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Family Solanaceae
Physalis peruviana Linn.

Mao suan jiang

Scientific names Common names
Alkekengi pubescens Moench Bayas (Ig.)
Boberella peruviana (L.) E.H.Krause Lobo-lobohan (Tag.)
Herschelia edulis (Sims) Bowdich Pulet (Ig.)
Physalis barbadensis Lam. Cape gooseberry (Engl.)
Physalis bulbosa Hedw. ex Steud. Goldenberry (Engl.)
Physalis edulis Sims Ground cherry (Engl.)
Physalis esculenta Salisbury Horse tomato (Engl.)
Physalis incana Desf. Lantern fruit (Engl.)
Physalis incana Dunal Wild gooseberry (Engl.)
Physalis latifolia Lam.  
Physalis peruviana Linn.  
Physalis peruviana var. esculenta Alef.  
Physalis peruviana var. latifolia (Lam.) Dunal  
Physalis peruviana var. vulgaris Alef.  
Physalis pubescens R.Br..  
Physalis tomentosa Medik.  
Physalis tuberosa Willd.  
Physalis tuberosa Cav.  
Physalis tomentosa Zuccagni  
Physalis peruviana L. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Hhabwah, Hhashîsh sakrân.
CHINESE: Deng long cao, Deng long guo, Suan jiang cao, Xiao guo suan jiang, Mao suan jiang.
DANISH: Ananaskirsebaer, Kapstikkelsbaer.
DUTCH: Ananaskers, Goudbes, Kaapsche kruisbes, Kaapse kruisbes, Lampion, Peruviaanse aardkers.
EGYPTIAN: Harankash.
FINNISH: Ananaskirsikka, Kapinmarja, Kapinkarviainen, Karviaiskoiso.
FRENCH: Alkékange jaune doux, Alkékange du Pérou, Coqueret comestible, Coqueret du Pérou, Coquerelle, Groseille du Cap, Poc poc (Middle-East).
GERMAN: Ananaskirsche, Capische stachelberre, Essbare Judaskirsche, Judenkirsche, Kap-Stachelbeere, Kapstachelbeere, Peruanische Schlutte.
ITALIAN: Alchechenge giallo, Alchechengi giallo, Alchechenge grosso commestible, Capulé, Fisalis, Vescicaria.
JAPANESE: Ke hôzuki.
NEPALESE: Ishmagol, Jangalii mevaa, Rasabarii.
PORTUGUESE : Alquequenje amarelo, Groselha do Perú (Brazil), Herva noiva do Perú (Brazil), Tomateiro inglês, Tomatinho-de-capucho.
QUECHUA: Topotopo.
SINHALESE: Thol thakkali.
SPANISH: Aguaymanto (Peru), Alquequenje amarillo, Alchechengi del Perú, Amor en bolsa, Cereza del Perú, Chuchuva (Venezuela), Guchavo (Colombia), Motojobobo embolsado, Uchuba (Peru), Vejigón (Colombia), Yuyo de ojas.
TURKISH: Sarhosh otu.

Gen info
- Physalis is a genus of approximately 75 to 90 flowering plants in the nightshade family Solacer. It is native to the Americas and Australasia.
- Estimates for the earliest use of Physalis for human consumption
range from 900 BCE to 5000 BCE. (39)
- Physalis peruviana is native to Chile and Peru. The history of P. peruviana cultivation in South America can be traced to the Inca Empire. Widely introduced in the 20th century, it is now grows wild across the world in temperate and tropical regions. (40)

Lobo-lobohan is more or less an erect herb, with a more vigorous growth than Physalis minima, more upright with less deeply toothed leaves, and with larger flowers. Berries are oblong, about 2 centimeters long. Seeds are numerous, very small, pale yellow and embedded in juicy pulp.

- Introduced.
- Thoroughly established In open, waste places in Lepanto and the Benguet subprovinces in Luzon.
- Native to Bolivia, Brazil.

