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Family Pedaliaceae
Sesamum indicum
Hei Chih-ma

Scientific names Common names
Dysosmon amoenum Raf. Ajonjoli (Span.)
Sesamum africanum Tod. Gingely-oil plant (Engl.)
Sesamum indicum Linn. Lañga (Bik., Tag., Ibn., Bis.)
Sesamum occidentalis Heer & Regel Lañgis (Pamp.)
Sesamum oleiferum Sm. Leñga (Ilk.)
Sesamum orientale L. Liñga (Tag.)
Volkameria orientalis (L.) Kuntze Linga (Sbl.)
  Liñgo (Tag.)
  Loñgis (If.)
  Luñga (Bis., Sul.)
  Benne seeds (Engl.)
  Gingelly (Engl.)
  Sesame (Engl.)
Sesamum indicum L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Sim sim.
ARMENIAN: Shooshma.
BURMESE: Hnan zi.
CHINESE: Hu ma, Zhi ma (Taiwan), Hei Chih-ma.
CZECH: Sezam.
DANISH: Sesamfrø.
DUTCH: Sesamzaad.
ESTONIAN: Harilik seesam.
FINNISH: Seesami.
FRENCH: Graines de sésame, Graines de sésame blanc, Graines de sésame blanches, Sésame.
GERMAN: Sesam.
GREEK: Sesami.
HEBREW: Shomshom, Shumshum, Sumsum.
HINDI: Gingli, Safed til, Til.
HUNGARIAN: Szézámfi, Szézámmag.
ICELANDIC: Sesam, Sesamfræ.
ITALIAN: Sesamo.
JAPANESE: Goma, Shiro goma.
KOREAN: Cham kkae.
LAOTIAN: Man nga, Nga.
MALAY: Bijan, Wijen.
PERSIAN: Konjed.
POLISH: Sezam indyjski.
PORTUGUESE: Gergelim, Sésamo.
RUSSIAN: Kunzhut indiiskii, Sezam.
SPANISH: Ajonjolí, Semilla de ajonjolí, Sésamo.
TAMIL: Cirrel, El, Ellu, Illu, Tilam.
TELUGU: Tillu.
THAI: Nga, Nga dam, Nga khao.
URDU: Til.

Gen info
- According to Assyrian legend, the Gods drank wine made from sesame seeds when they met to create the world. (43)
- In early Hindu legends, seeds represented a symbol of immortality.
- India is the largest commercial producer of sesame seeds, along with China and Mexico. (43)

Linga is an erect, annual, hairy herb, 50 to 80 centimeters in height. Leaves are oblong or ovate, 3 to 10 centimeters long, the lower ones lobed, the middle ones toothed, and the uppermost subentire. Leaf stalks are from 1 to 5 centimeters long. Sepals are lanceolate, 6 to 7 millimeters long and imbricate. Corolla is about 3 centimeters long, hairy and whitish, or with purplish, red, or yellow marks. Stamens are 4, inserted. Fruits are capsules, 2- or 4-celled, oblong, about 2.5 centimeters long, erect, and splitting halfway or quite to the base at maturity. Seeds are small and black.

- Cultivated here and there throughout the Philippines.
- Often occurs in open waste places as an escape plant.

- Native of tropical Asia.
- Now pantropic.

- The white or yellow-seeded varieties provide the best grade of oil, while the dark red, brown, or black-seeded varieties give an inferior grade of oil.
- Has a high percentage of fixed oil which can be used as an antirheumatic in massage treatment.
- Sesame oil, also known as pil or gingelly, has a pale yellow color, a pleasant odor and taste.
- Neither warming nor cooling.
- Seeds are considered emollient, nourishing, tonic, diuretic, and lactagogue.
- Oil considered demulcent, emollient, diuretic, emmenagogue, lactagogue and laxative.

• Seed contain fixed oil, 47-59%; saccharose, pentosan, lecithin; choline; phytine; globuline, 22%; sesamin.
• The oil consists of olein, linolein, palmitin, and stearin; fatty acids consist of oleic, linoleic, linolenic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, eicosenoic.
• Study on the chemical constituents of the flowers of Sesamum indicum yielded six flavones: apigenin, ladanetin, ladanetin-6-O-beta-D-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-glucuronic acid, pedalitin, and pedalitin-6-O-glucoside.

