HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Acanthaceae
Pseuderanthemum bicolor (Schrank) Radlk.

Scientific names Common names
Eranthemum bicolor Schrank Aliopiop (Bis.)
Eranthemum fasciculatum Blume Atai-atai (Bis.)
Eranthemum haenkeanum (Nees) Radlk. Boian (Tagb.)
Justicia fasciculata Nees Cinco llagas (Span.)
Pseuderanthemum bicolor (Schrank) Radik. Kinatuluan (Tag.)
Pseuderanthemum haenkeanum (Nees) Radik. Kublit (Bik.)
Siphoneranthemum bicolor (Schrank) Kuntze Limang-sugat (Tag.)
  Maladosdos (Bis.)
  Mañgauhai (Mbo.)
  Mandalusa (C. Bis.)
  Mopia (Bis.)
  Panatun (Tag.)
  Pasioki (Tag.)
  Podol (Mbo.)
  Pulpulto (Illk.)
  Tihol-tihol (Bis.)
  Tulang-manok (P. Bis.)
  Tamban-tamban (Sul.)
  Bicolor false eranthemum (Engl.)
  Shooting star (Engl.)
Pseuderanthemum bicolor (Schrank) Radlk. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

KWARA'AE: Ofenga ai, Rongronglua.

Note: The sections on synonyms and scientific studies have been revised. (G. Stuart / Aug 2023)

Gen info
- Pseuderanthemum is a genus of plants in the family Acanthaceae with a pantropical distribution. As of September 2022 Plants of the World Online listed 130 species. (9)

Limang-sugat is an erect, branched, rather slender undershrub or half-woody plant usually about 1 meter in height. Leaves are thin, elliptic-ovate to oblong-ovate or oblong-lanceolate, 5 to 12 centimeters long, the upper ones often reduced, pointed at the tip and narrowed to the petiole at the base. Peduncles are axillary and longer than the petioles, bearing near their apices 1 to 3 or more racemose or cymose flowers. Calyx is green, 5 to 7 millimeters long, with elongated, linear teeth. Corolla is white, the middle lobe of the lower lip has a purple spot at the base; the tube is slender and 2.5 to 3 centimeters long; lobes are spreading, elliptic to elliptic-oblong, and about 1.2 centimeters long. Fruit is a hairy, stalked capsule, about 2 centimeters long.

- Native to the Philippines.   (4)
- Common in thickets at low altitudes from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao and in most islands and provinces. (7)
- Introduced into Bangladesh, Cuba, Jawa, Puerto Rico, Solomon Is., Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is. (4)

- A dichloromethane extract of Pseuderanthemum bicolor yielded lupeol, betulin, and a mixture of stigmasterol and sitosterol. (1)
- Study of methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extract of leaves yielded major bioactive compounds of
1,6;2,3-dianhydro-4-deoxy-beta-D-ribo-hexopyranose, pseduosarsasapogenin-5,20-Dien, methyl ether/exatriacontane, Di-N-decylsulfone/Octadecanal, and squalene. (see study below) (6)

- Studies have suggested antimicrobial,
anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, alpha-amylase inhibitory, anticoagulant properties.

Parts used
Roots, stems, leaves.


- In the Philippines, decoction of leaves, stems and roots used against aphthae and as cicatrizant of wounds and ulcers.
- In India, plant paste is applied on boils. Leaves are fried in Brassica campestris oil (sarsoon) and applied
externally on cracked feet. (2)
- The Gujjar tribe of Sub-Himalayan tract, Uttarakhand, India , used the plant paste on boils. Leaves are fried in oil of Brassica campestriis (sarsoon) and applied externally on cracked feet. (5)