- Yields biologically active compounds i.e., phytosterols, vitamins, essential minerals, withanolides and physalins.
- Seeds constitute 4.5 to 5 % of the weight of the husk-free, fresh, ripe berries, and contain 6.28 % of a pale yellow semi-drying oil.
- The oil consists of oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and a saponifiable matter.
- Total lipid contents in whole berries, seeds, and seedless parts were 2.0, 1.8, and 0.2% on fresh weight basis, respectively. The dominant fatty acid was linoleic acid, followed by oleic acid. Major saturates were palmitic and stearic acids. Phytosterols were highest in the pulp/peel oil with the highest amounts of unsaponifiables.   (9)
- Study of fruit showed high content of ashes and total lipids, 0.8 and 3.16 g/100g, respectively. Linoleic acid was the predominant in the lipidic fraction. Mineral
composition showed K, Mg, Ca, and Fe as the
main elements. Zinc was also found in high
concentrations, but lower when compared to principal sources like oysters, shrimp, beef, poultry, fish, and beans.

- Study of mineral composition and fatty acid profile of a lipidic fraction yielded high contents of ashes and total lipids and K, Mg, Ca and Fe as the main mineral elements. (14)
- Study of fruit for flavonol contents yielded rutin, myricetin and kaempferol.
- Study yielded a high total lipid content of 2%. Composition in g/100 g DW yielded moisture 80.97 ±1.65; total lipids 3.16 ± 0.32; proteins 1.85 ± 0.31; total carbohydrates 13.22; ashes 0.80 ± 0.03; energy value 88.72 kcal/372.62 kJ. P. peruviana yields high amounts of vitamin C; the ascorbic acid content of PP juice was about 46 mg/100 g, higher than in most common fruits. (19)
- Preliminary phytochemical screening of fruits yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenols, proteins, saponins, tannins, glycosides, and starch. (27)
- GC-MS analysis of essential oil yielded 34 components, including 11 terpene compounds (six monoterpenoids and five sesquiterpenes), 11 esters, five alcohols, two phenolic compounds, two aldehydes, two ketones, and one lactone. Terpenes were the most abundant volatile constituents, accounting for 36.09% of the total volatiles. (see study below) (28)
- Bioguided fractionation of a dichlormethane extract of fruit isolated three new sucrose esters, peruvioses C-E (1-3), along with known peruvioses A (6), B (5), and F (4). (see study below) (32)
- Nutrient analysis of fruit per 100 g (3.5 oz): Water 85.4 g, energy 222kJ (53 kcal), carbohydrates 11.2 g, fat 0.7 g, protein 1.9g; Vitamins: Vitamin A equiv. 36 µg, B1 (thiamine) 0.11 mg, B2 (riboflavin) 0.04 mg, B3 (niacin) 2.8 mg, vitamin C 11 mg; Minerals: calcium 9 mg, iron 1 mg, phosphorus 40 mg. (USDA Database) (40)
- The n-butanol fraction of calyx extract yielded three withanolides viz., 4 β-hydroxywithanolide E (1), Physalin B (2) and 3α, 14β-dihydroxywithaphysalin N (3). (see study below) (44

- Considered vermifuge and diuretic.
- Studies have suggested anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, cytotoxic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, nephroprotective, cardiotoxic properties.

Toxicity concerns
• Unripe raw fruits, leaves, flowers, and stems of the plant contain solanine and solanidine alkaloids that may cause poisoning if ingested by humans, cattle or horses. (40)
See studies below on toxicity (12).

Parts used
Leaves, seeds, fruits

Edibility / Nutrition
- Fruit is considered edible, raw or cooked. (Caution: See study toxicity below) (12)
- Cape gooseberries are made into fruit-based sauces, pies, cakes and puddings, chutneys, jams, preserves, and ice cream, or as ingredient in fruit salads. (40)
- In Latin America, consumed as a batido or smoothies.
- Fruit is rich in A, C and B-complex vitamins
- Zulus use an Infusion of the leaf as an enema for children with abdominal upsets.
- Heated leaf used by Europeans to draw inflammations.
- Juice of leaves used for worms and bowel complaints.
- In India, used by the Muthuvan and Tamilian tribes for jaundice.
- In Peruvian traditional medicine, used for treating pterygium.
- In other traditional systems, used for treating cancer, malaria, asthma, hepatitis, dermatitis and rheumatism.
- In Western Ghats, India, leaves and dried seeds used in treatment of jaundice and glaucoma. (27)