• Seeds yield lignan, lignan glycosides, and sterols; phenylethanoid glycosides from the whole plant, and phenolic acids from the leaves and seeds.
• A petroleum ether fraction of an alcoholic extract yielded sesamin, sesamolin, stigmasterol, ß-sitosterol, and stigmasterol-3-O-ß-D-glucoside. A butanol fraction yielded ferulic acid, rhamnetin, verbascoside, kaempferol-3-O-ß-D-glucorunide, and mequelianin (quercetin-3-O--D-glucuronide).
• Study for nutritional value of sesame seeds (S. indicum) yielded: carbohydrates 23.45 g, protein 17.73 g, total fat 49.67 g, dietary fiber 11.8 g, carbohydrates 23.45 g, copper 4.082 mg, iron 14.55 mg, magnesium 351 mg, manganese 2.460 mg, phosphorus 629, selenium 34.4 µg, zinc 7.75 mg, copper 4.082mg. Phytochemical screening of seeds yielded saponin, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides. (26)
• Study evaluated proximate, phytochemical, and mineral compositions of seeds, leaves, root and whole plant of S. indicum. Roots yielded appreciable levels of moisture (6.60 ± 4.39%), crude fiber (12.80 ± 8.53%), and total carbohydrate (67.90 ± 45.26%). Protein content was highest (21.44 ± 14.29%) in the whole plant. Percentage flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins of the samples ranged between 16.20-4.80, 10.04-1.96, and 3.32-1.18%, respectively. (33)
• Ethanol extract of sesame seeds yielded phenols, tannins, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids, coumarins, and flavonoids, with an absence of terpenes and steroids. (see study below) (40)
Study of young sesame leaves yielded three iridoids, lamalbid (11), sesamoside (12) and shanzhiside methyl ester (13) and seven polyphenols, cistanoside F (1), chlorogenic acid (2), pedalitin-6-O-laminaribioside (3), pedaliin (4), isoacteoside (6), pedalitin (7), and martynoside (8). Compounds 5 and 6 sowed high DPPH radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacity. The compounds were examined at six different growth stages. (see study below) (42)
Study showed eight primary metabolites and 16 secondary metabolites in white and black sesame seeds. Preliminary study of the white and black seeds yielded primary metabolites like proteins, fats, volatile oils, carbohydrates and secondary metabolites like alkaloids and flavonoids. White sesame seeds yielded phlobatannins, coumarins, leucoanthocyanins, while black seeds yielded anthraquinones and emodins. (45)
• Study of seeds for phytochemicals and fatty acid content yielded the presence of terpenoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, and saponifiable lipids in aqueous extracts of black seeds. Qualitative fatty acid analysis yielded palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and a-linolenic acid. The Soxhlet extract yielded high amount of linoleic acid (21.25). (48)

Parts used
· Seeds, leaves.
· Collect seeds as soon as the fruits ripen, harvest the above ground portion, sun-dry and collect the seeds, dry again.

Edibility / Culinary
· Whole seeds used by bakers in making cakes and sweetmeats.
- in India, seeds are roasted in various traditional confections, i.e, laddus, chikki, tiggulpoli, etc.
- Seeds are used as major ingredient in many international cuisines like Tahini, Daqqa, Gyintholik, etc.
· Used for cooking; for margarine; also used to adulterate olive oil.
· For chronic constipation, roasted seeds are taken alone, with honey, or mixed liberally with other foods.
· Oil extracted from seeds used as antirheumatic in massage therapy.
· Burned stalks applied to hemorrhoids.
· Leaves, which abound in the gummy matter, mixed with water to form a bland mucilage used for infantile cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, catarrh, cystitis, and strangury.
· Plaster of ground seeds applied to burns and scalds.
· Leaves with equal parts of sesame oil and lime water are a popular dressing for burns and scalds.
Decoction of seeds with linseed used for coughs and as aphrodisiac.
· Lotion made from roots and leaves used as a hair wash; also used to promote hair growth and make it black.
· Decoction of seeds laxative for children.
· The oil of seed used for treatment of ulcers and suppurating wounds.
· White seeds promote menstruation.
· Diseases of the kidney or liver associated with dizziness, tinnitus, and haziness of vision: get see preparation from 8 to 14 gms and mix with equal volume of Morus leaf preparation. Powder, add honey and water and drink.
· Seeds ground to a paste with water, given with butter, for bleeding piles.
· In large quantities, seeds capable of producing abortion.
· Alopecia (baldness) due to prolonged illness: fry seeds, crush and add sugar, then eat 1 to 2 tbsp daily.
· In Sierra Leone the mucilaginous juice of the plant is used by women to destroy headlice.
· In India, seeds used for wound healing.
· In Yucatan, seeds given as laxative to children.
· Seeds and oil used as emmenagogue.
· Malays use the oil in tonics.
· In Africa, decoction of leaves used as aphrodisiac. Decoction of plant used for malaria. Leaves chewed as alternative to tobacco. Powdered leaf applied to snake bites. Decoction of seeds used for hemorrhoids and regulation of the menstrual cycle.
· In European medicine the oil was once used pulmonary tuberculosis.
· Perfumery: Oil use in perfumery in Europe, North America and India.
Hair uses: Lotion from leaves and roots used for healthy hair growth and color restoration.
· Oil: Cultivated for centuries in Asia and Africa for its edible oil and protein. Oil used in the preparation of hair oil, skin conditioning lotions and moisturizers.

