual dyes which are no bio-degradalbe. Acute exposure to methylene blue may cause some harmful side effects. Study showed Lansium domesticum peel has good potential as adsorbent for methylene blue dye removal from aqueous solution. (21)
• Lamesticumin G /
α-Glucosidase Inhibitor / Fruit Peels: Study of ethyl acetate extract of fruit peel isolated a novel onoceranoid triterpene, lamesticumin G, along with four known compounds (2-5). Lamesticumin G inhibited α-glucosidase with IC50 of 2.27 mM. Compounds   2-5 showed no inhibition. (24)
• Onoceranoid Xyloside / Radical Scavenging / Fruit Peels: Study isolated a novel onoceranoid triterpene xyloside, methyl lansioside C (1) along with two known glycosides (2,3) from the polar fraction of fruit peels. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibited moderate radical scavenging activity with SC50s of 14.5 and 13.7 mM, respectively. None of the compounds exhibited inhibition of
α-glucosidase. (25)
• Reduction of Skin Pigmentation / Invention / Leaves: Invention relates to the use of extract of leaves for reducing pigmentation of the skin and/or appendages, and/or for reducing pigment stains on the skin. (26)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study reports on the green, ecofriendly, less toxic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Langsat leaf extract as bioreductor. The AgNPs successfully inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus in concentrations of 6.25 and 25% respectively. The AgNPs showed bactericidal activity against E. coli at 25%, with no actiivity on S. aureus. (27)
• Antioxidant / Analgesic / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the effectiveness of stem bark infusion of langsat as antioxidant and analgesic in male Swiss mice. Antioxidant activity test by DPPH with infusion at concentration showed IC50 of 2820 µg/ml. Percentage of writhing protection at doses of 65, 130, and 195 mg/kbw was 57.52, 42.48, and 24.51%, respectively. The effective dose of stem bark infusion as analgesic was 65 mg/kbw from 30-60 minutes. (31)
• Antioxidant / Anticancer / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidative and cytotoxic properties of various extracts of Lansium domestica and Manilkara sapota leaves. Hexane extract of L. domesticum yielded flavonoids, steroids, sugars, anthraquinones, indoles, triterpenes, and sterols. L. domesticum methanol extract showed antioxidant activity of 0.183 µmol TE/100 g. Using MTT assay for anticancer activity against human lung adenocarcinoma cells, crude hexane extract of L. domesticum showed highest percent growth inhibition (70%). Extracts showed potential as antioxidant and anticancer agents. (32)
• Wound Healing / Seed: Study evaluated an ointment formulation of seed extract for promotion of wound healing in rats. Ointment concentrations of 2.5, 5, and 10% were used for three days. Results showed significant wound closure for all groups (p<0.05). Best wound closure was in the 10% extract group with average wound size decreasing by 0.3 cm. For invitro activity, only the 10% ointment showed inhibitory zone of 3 mm diameter. (33)
• Larvicidal Against Ae. aegypti / Leaves: Study evaluated the effective concentration of Lansium domesticum leaf extract and its mechanism in causing Aedes aegypti death.  LC50 value of extract was used for fractionation. L. domesticum leaf extract caused mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 of 0.22% and LC90 of 0.32% for 24 h exposure. The L. domesticum leaf extract cause histopathological midgut alterations of the Ae. aegypti larvae with apical protrusion in the epithelial cells and swelling or irregular cell structures and elongation of midgut cells. (34)
• Diuretic / Fruit Peel: Study evaluated the diuretic effects of ethanol extracts of L. domesticum fruit peels on Mus musculus domesticus. Acute toxicity testing in mice with dosages of 250 mg to 2000 mg/kg showed no signs of mortality. Extract showed little (500 mg/kg) to moderate (1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg) diuretic effect on mice. (35)
• Anti-Proliferative / Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cell Line / Fruit: Study evaluated the possible anticancer activity of various extracts and fractions of duku fruit extracts by inhibition of proliferation of human colorecatal adenocarcinoma (HT29). Using MTT assay, a methanol extract showed antiproliferative effect (IC50 6.8 µg/ml. The ME was more effective inhibition of HT29 cell proliferation compared to ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. (36)
• Anticancer Compounds Against NSCLC Cells Targeting Mitochondrial Processes: Study evaluated the specificity of lanzones hexane (LH) leaf extracts to non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549) compared to normal lung fibroblasts cells (CCD19-Lu) and normal epithelial prostate cells (PNT2). Bioassay guided fractionation of hexane leaf extract identified two bioactive fractions, LH6-6 andLH7-6, with IC50s of 2.694 and 2.883 µg/, respectively. GC-MS analysis identified 31 compounds. LC-TMS proteomics showed the compounds cause cytotoxic effects targeting mitochondrial processes in A549 lung cancer cells. (37)