Anti-Cancer / Cell Apoptosis Mechanisms:
Study results suggest the ethanol extract of PP induced Hep G2 cell apoptosis possibly mediated through the CD95/CD95L system and the mitochondrial signaling transduction pathway. (2)
Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of several extracts showed the SCEPP-5 extract with the strongest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Its protection against LPS-induced inflammation could be through the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. (3)
Anti-Lung Cancer / 4ß-Hydroxywithanolide: 4ß-Hydroxywithanolide (4ßHWE) isolated from golden berries was investigated for its antiproliferative effect on human lung cancer cell line (H1299) using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analysis. Results showed the golden berry-derived 4BHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer.
Anti-Pterygium / Anti-Fibroblast: Juice of PP exhibited a mild anti-inflammatory activity compared with methylprednisolone. A dose-dependent cytostatic effect on cultured fibroblast was noted. Study showed PP fruit juice's anti-pterygium effect may be related to its inhibiting fibroblast growth. (5)
Antioxidant: Study showed the ethanol extracts to possess good antioxidant activities; the highest, obtained with 95% ethanol extract of PP. (6)
Hepatoprotective / APAP Induced Injury: Study showed the aqueous extract of PP possesses antioxidant activity and potent hepatoprotective effect against APAP-induced liver injury in rats. (7)
Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Injury: Study of water, ethanol and hexane extracts showed antihepatotoxic activities against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. (8) Study for in vivo hepatoprotective effect of extract of P. peruviana calyces showed significant inhibition (p<0.001) of liver oxidative stress caused by CCl4, maintaining superoxide dismutase and catalase activities close to normal. The hepatoprotective effect was attributed to its antioxidant activity, especially related to lipid peroxidation inhibition. (23)
• Oil of Goldenberry: Study evaluated whole berries, seeds, and pulp/peel of goldenberry and evaluated content of fatty acids, lipid classes, tiracylglycerols, phytosterols, fat-soluble vitamins, and ß-carotene. Study provides valuable information for further investigation and industrial utilization of berries as raw material of oils and functional foods. (see constituents above) (9)
Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies / Cardiac Toxicity / Fruit: Study evaluated the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit of Physalis peruviana. In acute toxicity study according to OECD guidelines, the LD 50 was more than 5000 mg/kg. In subchronic toxicity study, using doses of 100, 1000, and 5000 mg/kg day for 90 days, 50% of male animals treated with 5000 mg/day died during the 90-day period. No difference was found in male animals treated with 100 or 1000 mg/kg day. The lyophylized fruit juice may not induce genotoxicity and may not lead to hematologic, hepatic, and/ppr renal toxicity in both sexes. In the male test group, repeated high doses may cause cardiotoxicity. (12)
Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity on Various Cancer Cell lines: Study evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of edible parts of P. peruviana on different cancer cell lines. Antioxidant capacity of a crude extract showed an IC50 of 0.3±0.003 on DPPH radical scavenging method. Cytotoxicity was shown on HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma cell line), Hep3B (human hepatoma cell line), SaOS-2 (human osteosarcoma cell line) and SH-SY5 (human neuroblastoma cell line. (13)
Antihepatotoxic Effect / Whole Ripe Fruits: Study of whole ripe fruit and water and ethanol extracts in carbon tetracholoride intoxicated rats showed hepatoprotection with significant lowering of elevated serum markers. The water extract showed better activity than the whole ripe fruit and ethanol extract. (15)
Antidiabetic Effect / Leaf Extracts / Toxicity in High Doses: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of aqueous decoctions prepared from dried leaf powder on guinea pigs. Crude aqueous extracts showed hypoglycemic activity, but a high doses may cause severe intoxication. Autopsy showed hemorrhage and swelling in vital organs. (16)
Peruviose A and B in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Study of new sucrose esters, Peruviose A and B isolated from the calyces of P. peruviana, significantly reduced the extent and severity of tissue damage, colonic weight/length ration in using a TNBS-colitis model in rats. Results suggest Peruviose A and B can effectively ameliorate experimental IBD, giving new application to calyces which is a waste product in fruit production and an unexplored source of bioactive molecules. (17)
Anti-Inflammatory: SCEPP (supercritical carbon dioxide extract) showed strong anti-informatory activity in raw 264.7 cells. Studies show SCEPP-5 is an effective inhibitor of LPS induced NO generation and PGE2 production, as well as iNOS and COX-2 expression in raw 264.7 cells. Also, Physalins B and F have potent suppressive activity through inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation, inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of macrophages. (19)
Antimicrobial / Fruit: Study investigated the antimicrobial activity of fruit extract P. peruviana against B. megaterium, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. vulgaris, E. aerogenes, C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, Trichophyton sp, and Epidermophyton sp. Results showed varying degrees of inhibition of the bacteria, yeasts, and dermatophytes, with MIC values of 128-1054 µg/ml. (20)
