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Family Malvaceae
Malachra capitata Linn.

Scientifric names  Common names 
Malachra heptaphylla Fisch. Anabo (Ilk.)
Malachra heptaphylla A. St.-Hil. Bakembakes (Ilk.)
Malachra mexicana Schrad. Bulbulin (Pamp.)
Malachra palmata Moench Buluhan (Tag.)
Malachra velutina Triana & Planch. Bulubuluhan (Tag.)
Napaea latifolia Blanco                                 Unresolved Labog-labog (Bis.)
Sida capitata L. Lapnis ( Tag.)
Urena capitata (L.) M.Gomez Paang-baliuis (Tag.)
Urena moenchii M.Gomez Tambaking (Sul.)
  Malabar rosewood (Engl.)
  Brazil jute (Engl.)
  Yellow leafbract (Engl.)
Malachra capitata (L.) L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Ban bhindi.
BRAZIL: Braziler paat.
GUJARATI: Pardesi bhindo.
HINDI: Vilayati bhindi, Van bhindi.
MARATHI: Raan bhendi, Pardeshi bendi, Vilayati bhendi, Bur bhendi.
SPANISH: Malva de caballo

Gen info
- Malachra is a genus of flowering plants in the family Malvaceae, native to the Americas and Africa, and introduced in some places in Asia. They lack an epicalyx, a derived trait (autapomorphy) within their tribe Hibisceae, which is known to have epicalyces. (23)

Lapnis is a coarse, erect, simple or branched, annual herb, 0.5 to 2 meters high, covered with hairs. Leaves are orbicular, 5 to 15 centimeters in diameter, obscurely and shallowly lobed, finely toothed and somewhat heart-shaped at the base. Flowers are borne in axillary and terminal heads. The calyx-lobes are short, and slenderly pointed at the tip. The petals are yellow, imbricate, about 1 centimeter long.

- Common weed in open, waste places in Nueva Viscaya, La Union, Pampanga, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna Provinces and Manila in Luzon.
- Native of tropical America.
- Planted as a fiber plant in India.
- Now pantropic.

- Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phlobatanin, terpenoid, saponin, and glycosides. (6)
- Fat obtained from shade dried plant was saponified; the unsaponifiable matter was isolated and identified as ß-sitosterol. (8)
- Roots yield phenols, tannins, carbohydrates, saponins, and flavonoids.
- HPLC analysis of roots for flavonoid contents detected (mg/g concentration): gallic aid 20.0, caffeic acid 1.0, rutin 0.1, quercetin 10.0, ferulic acid 1.0. Stem yielded gallic acid 30.0, with others below detection limit. Leaves yielded rutin 10.0 and ferulic acid 10.0, with the three other flavonoids below detectable limit. (14)
Various solvent extracts of root, stem, and leaf dry powder yielded alkaloids, anthocyanoides, coumarin, flavonoids, phenol, protein, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids. (see study below) (16)

- Emollient.
- Studies suggest anti-viral, hepatoprotective, antiulcer, anti-epileptic, corrosion inhibition, antioxidant, anti-diarrheal, hepatoprotectivem antimicrobial properties.

Parts used
Flowers, leaves and roots.

• Decoction of roots and leaves considered emollient in enemas and for bathing purposes. (22)
• Roots used as traditional remedy for many diseases: diarrhea, convulsion, inflammation, fever, wound healing.
• In Antilles, used as an emollient.
• In West Bengal, India, used for infertility -- raw fruits given daily during the menstrual period, for 3 months.
• In Indian traditional medicine, used for treatment of epilepsy and inflammation.
• In the Krishna district of India, leaf paste is used as an external ointment for treating skin eruptions.
• In India's Akola district, plant used for gastric disorders and jaundice.
Fiber: Bast is strong and used in rope making. Fiber is excellent, 8 to 9 feet long, considered as strong and just slightly inferior to jute.