• Alternative Plant-Based Insecticide / Enzyme-Targeting: The long-term use of chemical insecticides encourages the rapid development of resistant dengue vector population of Aedes aegypti. Study evaluate the effect of L. domesticum (Ld) methanol extracts and fraction on the activity of enzyme esterase and glutathione S-transferase and concentration of inorganic substances in Ae. aegypti larvae. Crude extract of Ld showed LD50 and LD90 of 2200 and 3200 ppm after 24 hours observation. Extract and fraction influenced the development of Ae. aegypti, reduced the activity of enzyme esterase, increase GST enzyme activity and affected the levels of inorganic substances in the Ae. aegypti larvae. Results suggest potential for a plant-based insecticide as alternative to vector control that is more selective and safer. (38)
• Combination of Lansium and Hibiscus as Cosmetic Skin Whitening Agent: Study evaluated the potency of a combination of Lansium (Lansium domesticum) fruit extract and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) flower extract (LHE) as cosmetic active ingredient. LHE showed tyrosinase inhibition of 49.37%, which suggests potency as lightening active ingredients in cosmetic products. The LHE contained lotion base significantly increased skin moisture and reduced melanin index. Safety evaluation of the lotion by SCPT and HET-CAM showed safety for human skin and eyes. The LHE is proven to be a safe and effective active cosmetic ingredient. (39)
• Anti-Aging / Tyrosinase Inhibitory / Antioxidant / Flesh and Peel: Study evaluated the bioactivity of L. domesticum as cosmetic ingredient, prepared by maceration with 96% ethanol and ethyl acetate to obtain an ethanolic extract of fruit flesh and fruit peel. Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH, ß-carotene bleaching, and FRAP. The inhibitory effect of skin-degradation enzymes (anti-aging) were done using elastase and collagenase assays. The extract yielded phenolic, flavonoid, terpenoids, and steroid compounds. Results suggest extracts of fruit flesh and fruit peel of L. domesticum can be used as cosmetic ingredient for anti-aging and anti-tyrosinase effects. (40)
• Mosquito Repellant / Peels
: Study evaluated the effectiveness of lanzones peelings extract as mosquito repellent. The lazones peelings' extract showed a mean protection percentage of 93.99% while positive control containing 25% Diethyltoulamide (DEET) showed 96.19% protection percentage. Negative control showed 86.67%. (41)

Commercial cultivation.

Updated May 2024 / January 2020 / June 2017 / October 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Lansium domesticum Blanco1.117.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Lansium domesticum: skin and leaf extracts of this fruit tree interrupt the lifecycle of Plasmodium falciparum, and are active towards a chloroquine-resistant strain of the parasite (T9) in vitro / Donald T. T. Yapp, and S. Y. Yap / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, March 2003; Volume 85, Issue 1: pp 145-150 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00375-6
Traditionally-Used Antimalarials from the Meliaceae / S Omar, J Zhang et al / Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 3, Number 2, January 2003 , pp. 133-139(7)
Review of Lansium domesticum Corrêa and its use in cosmetics / Martha TILAAR, Wong Lip WIH et al / Bol. Latinoam. Caribe Plant. Med. Aromaticas, 2008; 7(4): pp 183-189
Evaluation of medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan for antimelanogenesis / Enos Tangke Arung et al / Journal of Natural Medicines / 10.1007/s11418-009-0351-7
Antimicrobial Terpenoids from Lansium domesticum / Consolacion Y. Ragasa, Pamela Labrador and John A. Rideout / The Philippine Agricultural Scientist. 89(1), 101-105, 2006
Antimalarial tetranortriterpenoids from the seeds of Lansium domesticum Corr. / Saewan, Nisakorn et al / Phytochemistry, Oct 2000; 67(20): pp 2288-2293

Isolation of a new cycloartanoid triterpene from leaves of Lansium domesticum novel skin-tumor promotion inhibitors / Mugio Nishizawa, Makota Emura et al / Tetrahedron Letters, Vol 30, Issue 41, 1989, Pages 5615-5618 / doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(01)93813-4
New Onoceranoid Triterpene Constituents from Lansium domesticum / Tadamitsu Tanaka, Masami Ishibashi et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2002, 65 (11), pp 1709–1711 / DOI: 10.1021/np020239o
Onoceranoid-Type Triterpenoids from Lansium domesticum
/ Shi-Hui Dong, Chuan-Rui Zhang et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2011; 74(5), pp 1042–1048 / DOI: 10.1021/np100943x
Sorting Lansium names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.

Potential Nutritional and Medicinal Sources from Fruit Peels in Manila, Philippines / Judilynn N. Solidum / International Journal of Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, Vol. 2, No. 4, July 2012
Anticancer activities of the extract from Longkong (Lansium domesticum) young fruits. / Aranya Manosroi, Pensak Jantrawut, Mathukorn Sainakham, Worapaka Manosroi, Jiradej Manosroi / Pharm Biol. 2012 Jul 31
Antifeedant Triterpenoids from the Seeds and Bark of Lansium domesticum cv Kokossan (Meliaceae) /
Tri Mayanti, Roekmiati Tjokronegoro, Unang Supratman, Mat Ropi Mukhtar, Khalijah Awang and A. Hamid A. Hadi / Molecules 2011, 16, 2785-2795; doi:10.3390/molecules16042785
A study on the mosquito repellant effect of Lansium Domesticum (Lanzones) peel on mosquitoes. / Ana Grutas, Leojane Marzan, Joann Rusiana, Anthony Santos, Waldemar Siahaan / Manila Central University-Filemon D. Tanchoco Memorial Foundation
Suthepakul , S. Phornchirasilp / ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1023: International Symposium on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY of LANZONES Lansium domesticum, Correa, 1807, SEEDEXTRACT ON MALE RABBITS / Anne Therese C. Abad and Michelle R. Luis, Jameross B. Tabiano, RPh / Thesis/Dissertations-2013: Pharmay / HERDIN Rec: R07-USC-14032015465759
Lansioside D, a new triterpenoid glycoside antibiotic from the fruit peel of Lansium domesticum Correa / Eufrocinio C. Marfori, Shin Ichiro Kajiyama, Ei-Ichiro Fukusaki and Akio Kobayashi / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2015; 3(5): 140-143
STUDY ON THE NUTRITIONAL VALUES AND CUSTOMER ACCEPTANCE OF Lansium domesticum &Nephelium lappaceum NEWLY FERMENTED NATURAL FRUIT VINEGARS IN MALAYSIA / Seri Intan Mokhtara, Faznira Zakariab, Mohammad Amizi Ac, Siow Woon Soond, Nurshahida. A.Se, Zul Ariff Abdul Latifff / Asia Pacific Journal of Advanced Business and Social Studies (2016), Vol 2, Issue 2
Repellency of Lansium domesticum peels extract to Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera) on Oryza sativa IR 42 / HANUM ISFAENI, RHAMILDA FILANI, ASTRIANA PERTIWI / | Proc Soc Indon Biodiv Intl Conf, Vol. 1, pp. 55-58, July 2012
Antioxidant Potential Of Lansium Domesticum Corr. Seed Extract In White Male Rat (Rattus Novergicus) Induced By Alcohol / Subandrate Subandrate, Sadakata Sinulingga, Sri Wahyuni, M Fakhri Altiyan, Fatmawati Fatmawati / Molekul, Vol 11, No 1 (2016)
Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution by langsat (lansium domesticum) peel / Mohamad Amran Mohd Salleh, Dalia Khalid Mahmoud, Norzeti Akhtar Binti Awang Abu, Wan Azlina Wan Abdul Karim, Azni b. Idris / Journal of Purity, Utility Reaction and Environment, 2012; 1(10):  pp 472-495
seco-Dukunolide F: a new tetra­nortriterpenoid from Lansium domesticum Corr. / H.K. Fun, S. Chantrapromma, N. Boonnak, K. Chaivadel, K. Chantrapromma, and X.L. Yu / Acta Cryst.  (2006). E62,  o3725-o3727 / https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600536806030145
Lamesticumin G, a new α-glucosidase inhibitor from the fruit peels of Lansium parasiticum / Thammatee Potipiranun, Wisuttaya Worawalai and Preecha Phuwapraisirisan / Natural Product Research, 2018; 32(16): pp 1881-1886 / https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1354184
New onoceranoid xyloside from Lansium parasiticum / Rico Ramadhan, Wisuttaya Worawalai, Preecha Phuwapraisirisan / Natural Product Research, Nov 2018; 33(1): pp 1-8 / DOI:  10.1080/14786419.2018.1510395
Cosmetic, nutraceutical or pharmaceutical - preferably dermatological - use of an extract of leaves from the lansium domesticum plant for reducing the pigmentation of the skin and/or skin appendages
/ Inventor: Veronique Degrave, Corinne Reymermier / WO2018091825A1
Antibacterial Activity of Synthesized Silver Nanoparticle using Langsat Leaf Extract (Lansium domesticum var. pubescen Kooders et Valeton) as Bioreductor against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus / Khairunnida Rahma. Agung Dwi Wahyu Widodo, Rebekah Jiniati Setiabudi et al / Proceedings of the 1st Jenderal Soedirman International Medical Conference / JIMC 2020: pp 298-304 /
ISBN: 978-989-758-499-2 / DOI: 10.5220/0010491702980304
Lansium domesticum / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Lansium domesticum / Wikipedia
Tranditional Use and Nutritional Value of Lansium domesticum / DOI: 10.3390/nu14071531
Antioxidant activity and analgesic assessment of Lansium domesticum stem bark infusion / Pratiwi Apridamayanti,  Inarah Fajriaty, Etni Hatita / NUSANTARA Bioscience, 2018; 10: pp 71-75 /
DOI: 10.13057/nusbiosci/n100201
Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Manilkara zapota and Lansium domesticum Leaves Coupled with Metabolomics analysis using Molecular Networking / Angelica Ramos, Michael Russelle Alvarez, Kimberly Delica, Patrick Gabriel Moreno et al / Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 2022; 60(5): pp 578-588 /
DOI: 10.1002/vjch.202100110
The Effect of Lansium domesticum Corr. (Duku) Seed Extract on Wound Healing / Tungki Pratama Umar, Fernando Wijaya, Theodorus Parulian / Journal of Nobel Medical College, 2020; 9(1): pp 8-11 /
DOI: 10.3126/jonmc.v9i1.29395
Effects of Lansium domesticum leaf extract on mortality, morphology, and histopathology of Aedes aegypti larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) / Rizal Subahar, Agus Aulung, Ismalia Husna, Nurhadi Eko Firmansyah et al / International Journal of Mosquito Research, 2020; 7(4): pp 105-111 / ISSN: 2348-5906
Diuretic effect of ethanolic extract of Lansium domesticum fruit peel on Mus musculus domesticus / Jessica Therese O Cabildo, Reinelle R Pesante / Thess, 2019: Bachelor of Science in Biochemistry
Anti-Proliferative Effect Of Duku (Lansium Domesticum Corr) Extracts on Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines / Mohd Adzim Khalili Rohin, Mimie Noratiqah Jumli, Norhaslinda Ridzwan, Norhayati Abd Hadi et al / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biologial, and Chemical Sciences, 2016; 7(2) / ISSN: 0975-8585
Comparative proteomics reveals anticancer compounds from Lansium domesticum against NSCLC cells target mitochondrial processes / Michael Russelle Alvarez, Florence De Juan, Ruel C Nacario et al /  Cell Biochemistry & Function, 2023; 41(2): pp 166-176 / DOI: 10.1002/cbf.3768
Activity of enzyme Esterase, Glutathione S Transferase and Inorganic Substance of Dengue vector Aedes aegypti larvae against Lansium domesticum leave extract and fractionation / Devita Febriani Putri, Ismail Husna, Mala Kurniati, Annisa Primadiamanti / Bali Medical Journal, 2023; 12(2) /
DOI: 10.15562/bmj.v12i2.3946
Safety and Efficacy Evaluation on Combination of Lansium domesticum Fruit Extract and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Flower Extract as Lightening Agent for Cosmetic / Kilala Tilaar, Fransiska Devi Junardy, Erna Subroto / International Journal of Pharma Medicine and Biological Sciences, 2018; 7(3) : pp 67-70 /
DOI: 10.18178/ijpmbs.7.3.67-70
Screening Of Antioxidants, Anti-aging And Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activities Of Ethanolic And Ethyl Acetate Extracts Of Fruit Flesh And Fruit Peel Langsat (Lansium Domesticum Corr) In Vitro / Syamsu Nur, Rumiyati Rumiyati, Endang Lukitaningsih / Traditional Medicine Journal, 2017; 22(1): pp 63-72 /
pISSN: 1410-5918 /eISSN: 2406-9086
The effectivity of Lanzones (Lansium dometicum) peelings' extract as mosquito repellant. / Don Francis P Acapulco, Jay Rendel A Casa, Chona G Mandajoyan, Ray Benedict M Pasaol, Sharlaine Ruth Seguerra, Vitaliano V Fernandez /  Thesis/Dissertations: BS, Biology-2015

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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