Anti-Inflammatory / Peruviose A and B: Study investigated the active compounds from an enriched fraction of an ether total extract. The enriched fraction yielded an inseparable mixture of two new sucrose esters named peruviose A and peruviose B. The peruviose mixture was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat. (21)
Inhibitory Effect on Diabetes: Study investigated the possible antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effect in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant (p<0.05) reductions of blood glucose, troponin, TNF-α and IL6, with significant increase (p<0.05) in serum insulin. The inhibitory effect on diabetes in rats may be due to its effect on anti-free radicals in the beta cells of the pancreas. Results suggest a potential candidate for a new anti-diabetic agent. (22)
• Antibacterial / Antioxidant / DNA Damage Prevention / Leaf and Shoots: Study evaluated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and DNA damage preventive properties of P. peruviana leaf and shoot ethanol extracts and their effects of cytotoxicity of HeLa cells and expression of apoptotic pathway gene. Maximum antibacterial activity was seen against Lactococcus lactis. Both shoot and leaf extracts exhibited significant protection against DNA damage induced by hydroxyl radical generation by Fenton reaction. The extracts also showed cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells at 100 µg/ml concentration. There was no Bcl-2 expression of extract treated cells. Also mRNA expression analysis showed alteration of antiapoptotic genes with subsequent induction of apoptotic cell death. (24)
• Cytotoxic / Immunomodulatory / Fruit: Study evaluate the biologic potential of ethanol and isopropanol crude extracts of ripe fruits. Cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of the extracts were evaluated on human cervical cancer (HeLa) and murine fibroblast (L929) cells. Extracts reduced the release of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and MCP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. The anticancer and immunomodulatory effects suggest potential for complementary pharmaceutical product development. (25)
• Protection Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Rotenone / Fruits: Study evaluated the effect of various Physalis peruviana extracts from fresh and dehydrated fruits on astrocytic cells (T98G) subjected to oxidative damage induced by rotenone. Results showed increased cell viability, reduced formation of ROS and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential. In rotenone-treated cells co-treated with he fruit extracts, there was a significant reduction in mitochondrial mass. Results suggest potential for the extracts to overcome oxidative damage induced by neurotoxic compounds. (26)
• Antioxidant / Anticancer / Volatile Compounds / Fruit: GC-MS analysis yielded 34 components of the essential oil. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays showed the ethanol extract to have higher activity than the hexane extract. On evaluation for anticancer activity against colon and breast cancer, the extract showed more inhibitory activity against colon cancer cell lines (IC50 142 µg/ml) compared with breast cell line (IC50 371 µg/ml). (see constituents above) (28)
• Influence of Extraction Process on Antioxidant Activity and Rutin Content / Calyces:Study evaluated the total phenolic content, rutin content, and in vitro antioxidant activity of P. peruviana calyces (considered waste material). The optimal conditions were use of ethanol 70% as extraction solvent, a percolation time of 72 hours--factors that influence the best results in terms of yield, antioxidant activity, total phenols, and rutin content. (29)
• Improved Insulin Sensitivity / Amelioration of Hyperglycemia / Fruit: Study evaluated the antidiabetic potential of P. peruviana fruits in high fat diet fed-low dose STZ induced diabetic in rats. Fruit extract supplementation attenuated the elevated levels of glucose, HbA1c, AST, ALT, and ALP. The extract indicated antidiabetic activity, with improved insulin sensitivity in HFD-STZ induced T2D in experimental rats. (30)
• Antimicrobial / Antioxidant: Study evaluated ethanol extracts of fruit, seed, root, body. and leaf for antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The seed extract showed highest phenolic content (4.956 ± 0.001 mg GA/g) and flavonoid content (0.737 ± 0.034 mg QE/g). All extracts yielded gallic acid. Seed and fruit were most effective for antimicrobial activity. (31)
• Peruvioses A-F / a-Amylase Inhibitors / Fruit: Bioguided fractionation of a dichlormethane extract of P. peruviana fruit yielded sucrose esters, peruvioses A-F. The peruvioses showed hypoglycemic effect. Peruviose D (2) showed highest inhibitory activity against a-amylase (84.8%). (see constituents above) (32)
• Amelioration of TNBS Acid-Induced Colitis / Anti-Inflammatory / Calyces: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of extract of P. peruviana calyces in a rectally administered TNBS acid-induced colitis in a rat model. Extract treatment significantly improve colonic tissue in both macroscopic and histologic measures, along with reduction in IL-1ß and TNF-α production.. Nitric oxide release in RAW264.7 macrophages was significantly inhibited. The anti-inflammatory activity in the colitis model suggests a potential source of metabolites for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. (33)
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Toxicity / Suppression of Oxidative Stress and Down-regulation of MMP-9 Expression: Study evaluated Cape gooseberry juice for potential protective effect on hepatic injury and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Quercetin and kaempferol were active components in the juice. Hepatoprotection was attributed to inhibition of oxidative stress pathways as evidenced by improvement in liver enzyme levels, reduction in collagen areas, down-regulation in expression of fibrotic marker MMP-9, reduction in peroxidative marker malonaldehyde, and inflammatory marker nitric oxide, along with restoration of enzymatic and nonenzymatic systems. (34)