Free Radical Scavenging / Antioxidant:
Study evaluated the free radical scavenging capacity of antioxidants from sesame cake extract using a DPPH kinetic model. (1)
Antioxidant / Analgesic: Study observed antioxidant and analgesic activity of the ethanol extract of seeds of SI with inhibition of writhing response comparable to ibuprofen. Study also showed an antioxidant activity compared to standard antioxidant ascorbic acid. (7)
Antioxidant / Neuroprotective:
Lignans and tocopherols, identified as major antioxidants in Sesamum indicum have also been reported to have protective effects against neurodegenerative disease. Sesame seeds and its antioxidants may be a potent natural agent with both therapeutic and preventive applications in neurodegenerative diseases in humans. (9)
Lipid Effects:
Effect of Sesame Oil on Serum Lipids in Rats: Sesame oil increased S cholesterol and LDL-C in hypercholesterolemic diet fed rats, with no significant effects on serum lipids of normocholesterolemic rats. (2)
Acetylcholine-like Substance: Alcoholic extract of seeds of Sesamum indicum caused hypotensive effects in anesthetized rats. It also caused decreased rate and force of atrial contractions; contractile responses in rat uterus. The results indicate that the alcoholic extract of SI contain acetylcholine-like constituents that explains its folkloric use. (3)
Wound Healing / Seed and Oil: Sesamum indicum seeds and oil applied topically showed wound healing activity with significant reduction in period of epithelization and wound contraction. (4)
Health Effects of Sesame Oil: Study on the effect of SI in hypertensive diabetics on atenolol and sulfonylurea showed reduction in systolic and diastolic BP, decrease in glucose, HbA1C, LDL and TC, with increase in activities of enzymic and non-enzymic levels of antioxidants.
Fertility Effects: Study of the ethanolic extract of Sesamum indicum, vitamin C and SI+VC promote fertility from their testosterone-increasing effects and their antioxidant effects. (10)
Insecticidal: Sesamin has been shown to be insecticidal and is synergistic to pyrethrum.
Physiochemical Properties of Sesame Oil: Study showed (1) the acid value which is the index of free fatty acid content due to enzymatic activity was very low (2) No potential for soap making (3) High peroxide value (4) seed oils were cyanide free (5) seeds are a good source of oil, with a seed content of 50% light yellow crude oil with a pleasant smell. (12)
Residual Aerial Parts Composition / Antihyperglycemic / Antioxidant: A petroleum ether fraction of an alcoholic extract yielded sesamin, sesamolin, stigmasterol, ß-sitosterol, and stigmasterol-3-O-ß-D-glucoside. A butanol fraction yielded ferulic acid, rhamnetin, verbascoside, kaempferol-3-O-ß-D-glucorunide, and mequelianin (quercetin-3-O--D-glucuronide). Tested extracts exhibited a reductive effect on blood glucose of diabetic rats, attributed to possible inhibition of free radicals and inhibition of tissue damage induced by alloxan. ß-sitosterol and ferulic acid may have contributed to the hypoglycemic activity of the alcoholic extract. The alcoholic extract has a potential as an alternative natural antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anticoagulant. (13)
Antihyperlipidemic: Study investigated the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Results showed supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet. (15)
Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study investigated the toxic effect of an ethanolic leaf extract of Sesamum indicum on the histomorphology of adult Wistar rats liver. The experimental groups received 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of leaf extract for two weeks. The leaf extract caused an phased architectural pattern with atrophic hepatocytes and dilated sinusoid suggesting toxicity to the liver of Wistar rats. (16)
Ardeh / Anti-Atherogenic / Decreased CVD Risks: Study investigated the effects of Ardeh, paste of ground unhulled sesame seeds, on lipid profiles and atherogenic lipid parameters on 41 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results showed significant decrease in serum triglycerides and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) with slight decreases in other atherogenic lipid parameters and a mild increase in HDL-C. Results suggest Ardeh could have favorable effects in decreasing CVD risk factors in T2DM.
Hepatoprotective / Seeds / CCl4-Induced Hepatic Damage: Study of ethanolic extracts of S. indicum seeds showed potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. (18)
Plant Gum / Formulation and In Vitro Release Properties: Study evaluated the properties of a plant gum obtained from S. indicum. Moisture content was found to be low. All formulations released the drug in the hydrated matrix through polymer relaxation. The findings suggest the gum can be used for intestinal drug delivery. (19)
Antioxidant / Seeds: Study evaluated ethanol extracts of white and black varieties of S. indicum
. Results showed sesame seed extracts possess high antioxidant activity and that the white variety elicit better antioxidant activity than the black one. (20)
• Seed and Seed Oil: Seeds yield two unique substances, sesamin and sesamolin, reported to prevent high blood pressures and have a cholesterol lowering effect in humans. Oil is reported to increase HDL and lower LDL. Seed oil has reported antibacterial activity Staphylococcus and Streptococcus and common fungi (athlete's foot fungus). (22)
• Prophylactic Effect on Ethanol Induced Toxicity: Study evaluat3d the prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of of S. indicum on ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. S. indicum possesses antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties that eliminate the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites of ethanol. SI treatment simultaneous with ethanol exhibited similar effects to those of SI pretreated groups, while SI post-treatment group did not show the same level of protection. (23)
• Reduction in Severity of Post-Traumatic Pain / Topical Sesame Oil: Study evaluated the effects of topical sesame oil on pain severity and frequency of NSAIDs patients with trauma. Results showed topical application of sesame oil could reduce pain severity and frequency of NSAIDs treatment in patients with upper and lower extremity trauma. Results recommend complementary use of the oil for relief of pain with its low cost, easy usage, and lack of side effects. (24)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts for anti-microbial activities on bacterial pathogens viz., K. pneumonia, S. typhii, E. coli, and S. aureus. The ethanolic extract strongly inhibited E. coli growth with mild inhibition of of K. pneumonia and S. typhi. The aqueous extract showed no activity on the test pathogens. (25)
• Herbal Treatment of Oligomenorrhea: Single-blind clinical trial in 56 women evaluated the efficacy of S. indicum in inducing menstrual bleeding in women with oligomenorrhea (infrequent menstrual flow at intervals of 36 days to 6 months or 5-7 cycles in a year). Results showed S. indicum was well-tolerated and partially effective in inducing and maintaining regular bleeding, and can be considered as an alternative therapy for patients who are not suitable candidates for hormone therapy. (27)
• Anti-Diabetic Synergism with Glibenclamide / Sesame Oil: Studies have reported blood pressure and antioxidant benefits with sesame oil. Open-label study evaluated the effectiveness of sesame oil with anti-diabetic (glibenclamide) medication as combination therapy in mild to moderate diabetes. Results showed sesame oil exhibited synergistic effect with glibenclamide—a safe and effective option for combination therapy for the treatment of diabetes. (28)
• Effect on Hepatic and Renal Mineral Concentrations on Hypercholesterolemic Rats / Seed Oil: Hypercholesterolemia reduced both hepatic and real concentrations of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium but reduced the hepatic and not renal concentrations of magnesium and zinc. 5% supplementation with sesamum indicum seed oil reversed the effects and restored reduced ion concentrations. (29)
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Roots, Leaves and Seeds: Study evaluated methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves, seeds, and roots of S. indicum for antibacterial and antioxidant (DPPH, TBA) activities. The methanol extract showed promising antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. (30)
• Anthelmintic / Seeds: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of seeds of sesame (S. indicum) and fruits of Capsicum frutescens on aquarium worms Tubifex tubifex. Results showed both alcoholic extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activities at 10mg/ml concentration. Levasimole was used as standard. (31)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Seed: Study reports on the simple, green, eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles from S. indicum seed extracts. The AgNPs showed inhibitory activity against multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumonia. (34)
• Preservative Effects on Mashed Potatoes / Seed Oil: Study evaluated the biopreservative efficiencies of different levels of sesame seed oil on mashed potatoes. Results showed sesame seed oil was more efficient in preserving stored potato paste than sodium benzoate. Organisms found associated with spoilage of stored potatoes included fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger and Fusarium spp. and bacteria such as Bacillus coagulant. (35)
• Effect of S. indicum and Vitamin C in Promoting Fertility in Male Wistar Rats: Study showed an ethanolic extract of S. indicum + vitamin C as well as ESS and VC promote fertility due to both their testosterone-increasing effects and their antioxidant effects. (36)
• Nephroprotective in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats / Seeds: Study evaluated the effect of ethanolic extract of S. indicum on kidney function in STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Results showed a significant decrease in levels of serum total protein, albumin, and globulin, and significant increase in blood urea, serum creatinine and uric acid when compared to normal rats. Normalization of marker enzymes in the serum and histopathological results revealed the protective effect and potential to control hyperglycemia in STZ induced diabetic rats. (37)
• Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Phlebitis / Sesame Oil: Study evaluated the effect of external use of sesame oil in the prevention of phlebitis in 60 patients with colon or rectal cancer. Results showed external use of SO is effective, safe, and well tolerated prophylaxis for phlebitis. (38)
• Sesamin / Plant Lignan / Seed: Study evaluated whether plant lignans in sesame seeds, particularly sesamin, could me metabolized to the mammalian lignans. Some plant lignans may have a protective effect against hormone-related diseases such as breast cancer. Study showed sesame seed is a rich source of mammalian lignan precursors and sesamin is one of them. (39)
• Cytotoxicity / Seeds: Study evaluated the active constituents in an ethanolic extract of S. indicum defatted seeds and its effect on lipid and cytogenetic changes in bone marrow in laboratory mice, and cytotoxic effects on three types of cancer cell lines. Concentration of sesamin the the ethanolic extract was 79.9% ethanolic extract. Results showed significant in vitro growth inhibition against the tested cancer cell lines (Hep-2, AMN-3, and RD). (40)
• Effect of Supplementation on Creatine Kinase, Stress Markers and Aerobic Capacity of Soccer Players: Randomized and placebo-controlled study evaluated the consumption of sesame on muscle damage markers, oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and aerobic performance in male semi-professional soccer players. Athletes received 40 g (2 tablespoons) per day or placebo. Results showed sesame consumption may reduce muscle damage and oxidative stress while improving aerobic capacity in soccer players. (41)
• Biological Activity / Antioxidant / Iridoid and Polyphenol Content at Different Growth Stages: Study of young sesame leaves yielded three iridoids, lamalbid (11), sesamoside (12) and shanzhiside methyl ester (13) and seven polyphenols, cistanoside F (1), chlorogenic acid (2), pedalitin-6-O-laminaribioside (3), pedaliin (4), isoacteoside (6), pedalitin (7), and martynoside (8). Compounds 5 and 6 sowed high DPPH radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacity
. The compounds were examined at six different growth stages. (42)
• Sesame Before and During Pregnancy: Review focused on the role of sesame seeds before and during pregnancy. Studies have suggested that sesame seeds possess essential nutrients, minerals, fatty acids, antioxidants, and vitamins. They are considered beneficial during pregnancy and lactation without any side effects at a certain level. They also possess pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and therapeutic properties which contribute to safe pregnancy and boost postnatal growth. (44)
• Antidepressant / Seeds: Study of methanol extract of seeds showed robust and dose-dependent antidepressant-like activity with statistically significant (p<0.05) reductions in duration of immobility time in both forced swimming and tail suspension test. In open field test, there was statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in locomotion, rearing and defecation of mice. (46)
• Menstrual Bleeding Cessation / Oligomenorrhea / Seeds / Pilot Study: In Avicenna traditional medicine, Sesame indicum is a well known medication to induced menstrual bleeding in women with oligomenorrhea. This pilot study evaluated the effect of S. indicum in the treatment of oligomenorrhea. Patients received oral therapy for seven days. 85% experienced menstrual bleeding after treatment. Results showed S. indicum may be an effective therapy in inducing bleeding in women with oligomenorrhea, with insignificant side effects compared to current hormonal therapies. (47)
• No Antifungal Activity / Oil / Review and Study: Study evaluated the antifungal susceptibility patterns of three antifungals, methanolic extracts, and n-hexane oil of sesame seeds on C. albicans and C. glabrata, isolated from oral cavity of liver transplant recipients. Study showed the methanolic and n-hexane extracts of seeds were not effective on C. albicans and C. glabrata. Study showed no antifungal activity in the oil extract, and similarly, no antifungal activity was reported in literature. (49)
• Enhanced Wound Healing / Seeds: Study evaluated the wound healing activity of S. indicum seed extract in novel ethosomal vesicles in incision and excision wound models in wistar rats. The optimized ethosomal vesicles were incorporated into a gel base. Results showed enhanced percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelization in excision model. (50)
• Histological Effects on Mammary Gland Tissue / Seeds: Study evaluated the effects of sesame seeds on the growth and development of mammary glands in white female rats during various stages i.e., virginity, pregnancy, lactation using histological and histochemical parameters. Results showed effect on growth and development of mammary gland tissues. In virgins there was an increase in number of lobules filled with large number of expansive alveoli; in the pregnant group, increased number and diameter of alveoli filled lobules; and in lactating group, more numerous lobules with more expansive and numerous alveoli. (51)
• Effect on Thyroidectomy Induced Erectile Dysfunction / Oil: Study evaluated the effect of S. indicum on thyroidectomy induced erectile dysfunction in rat. Results showed that although the oil did not produce any significant effect on the levels of thyroid hormones, the oil restored sexual competence to a reasonable degree, with the highest dose of 5 mg/kbw producing maximum response. A combination of S. indicum oil and thyroxin may be recommended for hypothyroidism associated sexual impairment. (53)
• Antimicrobial / Sesame Oil: Study evaluated the effectiveness of some Yemeni sesame oils against pathogenic bacterial and fungi i.e., E. coli, S. aureus, S. typhi C. albicans, A. niger and A. flavus. Results showed sesame oil can form the basis for development of novel broad spectrum antimicrobial formulations. (54)
• Safety Assessment / Sesame Oil: Sesamum indicum seed oil and related cosmetic ingredients are derived from Sesamum indicum. Sesamum seed oil unsaponifiables and hydrogenated sesame seed oil are used as conditioning agents. Sesameseedate functions as cleansing agent, emulsifying agent and as non-aqueous viscosity increasing agent. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in present practices of use and concentration as described in the safety assessment. (55)
• Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory /Assessment / Sesame Oil: Study summarized the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of sesame oil, identified compounds, fatty acid profile and molecular docking and correlated the interaction of constituents with COX2, non-enzymatic defense mechanisms, inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines, NF-kB or MAPK signaling or prostaglandin synthesis pathways. Gas chromatography identified 9 known fatty acids which showed binding efficiency with COX2. Study suggests sesame oil can be used in the prevention and management of diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. (57)
• Hematinic / Antioxidant / Seeds: Study evaluated the hematinic and antioxidant potential of supplementation with aqueous extract of seeds. in a rodent model of hemolytic anemia induced by phenylhydrazine (PHZ). Results showed significant reversal of the deteriorating effects of PHZ on RBC, HGB, and HCT, along with reversal in the decreased levels of glutathione ad activities of SOD. (58)
Sesame Allergy: The number of people with sesame allergy is unknown. Reports have suggested the allergy has increased worldwide. A 2010 survey in America suggest hundreds of thousands affected by sesame allergy. FARE supports the addition of sesame to the list of "major food allergens.} Avoid foods that contain sesame of any of these ingredients: Benne, benne seeds, benniseed; gingelly, gingelly oil' gomasion (sesame salt); halvah; sesame oil, flour, paste, salt, seed; Sesamol; Sesamum indicum; sesemolina, sim sim; tahini, tahina, tehina; and til. Foods that may contain sesame are: Asian cuisine (sesame oil), bread crumbs, cereals, chips, crackers, dipping sauce, dressings and sauces, falafel, hummus, flavored rice, goma-dofu (Japanese dessert), herbs, margarine, protein and energy bars, snack foods, sushi, and tempeh, etc. Non-food items that may contain sesame include: cosmetics, medications, nutritional supplements and pet foods. (59)
Hepatoprotective / Ethanol Induced Toxicity: Study showed Sesamum indicum pretreatment significantly TBARS, restored GSH levels, enhanced CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities, and significantly decreased elevated levels of TG, AST, and ALY Results showed S. indicum possesses antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties that eliminate the deleterious effects of alcohol metabolites. (60)
Anthelmintic / Seeds: Study evaluated the in vitro anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of Sesamum indicum seeds using Indian earthworm, Pheretima posthuma. Results showed less time to paralysis and death. (61)
Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, Antipyretic / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of standardized ethanol extract of leaves on inflammation, fever, and pain in mice and rats. Results showed Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties using formalin-induced rat paw edema and Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia models in rats, and analgesic effect using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and tail flick tests in mice. The activities may be mediated by peripheral inhibition of prostaglandins. Results support its use as remedy for malaria symptoms. (62)
Effect of Seed Consumption on Biochemical Parameters in Type2 Diabetes / Clinical Trial: Study evaluated the effect of sesame seed consumption on some biochemical parameters in type 2 diabetic patients. Sixty type2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into two groups, and one group given 60 grams of sesame seeds a day for two months. Results showed statistically significant decrease (p<0.05) in FBS, HbA1C, cholesterol, TG, LDL, ALT, and ALP. (63)

- Wild-crafted.
- Cultivated for culinary use.

- Whole seeds, seed oil, and meal are marketable products.

Updatd January 2020 / March 2017 / April 2014

© Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE: PHOTO / File:Flower of Sesamum indicum.jpg / Mullookkaaran / 16 September 2012 / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported/ Click on phot to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain /Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / William Brown and Arthur Fisher / Figure 58 / sesame orientale, The source of sesame oil / 1920
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain /File:Sesamum indicum Blanco2.273-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco / 1880- 1883? / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Free Radical Scavenging Behavior of Antioxidant Compounds of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in DPPH System / Suja KP, Jayalekshmy A, Arumughan C./ J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Feb 25;52(4):912-5.
Effect of Sesame Oil on Serum Lipids in Normocholeterolemic and Hypercholesterolemic Diet-Fed Rats
Presence of acetylcholine-like substance(s) in Sesamum indicum / Anwar-ul Hassan Gilani et al /Archives of Pharmacal Research / Volume 15, Number 1 / March, 1992 / DOI 10.1007/BF02973992
Wound Healing Activity of Sesamum indicum L Seed and Oil in Rats / Kotade Kiran and Mohammed Asad / Indian Journ of Experimental Biology • Vol 46 November 2008, pp 777-782
The health effects of Sesamum indicum (sesame oil) / Sankar D, Rao MR, et al / J Med Food 2006; 9: 408–12.
Flavones from flowers of Sesamum indicum / Hu, Yong-Mei, Wang, Hao et al / China journal of Chinese materia medica
Investigation of the Analgesic and Antioxidant Activity from an Ethanol Extract of Seeds of Sesamum indicum / L Nahar and Rokonuzzaman / Pakistan Journ of Biological Sciences ª 12 (7): 595-598, 2009
Free radical scavenging and antiatherogenic activities of Sesamum indicum seed extracts in chemical and biological model systems / Nishant Visavadiya et al / Food and Chemical Toxicology Volume 47, Issue 10, October 2009, Pages 2507-2515./ doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.07.00
Antioxidant Components as Potential Neuroprotective Agents in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) / Si-Hyung Park et al / Food Reviews International, Volume 26, Issue 2 April 2010 , pages 103 - 121 / DOI: 10.1080/87559120903564464
Efficacy of vitamin C and ethanolic extract of Sesamum indicum in promoting fertility in male Wistar rats / EA Ashamu, EO Salawu et al / Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences, 2010; Volume 3, Issue 1: pp : 11-14 / DOI: 10.4103/0974-1208.63115
Handbook of African medicinal plants / Maurice M. Iwu / Google Books
Physicochemical Properties of Oil Extracts from Sesamum Indicum L. Seeds Grown in
Jigawa State – Nigeria
/ Mohammed M I and Hamza Z U / J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. June, 2008, Vol. 12(2) 99 - 101
Chemical and Biological Study of the Residual Aerial Parts of Sesamum indicum L. / AMAL EL-SAYED KHALEEL, MARIAM HUSSAIN GONAID et al / Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2007, Pages 249-257
Sorting Sesamum names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 The University of Melbourne.
Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sesamum indicum L. in Rabbits Fed a High-Fat Diet
/ Sedigheh Asgary, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Somayeh Najafi, Esfandiar Heidarian, and Amirhossein Sahebkar / The Scientific World Journal, 2013; Volume 2013,
Article ID 365892 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/365892
Ardeh (Sesamum indicum) Could Improve Serum Triglycerides and Atherogenic Lipid Parameters in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial / Parvin Mirmiran PhD, Zahra Bahadoran MSc, Mahdieh Golzarand MSc, Asadolah Rajab MD, Fereudiyn Azizi MD / Arch Iran Med. 2013; 16(11): 652 – 656
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF SESAMUM INDICUM LINN. AGAINST CCL4-INDUCED HEPATIC DAMAGE IN RATS / Munish Kumar / International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive, Vol 2, No 2, 2011
Formulation and in vitro release properties of a plant gum obtained from sesamum indicum (Fam. pedaliaceae) / Ekaette Akpabio, Clement Jackson*, Peace Ubulom, Musiliu Adedokun, Romanus Umoh, Calister Ugwu / Int J Pharm Biomed Res 2011, 2(3), 166-171
Sesamum indicum / Synonyms / The Plant List
Nutritional, Medicinal and Industrial Uses of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Seeds - An Overview /
Kandangath Raghavan Anilakumar, Ajay PAL, Farhath Khanum, Amarinder Singh Bawa / Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, Vol 75, No 4 (2010), Pp: 159-168
Prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum seeds on ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats / B.E. Oyinloye, S.O. Nwozo,2 G.H. Amah, A.O. Awoyinka,4 O.A Ojo, B.O. Ajiboye, and H.A. Tijani / Nutr Res Pract. 2014 Feb; 8(1): 54–58. / doi: 10.4162/nrp.2014.8.1.54
The Effects of Topical Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Oil on Pain Severity and Amount of Received Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Patients With Upper or Lower Extremities Trauma / Marzieh Beigom Bigdeli Shamloo, Morteza Nasiri,* Aazam Dabirian, Ali Bakhtiyari, Faraz Mojab, and Hamid Alavi Majd / Anesth Pain Med. 2015 Jun; 5(3): e25085. / doi: 10.5812/aapm.25085v2
The antibacterial activities of Sesamum indicum Linn. leaf extracts / Ogunsola O.K and Fasola T.R / Advances in Life Science and Technology, Vol.18, 2014

