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Family Solanaceae
Lobo-lobohan
Physalis peruviana Linn.
WILD GOOSEBERRY

Mao suan jiang

Scientific names Common names
Alkekengi pubescens Moench Bayas (Ig.)
Boberella peruviana (L.) E.H.Krause Lobo-lobohan (Tag.)
Physalis esculenta Salisbury Pulet (Ig.)
Physalis latifolia Lam. Cape gooseberry (Engl.)
Physalis peruviana Linn Goldenberry (Engl.)
Physalis peruviana var. latifolia (Lam.) Ground cherry (Engl.)
Physalis tomentosa Medik. Horse tomato (Engl.)
  Wild gooseberry (Engl.)
Physalis peruviana L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Hhabwah, Hhashîsh sakrân.
CHINESE: Deng long cao, Deng long guo, Suan jiang cao, Xiao guo suan jiang, Mao suan jiang.
DANISH: Ananaskirsebaer, Kapstikkelsbaer.
DUTCH: Ananaskers, Goudbes, Kaapsche kruisbes, Kaapse kruisbes, Lampion, Peruviaanse aardkers.
FINNISH: Ananaskirsikka, Kapinmarja, Kapinkarviainen, Karviaiskoiso.
FRENCH: Alkékange jaune doux, Alkékange du Pérou, Coqueret comestible, Coqueret du Pérou, Coquerelle, Groseille du Cap, Poc poc (Middle-East).
GERMAN: Ananaskirsche, Capische stachelberre, Essbare Judaskirsche, Judenkirsche, Kap-Stachelbeere, Kapstachelbeere, Peruanische Schlutte.
ITALIAN: Alchechenge giallo, Alchechengi giallo, Alchechenge grosso commestible, Capulé, Fisalis, Vescicaria.
JAPANESE: Ke hôzuki.
NEPALESE: Ishmagol, Jangalii mevaa, Rasabarii.
PORTUGUESE : Alquequenje amarelo, Groselha do Perú (Brazil), Herva noiva do Perú (Brazil), Tomateiro inglês, Tomatinho-de-capucho.
QUECHUA: Topotopo.
SINHALESE: Thol thakkali.
SPANISH: Aguaymanto (Peru), Alquequenje amarillo, Alchechengi del Perú, Amor en bolsa, Cereza del Perú, Chuchuva (Venezuela), Guchavo (Colombia), Motojobobo embolsado, Uchuba (Peru), Vejigón (Colombia), Yuyo de ojas.
TURKISH: Sarhosh otu.

Botany
Lobo-lobohan is more or less an erect herb, with a more vigorous growth than Physalis minima, more upright with less deeply toothed leaves, and with larger flowers. Berries are oblong, about 2 centimeters long. Seeds are numerous, very small, pale yellow and embedded in juicy pulp.

Distribution
- Thoroughly established In open, waste places in Lepanto and the Benguet subprovinces in Luzon.
- Native of tropical America.

Constituents
- Yields biologically active compounds i.e., phytosterols, vitamins, essential minerals, withanolides and physalins.
- Seeds constitute 4.5 to 5 % of the weight of the husk-free, fresh, ripe berries, and contain 6.28 percentof a pale yellow semi-drying oil.
- The oil consists of oleic acid, linolic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and a saponifiable matter.
- Total lipid contents in whole berries, seeds, and seedless parts were 2.0, 1.8, and 0.2% on fresh weight basis, respectively. The dominant fatty acid was linoleic acid, followed by oleic acid. Major saturates were palmitic and stearic acids. Phytosterols were highest in the pulp/peel oil with the highest amounts of unsaponifiables.
- Study of fruit showed high content of ashes and total lipids, 0.8 and 3.16 g/100g, respectively. Linoleic acid was the predominant in the lipidic fraction. Mineral composition showed K, Mg, Ca, and Fe as the main elements. Zinc was also found in high concentrations, but lower when compared to principal sources like oysters, shrimp, beef, poultry, fish, and beans.

- Study of centesimal and mineral composition and fatty acid profile of a lipidic fraction yielded high contents of ashes and total lipids and K, Mg, Ca and Fe as the main mineral elements. (14)
- Study of fruit for flavonol contents yielded rutin, myricetin and kaempferol.
- Study yielded a high total lipid content of 2%. Composition in g/100 g DW yielded moisture 80.97 ±1.65; total lipids 3.16 ± 0.32; proteins 1.85 ± 0.31; total carbohydrates 13.22; ashes 0.80 ± 0.03; energy value 88.72 kcal/372.62 kJ. P. peruviana yields high amounts of vitamin C; the ascorbic acid content of PP juice was about 46 mg/100 g, higher than in most common fruits. (19)

Properties
- Considered vermifuge and diuretic.
- Studies have suggested anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective properties.


Parts used
Leaves

Uses
Edibility / Nutrition
- Fruit is considered edible, raw or cooked. (Caution: See study toxicity below) (12)
- Excellent for making of jams and preserves; for pies and cakes.
- Fruit is rich in A, C and B-complex vitamins
Folkloric
- Zulus use an Infusion of the leaf as an enema for children with abdominal upsets.
- Heated leaf used by Europeans to draw inflammations.
- Juice of leaves used for worms and bowel complaints.
- In India, used by the Muthuvan and Tamilian tribes for jaundice.
- In Peruvian traditional medicine, used for treating pterygium.
- In other traditional systems, used for treating cancer, malaria, asthma, hepatitis, dermatitis and rheumatism.


Studies
Anti-Cancer / Cell Apoptosis Mechanisms:
Study results suggest the ethanol extract of PP induced Hep G2 cell apoptosis possibly mediated through the CD95/CD95L system and the mitochondrial signaling transduction pathway. (2)
Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of several extracts showed the SCEPP-5 extract with the strongest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Its protection against LPS-induced inflammation could be through the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. (3)
Anti-Lung Cancer / 4ß-Hydroxywithanolide: 4ß-Hydroxywithanolide (4ßHWE) isolated from golden berries was investigated for its antiproliferative effect on human lung cancer cell line (H1299) using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analysis. Results showed the golden berry-derived 4BHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer.
(4)
Anti-Pterygium / Anti-Fibroblast: Juice of PP exhibited a mild anti-inflammatory activity compared with methylprednisolone. A dose-dependent cytostatic effect on cultured fibroblast was noted. Study showed PP fruit juice's anti-pterygium effect may be related to its inhibiting fibroblast growth. (5)
Antioxidant: Study showed the ethanol extracts to possess good antioxidant activities; the highest, obtained with 95% ethanol extract of PP. (6)
Hepatoprotective / APAP Induced Injury: Study showed the aqueous extract of PP possesses antioxidant activity and potent hepatoprotective effect against APAP-induced liver injury in rats. (7)
Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Injury: Study of water, ethanol and hexane extracts showed antihepatotoxic activities against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. (8) Study for in vivo hepatoprotective effect of extract of P. peruviana calyces showed significant inhibition (p<0.001) of liver oxidative stress caused by CCl4, maintaining superoxide dismutase and catalase activities close to normal. The hepatoprotective effect was attributed to its antioxidant activity, especially related to lipid peroxidation inhibition. (23)
Toxicity Studies / Cardiac Toxicity / Fruit: Study evaluated the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit of Physalis peruviana. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the male test group, findings suggested cardiac toxicity only at high doses. (12)
Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity on Various Cancer Cell lines: Study evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of edible parts of P. peruviana on different cancer cell lines. Antioxidant capacity of a crude extract showed an IC50 of 0.3±0.003 on DPPH radical scavenging method. Cytotoxicity was shown on HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma cell line), Hep3B (human hepatoma cell line), SaOS-2 (human osteosarcoma cell line) and SH-SY5 (human neuroblastoma cell line. (13)
Antihepatotoxic Effect / Whole Ripe Fruits: Study of whole ripe fruit and water and ethanol extracts in carbon tetracholoride intoxicated rats showed hepatoprotection with significant lowering of elevated serum markers. The water extract showed better activity than the whole ripe fruit and ethanol extract. (15)
Antidiabetic Effect / Leaf Extracts / Toxicity in High Doses: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of aqueous decoctions prepared from dried leaf powder on guinea pigs. Crude aqueous extracts showed hypoglycemic activity, but a high doses may cause severe intoxication. Autopsy showed hemorrhage and swelling in vital organs. (16)
Peruviose A and B in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Study of new sucrose esters, Peruviose A and B isolated from the calyces of P. peruviana, significantly reduced the extent and severity of tissue damage, colonic weight/length ration in using a TNBS-colitis model in rats. Results suggest Peruviose A and B can effectively ameliorate experimental IBD, giving new application to calyces which is a waste product in fruit production and an unexplored source of bioactive molecules. (17)
Anti-Inflammatory: SCEPP (supercritical carbon dioxide extract) showed strong anti-informatory activity in raw 264.7 cells. Studies show SCEPP-5 is an effective inhibitor of LPS induced NO generation and PGE2 production, as well as iNOS and COX-2 expression in raw 264.7 cells. Also, Physalins B and F have potent suppressive activity through inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation, inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of macrophages. (19)
Antimicrobial / Fruit: Study investigated the antimicrobial activity of fruit extract P. peruviana against B. megaterium, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. vulgaris, E. aerogenes, C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, Trichophyton sp, and Epidermophyton sp. Results showed varying degrees of inhibition of the bacteria, yeasts, and dermatophytes, with MIC values of 128-1054 µg/ml. (20)
Anti-Inflammatory / Peruviose A and B: Study investigated the active compounds from an enriched fraction of an ether total extract. The enriched fraction yielded an inseperable mixture of two new sucrose esters named peruviose A and peruviose B. The peruviose mixture was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat. (21)
Inhibitory Effect on Diabetes: Study investigated the possible antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effect in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant (p<0.05) reductions of blood glucose, troponin, TNFa and IL6, with significant increase (p<0.05) in serum insulin. The inhibitory effect on diabetes in rats may be due to its effect on anti-free radicals in the beta cells of the pancreas. Results suggest a potential candidate for a new anti-diabetic agent. (22)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Seeds in the cybermarket.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.


Last Update August 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Gooseberry flower / File:Gooseberry flower.jpg / Fir0002 / flagstaffotos.com.au / Creative Commons Attribution - Share Alike License / User:Fir0002/Retirement / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: Physalis Fruit / File:Physalis.jpg / Flapdragon / 14 May 2005 / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: Physalis Fruit / File:Physalis.jpg / Uchuva / 1 December 2005 / Public Domain / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Physalis peruviana - L. / Goldenberry / Plants For A Future
(2)
Physalis peruviana extract induces apoptosis in human Hep G2 cells through CD95/CD95L system and the mitochondrial signaling transduction pathway / Shu-Jing Wu et al / Cancer Letters, Volume 215, Issue 2, Pages 199-208 (25 November 2004)
(3)
Supercritical carbon dioxide extract exhibits enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Physalis peruviana / S J Wu, J Y Tsai et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 108, Issue 3, 6 December 2006, Pages 407-413 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.05.027
(4)
4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest / Ching-Yu Yen, Chien-Chih Chiu et al / BMC Cancer 2010, 10:46doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-46
(5)
Determining the pharmacological activity of Physalis peruviana fruit juice on rabbit eyes and fibroblast primary cultures / Pardo J M, Fontanilla M R et al / Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Jul;49(7):3074-9.
(6)
Antioxidant activities of Physalis peruviana / Wu SJ, Ng LT et al /
Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Jun;28(6):963-6.
(7)
Antioxidative and Hepatoprotective Effects of Physalis peruviana Extract against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Rats / J C Chang, C C Lin et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2008, Vol. 46, Nos. 10–11, pp. 724–731
(8)
Preliminary studies on antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana Linn. (Solanaceae) against carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in rats / M Arun and V V Asha /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 111, Issue 1, 20 April 2007, Pages 110-114 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.10.038
(9)
Oil Goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) / Mohamed F. Ramadan and Jörg-T. Mörsel / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51 (4), pp 969–974 / DOI: 10.1021/jf020778z
(10)
Minerals and essential fatty acids of the exotic fruit Physalis peruviana L. / Eliseu Rodrigues, Ismael Ivan Rockenbach et al / Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 29(3): 642-645, jul.-set. 2009
(11)
Sorting Physalis names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 The University of Melbourne.
(12)
Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L. / Basak Ozlem Perk, Sinem Ilgin, Ozlem Atli, Hale Gamze Duymus, and Basar Sirmagul / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/707285
(13)
Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Physalis peruvina / Tuğçe DEMİR , Mehmet Özgün ÖZEN, E. Esin HAMEŞ-KOCABAŞ / Medicinal Plant Research, 2014, Vol. 4, No. 4 / doi: 10.5376/mpr.2014.04.0004
(14)
Minerals and essential fatty acids of the exotic fruit Physalis peruviana L. / Eliseu Rodrigues, Ismael Ivan Rockenbach*, Ciriele cataneo, Luciano Valdemiro Gonzaga, Eduardo Sidinei Chaves, Roseane Fett / Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 29(3): 642-645, jul.-set. 2009
(15)
Antihepatotoxic effect of golden berry (Physalis peruviana Linn.) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rats / Darakhshan Taj, Hira Khan, Viqar Sultana, Jehan Ara and Syed Ehteshamul-Haque / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.27, No.3, May 2014, pp.491-494
(16)
Assessment of antidiabetic activity and acute toxicity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. in guinea-pig
/ Félicien Mushagalusa Kasali, Justin Ntokamunda Kadima, Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana*, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Damien Sha-Tshibey Tshibangu / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013; 3(11): 841-846
(17)
Potential of Peruviose A and B from Physalis peruviana L calyces to treat Inflammatory Bowel Disease: In vivo and in vitro studies / YC Ocampo, JP Castro, DE Rivera, L Barrios, LA Franco / Planta Med 2013; 79 - PB34 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1351979
(18)
Physalis peruviana / Synonyms / The Plant List
(19)
Chemical Components and Bioactivities of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) / Yu-Jie Zhang, Gui-Fang Deng, Xiang-Rong Xu, Shan Wu, Sha Li, Hua-Bin Li * / International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety, 2013, 3(1): 15-24
(20)
The antimicrobial activity of Physalis peruviana L. / Ferda Göztok, Fikriye Zengin / Bitlis Eren Univ J Sci &Technol 3 (2013) 15-17
(21)
Sucrose esters from Physalis peruviana calyces with anti-inflammatory activity / Espartero Sánchez, José Luis, Franco, Luis A., Ocampo, Yanet C., Gómez, Harold A., Puerta Vázquez-Zafra, Rocío de La, Ospina, Luis F. / Planta Medica, 80, 1605-1614 (2014)
(22)
A Possible Inhibitory Effect of Physalis (Physalis pubescens L.) On Diabetes in Male Rats / Amal I. Hassan and Mona A.M. Ghoneim / World Applied Sciences Journal 21 (5): 681-688, 2013 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.21.5.7220
(23)
HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CALYCES EXTRACT OF Physalis peruviana ON HEPATOTOXICITY INDUCED BY CCl4 IN WISTAR RATS / Reina Marcela TORO A. QF; Diana Marcela ARAGÓN N. PhD; Luis Fernando OSPINA G. PhD* / Vitae vol.20 no.2 Medellín May/Aug. 2013

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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