• Inhibition of Airway Inflammation Induced by Cigarette Smoke and Lipopolysaccharide: Study evaluated the protective effect of P. peruviana on cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation. Treatment results in reduction of influx on inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung of mice with CS- and LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation. PP also decreased levels of ROS and proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and interleukin-6. Results suggest therapeutic potential for treatment of pulmonary inflammatory diseases, such as COPD. (35)
• Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging Activity / Hepatocellular Carcinoma Model: Study evaluated the antioxidant capacity and free radical scavenging activity of cape gooseberry juice in DENA- and CCl4- induced hepatocellular carcinoma rats model. DENA and CCl4 increased tumor marker levels, alpha-fetoprotein level, liver function enzymes, and malondialdehyde. Results showed reduction in these control levels. Study suggests CG juice has potential as free radical scavenger and antioxidant processor, antagonizing free radical generation and enhancing antioxidant defense mechanisms. (36)
• Antibacterial / Streptomyces Strain / Aerial Parts and Fruits: Study evaluated crude methanol extracts of aerial parts and 70% ethanol extract of fruits for antibacterial activity. Subfractions PpA2 and PpA3 exhibited inhibitory activities against strain of Streptomyces 85E. (37)
• Manic Episode Report: Study is a case report on a patient who present with a manic episode and a history of using golden berry to lose weight. The patient gave a history of depressive episode five years prior, without mania or hypomanic episodes in the past. (Abstract provides no clinical details) (38)
• Hypoglycemic / Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous and methanolic extract of leaves for antidiabetic activity and short-term toxicity in rats. In the glucose tolerance test group, methanolic extracts significantly reduced hyperglycemia by 54.55% (p<0.001), 46.50% (p<0.001) and 39.78% (p<0.001) at 400, 200, 100 mg/kbw, respectively. Aqueous extract at 400 mg/kg reduced hyperglycemia by 39,44% (p<0.05). At 2000 mg/kg dose, leaf aqueous and methanolic extract did not show any signs of intoxication and mortality. (41)
• Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects / Cardiotoxic in High Doses / Fruits: Study evaluated the invitro genotoxicity and invivo acute and subchronic toxicity of fruit of Physalis peruviana. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. LD50 of fruit was more than 5000 mg/kg for both sexes. In subchronic toxicity studies, there were no hepatic, renal and hematological toxic effects in both sexes. At 5000 mg/kg of lyophilized fruit, plasma troponin I and troponin T levels were significantly increase in male groups, along with significantly increase potassium levels. Results suggest the lyophilized fruit juice was shown to induced cardiac toxicity only at high doses in the male gender. (42)
• Protective and Therapeutic Effects Against Various Toxicities / Review: Study evaluated the protective and therapeutic effect of P. peruviana in the treatment of some intoxicated cases. Review reports that P. peruviana can modulate the toxic manifestations of cigarette smoke, cadmium, carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen on different body organs such as lung, testes, liver, and kidney. The plant can also protect against carcinogenesis process in the lung and liver because of its antioxidant and anti-proliferative effects. (43)
• Nephroprotective / Cadmium Chloride Toxicity / Calyx: Cadmium is an environmentally toxic metal that has deleterious effects on both animals and humans due to accumulation in different body tissues. Study evaluated the nephroprotective effect of an 80% aqueous methanol extract of calyx and n-butanol fraction against cadmium chloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The n-butanol fraction isolated three withanolides. Molecular docking study showed the isolated compounds displayed remarkable inhibitor activity against IkB kinase. Extract and fraction improved serum kidney function markers and MDA, reduced GSH and CAT, and significantly decreased TNF-α and NF-kß, along with amelioration of histological changes. The aqueous methanol extract and butanol fraction of P. peruviana calyx showed potential nephroprotective activity against cadmium chloride-induced nephrotoxicity correlated at least in part to the considerable withanolides content. (44)
• Restoration of Histopathological Alterations Induced by Lead Toxicity / Fruit: Study evaluated the efficacy of P. peruviana fruit extract in restoring histological deformation of the liver and kidney in lead-poisoned rats. Daily consumption of P. peruviana fruit restored almost all abnormalities in the liver and kidney caused by lead poisoning. (45)
• Ameliorative Against MSG-Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated the toxic effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of glutamic acid used as a flavor-enhancing additive in foods, and the protective effect of cape gooseberry (P. peruviana) extract using Allium cepa test material. MSG application caused decreases in rooting percentage, weight gain, root length and MI (mitotic index ratio), increases in frequencies of MN (micronucleus) formation, chromosomal abnormalities and DNA damage. P. peruviana extract ameliorated MSG toxicity evidenced by improvement in all these parameters. Results suggest use of the food additive should be abandoned and suggest P. peruviana as a good antioxidant nutrient to reduce the effects from exposure to toxic substances. (46)

- Wild-crafted.
- Seeds in the cybermarket.

Updated August 2023 / February 2019 / August 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Gooseberry flower / File:Gooseberry flower.jpg / Fir0002 / flagstaffotos.com.au / User:Fir0002/Retirement / CC BY-NC / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: Physalis Fruit / File:Physalis.jpg / Flapdragon / 14 May 2005 / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: Physalis Fruit / File:Physalis.jpg / Uchuva / 1 December 2005 / Public Domain / Wikipedia
IMAGE SOURCE: Fruits of cape gooseberry / Ivar Leidus / CC BY SA 4.0 / image modified / click on image or link to go to source page / / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Physalis peruviana - L. / Goldenberry / Plants For A Future
Physalis peruviana extract induces apoptosis in human Hep G2 cells through CD95/CD95L system and the mitochondrial signaling transduction pathway / Shu-Jing Wu et al / Cancer Letters, Volume 215, Issue 2, Pages 199-208 (25 November 2004)
Supercritical carbon dioxide extract exhibits enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Physalis peruviana / S J Wu, J Y Tsai et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 108, Issue 3, 6 December 2006, Pages 407-413 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.05.027
4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest / Ching-Yu Yen, Chien-Chih Chiu et al / BMC Cancer 2010, 10:46doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-46
Determining the pharmacological activity of Physalis peruviana fruit juice on rabbit eyes and fibroblast primary cultures / Pardo J M, Fontanilla M R et al / Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci., July 2008: 49(7): pp 3074-3079 / doi:10.1167/iovs.07-0633
Antioxidant activities of Physalis peruviana / Wu SJ, Ng LT et al /
Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Jun;28(6):963-6.
Antioxidative and Hepatoprotective Effects of Physalis peruviana Extract against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Rats / J C Chang, C C Lin et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2008, Vol. 46, Nos. 10–11, pp. 724–731
Preliminary studies on antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana Linn. (Solanaceae) against carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in rats / M Arun and V V Asha /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 111, Issue 1, 20 April 2007, Pages 110-114 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.10.038
Oil Goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) / Mohamed F. Ramadan and Jörg-T. Mörsel / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003; 51(4): pp 969–974 / DOI: 10.1021/jf020778z
Minerals and essential fatty acids of the exotic fruit Physalis peruviana L. / Eliseu Rodrigues, Ismael Ivan Rockenbach et al / Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 29(3): 642-645, jul.-set. 2009
Sorting Physalis names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 The University of Melbourne.
Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L. / Basak Ozlem Perk, Sinem Ilgin, Ozlem Atli, Hale Gamze Duymus, and Basar Sirmagul / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/707285
Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Physalis peruvina / Tuğçe DEMİR , Mehmet Özgün ÖZEN, E. Esin HAMEŞ-KOCABAŞ / Medicinal Plant Research, Feb 2014; Vol 4, No 3: pp 30-34 / doi: 10.5376/mpr.2014.04.0004
Minerals and essential fatty acids of the exotic fruit Physalis peruviana L. / Eliseu Rodrigues, Ismael Ivan Rockenbach*, Ciriele cataneo, Luciano Valdemiro Gonzaga, Eduardo Sidinei Chaves, Roseane Fett / Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 29(3): 642-645, jul.-set. 2009
Antihepatotoxic effect of golden berry (Physalis peruviana Linn.) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rats / Darakhshan Taj, Hira Khan, Viqar Sultana, Jehan Ara and Syed Ehteshamul-Haque / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.27, No.3, May 2014, pp.491-494
Assessment of antidiabetic activity and acute toxicity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. in guinea-pig