Antimicrobial Triterpenes and Sterols:
A dichlormethane extract of Pseuderanthemum bicolor yielded lupeol, betulin, and a mixture of stigmasterol and sitosterol. Extracts and isolates showed activity against Gram-negative E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with no activity against Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and B. subtilis. Lupeol inhibited growth of fungi, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger but was inactive against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. A mixture of stigmasterol and sitosterol was active against C. albicans and T. mentagrophytes, but inactive against A. niger. The extract and betulin were inactive against all tested fungi. (1)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves:
Study evaluated leaf extracts of P. bicolor for anti-inflammatory activity using test suspensions (TS) doses of 5, 10, 15mg/200 g, and measuring paw induced by carrageenan injection. Ethanolic TS showed higher ED50 (156.5 mg/200g BQ than aqueous TS wit 7.85 mg/200g BW. The significant anti-inflammatory activity was attributed to metabolites alkaloids, saponins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and phytosterols in the plant. (3)
Anticoagulant / Leaves: Study evaluated the anticoagulant activity of fresh leaves of P. bicolor macerated in 95% ethyl alcohol, using five test solutions. Heparin (TS3) was positive control and NSS the negative control. Results showed significant anticoagulant activity. TS3 showed highest anticoagulant activity with 100%, followed by TS2 (10mg/mL) with 76.97%, and TS1  (5mg/mL) with 28.37%. (5)
Antidiabetic / Alpha-Amylase Inhibition Potential / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of P. bicolor leaf extracts. Acarbose was used as standard drug. A total of 19 secondary metabolites were subjected to protein-ligand docking study against alpha-amylase protein. Among the 19 test ligands, “2,2-Dibromocholestanone” from the EA extract showed the highest binding energy of −9.3 Kcal/mol. The next highest remarkable inhibition was showed by “Pseduosarsasapogenin-5,20-Dien Methyl Ether” present in the ME, with a binding energy of -9.3 Kcal/mol with the formation of 2 hydrogen bonds. Results suggest P. bicolor leaves contain bioactive compounds with potential as anti-diabetic drug. (see constituents above) (6)

- Wild-crafted.
- Ornamental cultivation.

Updated August 2023 (Revised) / Nov 2018 / Aug 2016 / Apr 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: Limang sugat / Pseuderanthemum bicolor . / click on photo to go to source page / Minding The Un-Farm / Word Press
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Pseuderanthemum asperum Radlk. | BM t.1423/1811 as Justicia bicolor | BHL / Hortus Cadenensis

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antimicrobial Triterpenes and Sterols from Pseuderanthemum bicolor / Ragasa C Y, G Ganzon and J A Rideout / Kimika, 2001; 17(1): pp 1-4 / DOI: 10.26534/kimika.v17i1.1-4
Traditional herbal medicines used for the treatment of skin disorders by the Guijjar tribe of Sub-Himalayan tract, Uttarakhand / Jyotsana Sharma, R D Gaur, Sumeet Gairola, R M Painuli & T O Siddiqi / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 12(4), October 2013, Pp 736-746

Anti-inflammatory activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous leaf extracts of Pseuderanthemum bicolo (Mandalusa) on male albino rats. / Noralie C Paña, Jinna Mar P Totesora / Thesis/Dissertations: 2017
Pseuderanthenum bicolor / Synonyms / Kew: Plants of the World Online

In Vitro anticoagulant activity of Mandalusa, Pseuderanthemum bicolor (Schrank, 1895) Radlk ethanolic extract using plasma recalcification time method. / Kyle Anthony, A Besañes, Meije M Lapinig / Thesis/Dissertations BS Pharmacy 2016 / University of San Carlos, Philippines / HERDIN
IN VITRO AND IN SILICO ALPHA-AMYLASE INHIBITION POTENTIAL (ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY) OF PSEUDERANTHEMUM BICOLOR (SIMS) RADIK / Ramesh BS, Lokesh Ravi /  Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 20290; 13(12) / eISSN: 2455-3891 / pISSN: 0974-2441 /
DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.20020.v13i12.39824
Pseuderanthemum bicolor / Dr E Quisumbing / Medicinal Plants of the Philippines
Pseuderanthemum Radlk. / Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines
Pseuderanthemum / Wikipedia

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT