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Family Poaceae / Gramineae
Laua-laua
Paspalum conjugatum P. J. Bergius

CARABAO GRASS
Liang er cao

Scientific names  Common names 
Digitaria conjugata (P. J. Berg.) Schult. Bantotan (Mbo.)
Panicum conjugatum (P. J. Berg.) Roxb. Kauad-kauaran (Tag.)
Paspalum africanum Poir. Kauat-kauat (Tag.)
Paspalum conjugatum P. J. Bergius Laua-laua (Tag.)
Paspalum ciliatum Lam Sakate (Bis.)
Paspalum longissimum Hochst. ex Steud. Buffalo grass (Engl.)
Paspalum renggeri Steud. Carabao grass (Engl.)
Paspalum sieberianum Steud. Hilograss (Engl.)
  Sour grass (Engl.)
  Sour paspalum (Engl.)
Paspalum conjugatum P.J.Bergius is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Shuang sui que bai, Liang er cao, Cha zi cao.
DANISH: Hirse.
FRENCH: Herbe sure, Herbe créole.
GERMAN : Dallisgras.
ITALIAN : Paspalo dilatato.
JAPANESE: Shima suzume no hie.
SPANISH : Grama de agua, Hierba dallis, Grama de agua, Pasto dallis, Zacate dallis (Mexico).

Gen info
The genus Paspalum has about 200 species widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres. Many provide forage or pasture grass for cattle and horses.

Botany
Laua-laua is a gregarious stoloniferous grass. Stems are spreading and branching below withe the flowering branches 20 to 70 centimeters high. Leaves are narrow lanceolate, flat and thin, glabrous, 8 to 20 centimeters long, 5 to 15 millimeters wide. Spikes are two, terminal, slender and 6 to 12 centimeters long. The spikelets are imbricate, 1.2 to 1.4 millimeters long, pale-green, plano-convex, the empty glumes with long, soft, white marginal hairs.

Distribution
- Grass is found in abundance in open waste places and settled areas, about towns, along trails, streams throughout the Philippines.
- Considered a weed but sometimes planted as a coarse ground cover grass.

- Native of tropical America.
- Now pantropic.

Constituents
- Phytochemical study yielded glycosides, saponins and steroids.

Parts utilized
Fresh roots.

Uses
Folkloric
- Decoction of fresh roots are taken internally for diarrhea.
- In Africa, leaves used for fever, debility, stomach troubles and pulmonary afflictions; roots used for diarrhea and dysentery
- In Gabon, pounded with the
leaf of Desmodium salicifolium and applied as compress for contusions, sprains and dislocations.
- In Congo, the leaves used with Macaranga sp and Renealmia sp. in a vapor bath for fever.
- In Cameroon, decoction of leaves, softened in hot ashes and ground in water, used for dysentery.
(6)
- In Trinidad, leaf infusions used for fever.
- In Malaysia, young leaves are pounded and applied as paste onto wounds and cuts.
- In
West Papua, leaves used for wound healing.
(13)
- In Ecuadorian Amazon, infusion of the plant used for headaches. (The ethnobotanical efficacy may be due to an ergot-like fungus infestation.)
(5)
- In Zaire, as antivenom, decoction of whole plant is rubbed on the bite with the oil of Lebrunia bushaie.
(2)
Others
- In Africa, grass provides good grazing for cattle and horses, taken before seed-set.
- Cats and dogs said to eat the leaf as purgative.

Studies
Fatty Acid Synthetase Inhibitor / Antifungal: FAS has been identified as a potential antifungal target. In a study that included Paspalum conjugatum, FAS was prepared from thirteen compounds including three new natural products, representing five chemotypes: isoflavones,, flavones, biflavonoids, hydrolyzable tannin-related derivatives and triterpenoids. Although there were several antifungal components in the set, FAS inhibitory activity could not be correlated with antifungal activity. (3)
Phytoremediation / Lead: Study showed carabao grass as a potential phytoremediator, absorbing small amounts of Pb in soils. (In a comparative study, vetivergrass showed the most beneficial characteristics. Cogon grass showed to be more tolerant to Pb-contaminated soil compared to carabao grass. (10)
Phytoremediation / Mercury / Effect on Maize Growth: Study showed P. conjugatum has potential for phytoremediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Growth and biomass production in maize grown on remediated soil increased after phytoremediation with P. conjugatum. (12)

Availability
Wild-crafted. 

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update September 2015

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Line Drawing / Paspalum conjugatum P.J. Bergius - hilograss / USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Hitchcock, A.S. (rev. A. Chase). 1950. Manual of the grasses of the United States. USDA Miscellaneous Publication No. 200. Washington, DC / USDA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / Paspalum conjugatum P.J. Bergius - hilograss PACO14 /Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA
SOURCES

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Paspalum conjugatum Berg. / Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa / Burkill, H.M. 1985. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vol 2
(2)
Antivenomous Plants used in the Zairean Pharmacopoeia / African Study Monographs, 7:21-35, March 1987
(3)
Fatty acid synthase inhibitors from plants: Isolation, structure elucidation, and SAR studies / Li XC, Joshi AS, ElSohly HN, Khan SI, Jacob MR, Zhang Z, Khan IA, Ferreira D, Walker LA, Broedel SE Jr, Raulli RE, Cihlar RL. / Journal of natural products / 2002, vol. 65, no12, pp. 1909-1914

(4)
MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE COMMUNITY IN SABAH / Fasihuddin B Ahmad and Hasmah Raji / Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Sabah Campus,
(5)
Headache Treatments By Native Peoples of the Ecuadorian Amazon: A Preliminary Cross-Disciplinary Assessment / Ethan B Russo MD / Deparment of Neurology, Western Montana Clinic,
Box 7609, 515 W.Front St., Missoula, MT 59807 (U.S.A.)
(6)
Medicinal plants used for intestinal diseases in Mbalmayo Region, Central Province, Cameroon / E. Noumi, A Yomi / Fitoterapia 722001.246254
(7)
Paspalum conjugatum P.J.Bergius / Catalogue of Life, China
(8)
Sorting Paspalum names / Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
(9)
Cytological Study in Paspalum conjugatum Berg / J S Fang and H W Li / Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, Received Jan 1965
(10)
Phytoextraction of Lead-Contaminated Soil Using Vetivergrass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.), Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica L.) and Carabaograss (Paspalum conjugatum L.) / Annie Melinda Paz-Alberto, Gilbert C. Sigua, Bellrose G. Baui and Jacqueline A. Prudente / Env Sci Pollut Res 14 (7) 498 – 504 (2007)

(11)
|Paspalum conjugatum / Synonyms / The Plant List
(12)
Phytoremediation of Mercury-Contaminated Soil Using Three Wild Plant Species and Its Effect on Maize Growth / N. Muddarisna, B.D. Krisnayanti, S.R. Utami, E. Handayanto / Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2013 1 (3), pp 27-32. / DOI: 10.12691/aees-1-3-1
(13)
The wild plants used as traditional medicines by indigenous people of Manokwari, West Papua / OBED LENSE / BIODIVERSITAS, Volume 13, Number 2, April 2012, Pp 98-106 / DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d130208

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