/ Félicien Mushagalusa Kasali, Justin Ntokamunda Kadima, Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Damien Sha-Tshibey Tshibangu / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013; 3(11): pp 841-846
Potential of Peruviose A and B from Physalis peruviana L calyces to treat Inflammatory Bowel Disease: In vivo and in vitro studies / YC Ocampo, JP Castro, DE Rivera, L Barrios, LA Franco / Planta Med 2013; 79 - PB34 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1351979
Physalis peruviana / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Chemical Components and Bioactivities of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) / Yu-Jie Zhang, Gui-Fang Deng, Xiang-Rong Xu, Shan Wu, Sha Li, Hua-Bin Li * / International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety, 2013, 3(1): 15-24
The antimicrobial activity of Physalis peruviana L. / Ferda Göztok, Fikriye Zengin / Bitlis Eren Univ J Sci &Technol 3 (2013) 15-17
Sucrose esters from Physalis peruviana calyces with anti-inflammatory activity / Espartero Sánchez, José Luis, Franco, Luis A., Ocampo, Yanet C., Gómez, Harold A., Puerta Vázquez-Zafra, Rocío de La, Ospina, Luis F. / Planta Medica, 80, 1605-1614 (2014)
A Possible Inhibitory Effect of Physalis (Physalis pubescens L.) On Diabetes in Male Rats / Amal I. Hassan and Mona A.M. Ghoneim / World Applied Sciences Journal 21 (5): 681-688, 2013 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.21.5.7220
HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CALYCES EXTRACT OF Physalis peruviana ON HEPATOTOXICITY INDUCED BY CCl4 IN WISTAR RATS / Reina Marcela TORO A. QF; Diana Marcela ARAGÓN N. PhD; Luis Fernando OSPINA G. PhD* / Vitae vol.20 no.2 Medellín May/Aug. 2013
Evaluation of biological activities of Physalis peruviana ethanol extracts and expression of Bcl-2 genes in HeLa cells / Özgür ÇAKIR, Murat PEKMEZ, Elif ÇEPNİ, Bilgin CANDAR, Kerem FİDAN / Food and Science Technology, Apr-Jun 2014; 34(2): pp 422-430 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.2014.0060
Cytotoxic and Immunomodulatory Potential Activity of Physalis peruviana Fruit Extracts on Cervical Cancer (HeLa) and Fibroblast (L929) Cells / Helen Mier-Giraldo MSc, Luis Eduardo Diaz-Barrera MSc, PhD et al / Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, Oct 2017; 22(4): pp 777-787 / doi: 10.1177/2156587217718751 / PMID: 28719984
Extracts of Physalis peruviana Protect Astrocytic Cells Under Oxidative Stress With Rotenone / Natalia Areiza-Mazo, Jorge Robles, Jairo A Zamudio-Rodriguez et al / Frontiers in Chemistry, 2018; 6: 276 / doi: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00276 / PMID: 30175092
Phytochemical evaluation and powder microscopy of medicinal and nutritional fruits of Physalis peruviana L / Vandana Bharthi, Prathapa Reddy M, Shantha TR, Venkateshwarlu G / International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 2016; 4(1): pp 43-46
Volatile compounds, antioxidants, and anticancer activities of Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.): An in-vitro study / Manal M Ramadan PhD, Ahmed H El-ghorab, Kadry Z Ghanem / Journal of the Arab Society for Medical Research, 2015; 10(2): pp 56-64 / DOI: 10.4103/1687-4293.175556
Influence of extraction process on antioxidant activity and rutin content in Physalis peruviana calyces extract / Maria Isabel Cardona, Reina Marcela Toro, Geison M. Costa, Luis Fernando Ospina, Leonardo Castellanos, Freddy A. Ramos, Diana Marcela Aragón / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, June 2017; 7(6): pp 164-168 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2017.70623
Physalis peruviana Linn. fruit extract improves insulin sensitivity and ameliorates hyperglycemia in high-fat diet low dose STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats / M. Sathyadevi, E.R. Suchithra and S. Subramanian / Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2014; 8(4): pp 625-632
Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activities and Phenolic and Chemical Contents of Physalis peruviana L. from Trabzon, Turkey / Ömer ERTÜRK, Melek ÇOL AYVAZ, Zehra CAN, Ülkü KARAMAN, Kürşat KORKMAZ / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 2017; 51(3s): pp 213-216 / doi:10.5530/ijper.51.3s.15