Evaluation of Phytochemicals Analysis, Medicinal Properties and Nutritional Value of Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum.L) / Kaliyamoorthy Jayakumar*, T.M. Sathees kannan, P. Thamizhiniyan and P.Vijayarengan / International Journal of Modern Biology and Medicine, 2015, 6(2): 129-135

Herbal Treatment of Oligomenorrhea with Sesamum indicum L.: A Randomized Controlled Trial
/ Maryam Yavari, Safoura Rouholamin, Mojgan Tansaz, Somayeh Esmaeili / GMJ.2016;5(3):114-121
Sesame oil exhibits synergistic effect with anti-diabetic medication in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus / Sankar D, Ali A, Sambandam G, Rao R. / Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun;30(3):351-8. / doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2010.11.005. Epub 2010 Dec 16.
Effect of Sesamum indicum L. seed oil supplementation on hepatic and renal mineral concentrations of hypercholesterolemic rats / Ajayi Olubunmi Bolanle, Malachi Oluwaseyi Israel* / American Journal of Life Sciences, 2014; 2(5): 308-311 / doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20140205.19
In vitro evaluation of roots, seeds and leaves of Sesamum indicum L. for their potential antibacterial and antioxidant properties / Sandhya Sharma, Priti Gupta, Ashwani Kumar, Jaswant Ray, Bipin Kumar Aggarwal, Pankaj Goyal and Anubhuti Sharma* / African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(36), pp 3692-3701, 3 Sept 2014 / DOI: 10.5897/AJB2013.12368
Physicochemical Properties of Oil Extracts from Sesamum Indicum L. Seeds Grown in Jigawa State – Nigeria / MOHAMMED, M. I.; HAMZA, Z. U. / J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. June, 2008 Vol. 12(2) 99 - 101
Effects of the Intake of Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) and Derivatives on Oxidative Stress: A Systematic Review / Vittori Gouveia Luciana de Almeida, Cardoso Carolina Alves, de Oliveira Glaucia Maria Moraes, Rosa Glorimar, and Moreira Annie Seixas Bello / Journal of Medicinal Food, April 2016; 19(4): pp 337-345 / doi:10.1089/jmf.2015.0075.
Chemical Composition of Sesamum indicum L. (Sesame) Grown in Southeastern Nigeria and the Physicochemical Properties of the Seed Oil / Blessing Mbaebie, Garuba Omosun, Augustina Uti, Sunday Oyedemi / Seed Science and Biotechnology 4 (1), 69-72 ©2010 Global Science Books
The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles produced in the plant Sesamum indicum seed extract, green method against multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae / Ebrahim Shirmohammadi , Ghlam Reza Bagheri , Saeide Saeidi , Taher Mohasseli , Zaynab Mohkami, Gelareh Sohil Baigi, Toba Naruei and Fereshteh Javadian / European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2014, 4(3):pp 197-200
A Study of Preservative Effects of Sesame Oil ( ) On Mashed Potatoes / Nawal .H.Al-Bahtiti / International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology, Vol. 2 No. 11; November 2015
Efficacy of vitamin C and ethanolic extract of Sesamum indicum in promoting fertility in male Wistar rats
/ EA Ashamu, EO Salawu, OO Oyewo, AW Alhassan, OA Alamu, AA Adegoke / Journal of Human Reproductive Services, 2010, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 11-14.
NEPHROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SESAMUM INDICUM SEEDS (LINN.) IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC MALE ALBINO RATS / Palanisamy Bhuvaneswari, Shanmugasundaram Krishnakumari / IJGP: International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 2012; Vol 6, No 4.
Effect of External Use of Sesame Oil in the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Phlebitis / Nilufar Nekuzada*, Tahereh Ashke Torab, Faraz Mojab, Hamid Alavi-Majd, Payam Azadeh and Gholamreza Ehtejab / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2012), 11 (4): 1065-1071
Sesamin Is One of the Major Precursors of Mammalian Lignans in Sesame Seed (Sesamum indicum) as Observed In Vitro and in Rats / Zhen Liu, Niina M. Saarinen, and Lilian U. Thompson / JN-The Journal of Nutrition, April 2006; Vol 136, No 4: pp 906-912
Effect of ethanol extract of Sesamum indicum seeds on some cellular, biochemical parameters and cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. / Noor Ali Ghani / Thesis: 2011
Effects of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Supplementation on Creatine Kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Oxidative Stress Markers, and Aerobic Capacity in Semi-Professional Soccer Players / Carlos V. da Silva Barbosa, Alexandre S. Silva, Marciane Magnani et al / Frontiers in Physiology
Chemical characterization and biological activity in young sesame leaves (Sesamum indicum L.) and changes in iridoid and polyphenol content at different growth stages / Yushiro Fuji, Ayumi Uchida, Katsunori Fukahori, Makoto Chino, Takashi Ohtsuki, Hiroshi Matsufuji  / PLOS|ONE, 2018 / https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194449
A REVIEW ON SESAME - AN ETHNO MEDICINALLY SIGNIFICANT OIL CROP / NAGPURKAR MUKTA AND PATIL NEETA M / International Journal of Life Science & Pharma Research, April 2017; 7(2): pp 58-62
SESAMUM INDICUM BEFORE AND DURING PREGNANCY: A REVIEW / Ragini Sharma, Neelam Jain*, Deepika Rani, Amrita jaitawat, S. M. Kantwa / International Journal of Research and Development in Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Aug-Sept 2015; 4(5): pp 1750-1759
Comparative Qualitative Phytochemical analysis of Sesamum indicum L. / M.Patil Neeta, Nagpurkar Mukta and Kulkarni Bilwa / Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci., 2015; Special Issue-2: pp 172-181 / ISSN: 2319-7706
Evaluation of the antidepressant-like activity of the methanolic extract of the seeds of Sesamum indicum / Md Rashidur Rahman, Mostakim Sharif, Mohammad Ali / Clinical Phytoscience, Dec 2019; 5(2) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40816-018-0098-3
Sesame a Treatment of Menstrual Bleeding Cessation in Iranian Traditional Medicine: Results From a Pilot Study / Maryam Yavari,  Safoura Rouholamin,  Mojgan Tansaz,  Soodabeh Bioos,  Somayeh Esmaeili  / Shiraz Medicinal Journal, 2014; 15(3): e21893 / DOI 10.17795/semj21893
Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents and Fatty acid Content in Sesamum indicum L. / Vijay.R, Sharmila K. P, Mahesh Prasad Bekal, Suchetha Kumari.N, Pushpalatha. K. / Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences, March-May 2015; 3(1): pp 84-90
Antifungal effect of sesame medicinal herb on Candida Species: original study and mini-review / Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sao Paulo 2019; Vol 55 / Fatemeh Lavaee, Maryam Moshaverinia, Seyed Ali MalekHosseini, Akram Jamshidzade, Maryam Zareim Hadis Jafarian, Pardis Haddadi, Parisa Badiee / http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4221-2995
In-vivo Evaluation of the Wound Healing Activity of the Sesamum Indicum L. Seed Extract in Novel Ethosomal Vesicular System / Somwanshi Sachin B and Hiremath Shivanand N / Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 2018; 8(5): pp 411-420 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v8i5.1895
Histological Effects of Sesamum Indicum Seeds on Mammary Gland tissue in Female white Rats /  and  / IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol 571, Conference 1
Bioactive Constituents as a Potential Agent in Sesame for Functional and Nutritional Application / Karnika Prakash and S.N. Naik / Journal of Bioresource Engineering and Technology, 2014, Volume 1: pp 48-66
Effect of Sesamum indicum oil in Thyroidectomy-Induced Erectile Dysfunction in Rat / Rainish Kumar, Shradha Bishi, Mamta Singh / Informatics Journals, Dec 2017; 21(2) / http://doi.org/10.18311/jer/2017/21533
EFFECT OF YEMENI SESAME OIL AGAINST SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA AND FUNGI / Ali Mohammed Abdullah Bawazir  and Manjula Shantaram  / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2017
Amended Safety Assessment of Sesamum Indicum (Sesame) Seed Oil, Hydrogenated Sesame Seed Oil, Sesamum Indicum (Sesame) Oil Unsaponifiables, and Sodium Sesameseedate / Wilbur Johnson Jr, Wilma F. Bergfeld, Donald V. Belsito, Ronald A. Hill, Curtis D. Klaassen, Daniel C. Liebler, James G. Marks Jr, Ronald C. Shank, Thomas J. Slaga, Paul W. Snyder, and F. Alan Andersen / International Journal of Toxicology 30(Supplement 1) 40S-53S / DOI: 10.1177/1091581811406987
A systematic review on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil and further confirmation of anti-inflammatory activity by chemical profiling and molecular docking / Afroz, M, Zihad, SMNK, Uddin, SJ, Rouf, R, Rahman, MS, Islam, MT, Khan, IN, Ali, ES, Aziz, S, Shilpi, JA, Nahar, L and Sarker, SD  /  Phytotherapy Research, 33(10). pp. 2585-2608
Hematinic and antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum seeds against phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic anemia in albino rats / Sridhar Prasad Y P, Padmaja Hari, Shajina M, Mirshad P V, Fasalu Rahiman O M. / Natl J Physio Pharm Pharmacol., 2018; 8(8): pp 1092-1096 / doi: 10.5455/njppp.2018.8.0310831032018
Sesame Allergy / FARE
Prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum seeds on ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats / Nutrition Research and Practice (Nutr Res Pract) 2014; 8(1): pp 54-58 http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2014.8.1.54
ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF SESAMUM INDICUM (L.) SEEDS EXTRACT ON INDIAN EARTHWORM / Supriya Bhandare / International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry, 2018; 8(1): pp 195-199
Sesamum indicum leaf extract therapy for symptoms of acute malaria: Evaluation of anti- inflammatory, antipyretic and analgelsic effects / Ezenyi Ifeoma C, Onavbavba G, Adzu B, Okhale SE, and Salawu OA / Journal of Phytomedicine and Therapeuti, 2018; 17(2): pp 167–179
Investigating the Effect of Sesamum indicum Consumption on Biomedical Parameters in type 2 Diabetic Patients / Alena Sadat Ghoreishi, Fahimeh Mohammadian Shahrbabaki et al / Journal of Fasa University of Medical Sciences, 2016; 6(1): pp 87-95

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