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Family Acanthaceae
Eranthemum pulchellum Andrews

Scientific names Common names
Daedalacanthus nervosus (Vahl) T. Anderson Aliopiop (Bis.)
Daedalacanthus scaber T. Anderson Atai-atai (Bis.)
Daedalacanthus varians (Vent.) Voss Boian (Tagb.)
Eranthemum bicolor Schrank Cinco llagas (Span.)
Eranthemum edgeworthianum Nees Kinatuluan (Tag.)
Eranthemum grandiflorum Zipp. ex Span. Kublit (Bik.)
Eranthemum nervosum (Vahl) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult. Limang-sugat (Tag.)
Eranthemum scabrum Wall. ex T.Anderson Maladosdos (Bis.)
Eranthemum varians Billb. Mañgauhai (Mbo.)
Fittonia verschaffeltii var. pearsei G. Nicholson Mandalusa (C. Bis.)
Justicia biclor Sms Mopia (Bis.)
Justicia gendarussa Blanco Panatun (Tag.)
Justicia nervosa Vahl Pasioki (Tag.)
Pseuderanthemum bicolor (Schrank) Radik. ex Lindau Podol (Mbo.)
Pseuderanthemum pulchellum (Andrews) Merr. Pulpulto (Illk.)
Upudalia pulchella (Andrews) Raf. Tihol-tihol (Bis.)
  Tulang-manok (P. Bis.)
  Tamban-tamban (Sul.)
  Bicolor false eranthemum (Engl.)
  Shooting star (Engl.)
Pseuderanthemum bicolor (Schrank) Radlk. ex Lind. is a synonym of Eranthemum pulchellum Andrews The Plant List
Eranthemum pulchellum Andrews is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
HINDI: Gulsham.
INDIA: Kamliya.
TAMIL: Neelamulli.
TELUGU: Neelambaramu.

Limang-sugat is an erect, branched, rather slender undershrub or half-woody plant usually about 1 meter in height. Leaves are thin, elliptic-ovate to oblong-ovate or oblong-lanceolate, 5 to 12 centimeters long, the upper ones often reduced, pointed at the tip and narrowed to the petiole at the base. Peduncles are axillary and longer than the petioles, bearing near their apices 1 to 3 or more racemose or cymose flowers. Calyx is green, 5 to 7 millimeters long, with elongated, linear teeth. Corolla is white, the middle lobe of the lower lip has a purple spot at the base; the tube is slender and 2.5 to 3 centimeters long; lobes are spreading, elliptic to elliptic-oblong, and about 1.2 centimeters long. Fruit is a hairy, stalked capsule, about 2 centimeters long.

Common in thickets at low altitudes from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao and in most islands and provinces.

- Study of methanolic extract of aerial parts yielded eleven compounds viz. β- amyrin (1), α-amyrin (2), Lupeol (3), β-sitosterol (4), Apigenin (5), Kaempferol (6), β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), Benzoic acid (8), Kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), Syringin (10) and Apigenin 7-O-neohesperidoside (11). (see study below) (3)
- Fatty acid analysis of aerial parts yielded saturated acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, behenic and cerotic acid); unsaturated acids (palmetoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic and erucic acids). Major acids were palmetic, linoleic and oleic acids. (3)

- Studies have suggested antimicrobial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, CNS depressant, anticonvulsant properties.

Parts used
Roots, stems, leaves.


- Decoction of leaves, stems and roots used for aphthae.
- Also used as a cicatrizant of wounds and ulcers.
- In India, plant paste is applied on boils. Leaves are fried in Brassica campestris oil (sarsoon) and applied
externally on cracked feet. (2)
- The Gujjar tribe of Sub-Himalayan tract, Uttarakhand, India , used the plant paste on boils. Leaves are fried in oil of Brassica campestriis (sarsoon) and applied externally on cracked feet. (5)

Antimicrobial Triterpenes and Sterols:
A dichlormethane extract of Pseuderanthemum bicolor yielded lupeol, betulin, and a mixture of stigmasterol and sitosterol. Tests showed activity against Gram-negative E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with no activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Lupeol inhibited fungal growth of Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. (1)
Safety Studies / Aerial Parts:
LD50 results showed different extracts of aerial parts of E. nervosum are safe enough to be used and the ethyl acetate fraction is the safest fraction.
Anti-Inflammatory / Antipyretic / Aerial Parts:
Methanolic extract and different fractions of aerial parts showed anti-inflammatory activity with reduction of carrageenan-induced edema and antipyretic activity with reduction of yeast-induced fever. Best fractions were n-hexane, ethylacetate, and n-butanol.
CNS Effects / Depressant and Anticonvulsant Activity / Aerial Parts:
All fractions of aerial parts attained a central nervous system depressant activity. A total methanolic extract showed potent anticonvulsant activity against PTZ induced convulsions comparable to carbamazepine.
Hepatoprotective Effects:
A total aqueous extract showed remarkable hepatoprotective effect in CCl4-induced liver damage.
• Polyherbal Invention for Renal Tubular Acidosis:
This invention relates to a traditional Chinese medicine used for treating renal tubular acidosis prepared with a mixture of Eranthemum pulchellum, Nervilia fordii, Equisetum pretense, Evodia lepta, chickenweed, buttonbush, and linear leaf thistle. (6)


Updated Nov 2018 / Aug 2016 / Apr 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: Limang sugat / Pseuderanthemum bicolor . / click on photo to go to source page / Minding The Un-Farm / Word Press
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Pseuderanthemum asperum Radlk. | BM t.1423/1811 as Justicia bicolor | BHL / Hortus Cadenensis
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antimicrobial Triterpenes and Sterols from Pseuderanthemum bicolor / Ragasa C Y, G Ganzon and J A Rideout / Kimika, 17(2),1-4
Traditional herbal medicines used for the treatment of skin disorders by the Guijjar tribe of Sub-Himalayan tract, Uttarakhand / Jyotsana Sharma, R D Gaur, Sumeet Gairola, R M Painuli & T O Siddiqi / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 12(4), October 2013, Pp 736-746
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ERANTHEMUM NERVOSUM (VAHL) R. BR., CULTIVATED IN EGYPT / Mahmoud H. Assaf, Yaser G. Gouda, Ehab S. El-Khayat and Reda A. Abd El-Hamid / Bull. Pharm. Sci., Assiut University, Vol. 33, Part 1, June 2010, pp. 19-31.
Eranthemum pulchellum / Synonyms / The Plant List
Traditional herbal medicines used for the treatment of skin disorders by the Gujjar tribe of Sub-Himalayan tract, Uttarakhand / Jyotsana Sharma, R D Gaur, Sumeet Gairola, R M Painuli & T O Siddiqi / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, October 2013; 12(4): pp 736-746
Traditional Chinese medicine for treating renal tubular acidosis  / CN105055884A

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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