Peruvioses A to F, sucrose esters from the exudate of Physalis peruviana fruit as α-amylase inhibitors / Carlos A Bernal, Leonardo Castellanos, Diana M Aragon, Diana Martinez-Matamoros et al / Carbohydrate Research, 22 May 2018; 461: pp 4-10 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2018.03.003
Cape Gooseberry [Physalis peruviana L.] Calyces Ameliorate TNBS Acid-induced Colitis in Rats / Jenny Castro, Yanet Ocampo, Luis Franco / Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, 1 Nov 2015; 9(11): pp 1004– 1015 / https://doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjv132
The Potential Protective Effect of Physalis peruviana L. against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats Is Mediated by Suppression of Oxidative Stress and Downregulation of MMP-9 Expression / Ebtisam M. Al-Olayan,1 Manal F. El-Khadragy et al / Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. Volume 2014 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/381413
Physalis peruviana L. inhibits airway inflammation induced by cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide through inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and induction of heme oxygenase-1
/ Hyun Ah Park, Jae-Won Lee, Ok-Kyoung Kwon, Gilhye Lee, Yourim Lim, Jung Hee Kim, Jin-Hyub Pai, Sangho Choi, Imam Paryanto Prasetyawan Yuniato, Doo-Young Kim, Hyung Won Ryu, Sei-Ryang Oh. Seung Jin Lee, Kyung-Seop Ahn International Journal of Molecular Medicine, Nov 2017,40(5) //doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2017.3139
Antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in hepatocellular carcinoma rats model / Hanaa A. Hassan, Nermin E. Ghareb, Ghassan F. Azhari / Hepatoma Res.,  2017; 3: pp 27-33 / DOI: 10.20517/2394-5079.2016.33
Antibacterial Activity of Extracts from Physalis peruviana (Poha Berry) / Rachel Higaki, Leng Chee Chang and Sang-Ngern / Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice, Summer 2016; Volume 9, Special Edition 1: pp 57-58
A manic episode induced by herbal preparate golden berry (cape gooseberry) (Physalis peruviana L. / Ömer Yanartaş, Yücel Yılmaz, Mustafa Burak Baykaran, İshak Sayğılı, Selma Bozkurt Zincir / JMOOD, 2012; 2(1): pp 12-14 / doi: 10.5455/jmood.20120207040617
Physalis / Wikipedia
Physalis peruviana / Wikipedia
Hypoglycemic, Antihyperglycemic, and Toxic Effects of Physalis peruviana L. Aqueous and Methanolic Leaf Extracts in Wistar Rats / Kasali FM, Kadima JN, Tusiimire J, Agaba AG /  Journal of Experimental Pharmacology,  2022; Vol 2022 (14): pp 185-193 / DOI: 10.2147/JEP.S35633
Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L / Basak Ozlem Perk, Sinem Ilgin, Özlem Atli, Hale Gamze Duymus Agalar / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013(1): 707285 / DOI: 10.1155/2013/707285
Protective and Therapeutic Effect of Physalis peruviana L. in the Intoxicated Cases /  Said Said Elshama / Trends in Applied Sciences Research, 2019; 14(1): pp 36-40
Nephroprotective effect of Physalis peruviana L. calyx extract and its butanolic fraction against cadmium chloride toxicity in rats and molecular docking of isolated compounds / Hesham S M Soliman, Eslam M Korany, Haitham A Ibrahim et al / BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, 2023; 23: Article No 21 / DOI: 10.1186/s12906-023-03845-9
Efficacy of physalis peruviana on restoring histopathological alternations against lead induced toxicity in albino rats / Fatma I Gad, Eglal G Salem, Ossama A Abdullatef, Mohamed SA El-Gerbed, Samar M Aborhyem / Chemical Nutrition Open Science, 2022; Vol 44: pp 92-106 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.nutos.2022.06.005
Ameliorative effects of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) against monosodium glutamate (MSG)–induced toxicity: genetic and biochemical approach / Ali Acar / Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2021; 28: pp 18035-18049 / DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-11800-1

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