Antiviral Activity / Stems and Leaves:
In a study of forty-seven ethanol crude extracts of 42 plants for antiviral activity against Foot and Mouth Disease type O, the leaves and stems of Malachra capitata showed low antiviral activity. (1)
Anti-Ulcer Activity / Roots: Study evaluated the anti-ulcer activity of aqueous extract of roots of Malachra capitata against pylorus ligation and ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rats. Results showed significant anti-ulcer activity in both models, with gastric anti-secretory effect in pylorus-ligated rats and gastric cytoprotective effect in ethanol induced gastric ulcers. Ranitidine and misoprostol were used as standard drugs. (4)
Corrosion Inhibition / Leaves: Study evaluated an extract of leaves for corrosion inhibit on of mild steel in 1N H2So4. Weight loss results showed the extract of M. capitata leaves is an excellent corrosion inhibitor. Adsorption of active molecules led to the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the mild steel. (5)
Anti-Epileptic Activity:
Study evaluated and aqueous extract of M. capitata showed anti-convulsant activity on MES (Maximum Electroshock) and PTZ (Pentylenetetrazole) induced seizure models in albino Wistar rats. Anticonvulsant activity may be due to potentiation of GABA activity. (10)
Corrosion Inhibition / Leaves: Extract of M. capitata leaves was investigated as corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in 1N H2SO4. Results showed the leaves of MC to be an excellent corrosion inhibitor, with a mixed mode of inhibition, with adsorption of active molecules providing formation of a protective layer on the surface of mild steel. (9)
Toxicity Study / Roots: Acute toxicity study of roots in rats showed the extract to be safe at doses of 2000 mg/kg body weight orally per OECD guidelines. In chronic study, no significant changes were observed with hematological, hepatic, and renal parameters. (12)
Antidiarrheal / Roots: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of roots for antidiarrheal activity using castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling and small intestinal transit model in rats. Results showed significant (p<0.001) reduction of castor oil-induced frequency and enteropooling. At 200 and 400 mg/kg, there was significant inhibition (p<0.001) in castor oil-induced charcoal meal transit. (12) (19)
Erythrocyte Protective Activity / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of M. capitata in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced erythrocyte damage. Results showed the extract protected against the loss of functional integrity and membrane lipid alteration in RBCs induced by oxidative stress, together with inhibition of accumulation of lipid peroxidation products. (13)
Flavonoids / Antioxidant: HPLC studies of methanol extracts of root, stem and leaf samples yielded appreciable amounts of flavonoid gallic acids (root and stem), quercetin (root), rutin and ferulic acid (leaf). (see constituents above) (14)
Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of M. capitata showed significant protection against CCl4 induced toxicity model in male Wistar albino rats. (12)
• Antibacterial / Stem and Roots: Study evaluated ethanol extracts of leaf, stem, and root of Malachra capitata for antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus sp, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium. Stem and root extracts were active against all test organisms. Leaf extract was effective against Micrococcus and E. coli only. (15)
• Antimicrobial: Study of ethanol extracts of leaf root, stem, and leaf showed potential activity against bacteria (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis) and fungi (C. albicans, C. paraapsolisis, and A. niger). (see constituents above) (16) Study screened methanolic, chloroform and benzene extracts of leaves of M. capitata for antimicrobial properties. The methanolic extracts at different concentrations inhibited the growth of E. coli and L. monocytogenes. Concentration of 50 mg/ml showed highest diameters zone of inhibition ranging from 1mm to 11mm. Phytochemical screening of leaf extracts yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and saponin. (21)
• Antioxidant / Roots: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of roots for antioxidant activity using DPPH scavenging and reducing power assays. Results showed significant dose dependent inhibition of DPPH activity. (17)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Leaf: Study reports on the green, eco-friendly and convenient method of silver nanoparticles synthesis using n-hexane extract of leaf as reducing agent. The green synthesized AgNPs showed excellent antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains viz. B. subtilis, M. luteus, S. aurues, and P. aeruginosa. (18)
• Biogenic Amines Post-Seizure / Anticonvulsant Activity: Study evaluated the relationship between seizure activities and altered monoamines such as noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) in forebrain of rats in MES and PTZ models. Results showed significant reduction (p<0.01) in SOD, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase in rat brain due to epilepsy, which was significantly restored (p<0.01) by the aqueous extract of M. capitata. Similar dose dependent results were obtained in the PTZ model. The anticonvulsant activity may be due to antioxidant properties, which delays generation of free radicals in MES and PTZ induced epilepsy. (20)

- Wild-crafted.
- Cultivated.

Updated March 2021 /
March 2018 / October 2016
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Flower-Leaves close-up / Malachra capitata-- Dinesh Valke / CREATVE COMMONS • Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic / click on image to go to source page / flickr
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / File:Malachra capitata Blanco2.295-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
In vitro Study of Antiviral Activity of Plant Crude-extracts against the Foot and Mouth Disease Virus / Narong Chungsamarnyart et al / Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.), 2007; 41: pp 97-103

Ethnomedicinal Plants Used in West Rarrh Region of West Bengal / Ashis Ghosh / Natural Product Radiance, Vol 7(5), 2008, pp 461-465
Plants used by the ethnic people of Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh / K N Reddy, G Trimurthulu and C Sudhakar Reddy / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 9 (2), April 2010, pp 313, 317
STUDY ON PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILE AND ANTIULCEROGENIC EFFECT OF MALACHRA CAPITATA (L.) IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS / S. Pratyusha, P. Jayasri, A. Elumalai / International Journal of Preclinical and Pharmaceutical Research, Vol 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp 97-103
Inhibitive Effect by Acid Extracts of Malachra capitata Leaves on the Sulphuric Acid Corrosion of Mild Steel / Patel NS, Jauhari S, Mehta GN / Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry, 2009, Vol 2, No 4
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, Vol.1/Issue-4/Oct-Dec.2010
Malachra capitata / Common names / India Biodiversity Portal
Isolation and Study of β-sitosterol the Unsaponifiable Matter from the Plant Malachra capitata (Linn) / RAINA JADHAV and SANGEETA PARIHAR / Biomedical & Pharmacology Journal Vol. 7(1), 285-287 (2014)
Inhibitive Effect by Acid Extracts of Malachra capitata Leaves on the Sulphuric Acid Corrosion of Mild Stee
l / Patel NS*, Jauhari S, Mehta GN / Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry, 2009, Volume 2, Issue 4
Anti-epileptic activity of Malachra capitata L. on maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures models. / G. Gopi, P.Jayasri, A. Elumalai / International Journal of Pharmacology & Toxicology.2012; 2(2): 104-108.
Malachra capitata / Synonyms / The Plant List
A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MALACHRA CAPITATA: MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND CONSTITUENTS / Kamalinee Avinash Deodhar / Asian Journal of Science and Technology, August 2016; Vol 07, Issue 08L oo 3310-3313
ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MALACHRA CAPITATA (L.) AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (CCL4) INDUCED ERYTHROCYTE DAMAGE IN RATS / V. Anil Kumar*, K. Purnachander, S. Vasudevamurthy, N. Kannappan, K. Spandana / International Journal of Pharmacology Research, Vol 2, Issue 2 (2012): pp 74-78
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF MALACHRA CAPITATA L. / Bhowal M and Yawalikar N / Indian Journal of Plant Sciences, 2015; 4(3): pp 96-99 / ISSN: 2319-3824
PHYTO CHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF MALACHRA CAPITATA (L.) EXTRACTS / L. Sindhu and R. Neelamegam* / International Journal of Institutional Pharmacy and Life Sciences , 5(5); Sept-Oct 2015
INVITRO ANTI- OXIDANTS ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF MALACHRA CAPITATA L. / I. Govardhan Kumar*, B. Kumar, NS. Midhuna Sagari / International Journal of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol 2, Issue2 (2012): pp 80-83 / eISSN:2248-9169 / pISSN: 2248-9150
SYNTHESIS AND CHARCTERIZATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM THE LEAF EXTRACT OF MALACHRA CAPITATA (L.) / G.M. Srirangam and K. Parameswara Rao* Rasayan J. Chem, Vol 10, No 1; Jan-Mar 2017: pp 46-53
PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ANTI-DIARRHEAL ACTIVITY OF MALACHRA CAPITATA (LL..)) IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS / G. Gopi, P. Jayasri , A. Elumalai / International Journal of Innovative Drug Discovery, Vol 2, Issue 2 (2012): pp 76-80
A systematic review of Malachra capitataL Medicinal constituents / Kamalinee Avinash Deodhar / Asian Journal of Science and Technology, Aug 2016; 7(8): pp 3310-3313 / ISSN: 0976-3376
Preliminary Phytochemistry and Anti-Microbial Activity of Malachra capitata Plant / Ramavath Mohanbabu Naik,, Syed Ahmed, Kambakam Venkatalakshmi / American Journal of Pharmatech Research, 2018; 8(3) / ISSN: 2240-3387
Malachra capitata / William H Brown / Minor Products of Philippine Forests, 1921; 1(3)
Malachra / Wikipedia

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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