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Family Solanaceae
Lubi-lubi
Solanum nigrum Linn.
DEADLY NIGHTSHADE
Lung Kuei

Scientific names   Common names  
Solanum adventitium Polgar Amti (Bon., If.)
Solanum amarantoides Dunal Anti (Bon., Tag.)
Solanum americanum Mill. Bolagtab (Bis.)
Solanum caribaeum Dunal Gamagamatisan (Tag.)
Solanum curtipes Bitter Hulablub (Bis.)
Solanum depilatum Bitter Kamkamatisan (Tag.)
Solanum ganchouenense H. Lév Kamates-manuk (S. L. Bis.)
Solanum gollmeri Bitter Konti (Tag.)
Solanum humile Lam. Kunti (Tag.)
Solanum imerinense Bitter Kuti (Bik.)
Solanum inconspicuum Bitter Lagkakum (Bis.)
Solanum indecorum Rich. Lubi-lubi (Tag., Bis., Bik.)
Solanum inops Dunal Malasili (S. L. Bis.)
Solanum minutibaccatum Bitter Muti (Sul., Buk.)
Solanum nigrum L. Natang-ni-aso (Ig.)
Solanum nodiflorum Jacq. Nateng (Iv.)
Solanum oleraceum Dunal Onti (Tag.)
Solanum parviflorum Badaro Black nightshade (Engl.)
Solanum photeinocarpum Nakam. & Odash. Deadly nightshade (Engl.)
Solanum pterocaulon Dunal Garden or common nightshade (Engl.)
Solanum purpuratum Bitter Poison berry (Engl.)
Solanum quadrangulare Thunb. ex. L.f.

Small-fruited black nightshade (Engl.)

Solanum sciaphilum Bitter Wonderberry (Engl.)
Solanum tenellm Bitter  
Solanum triangulare Lam.  
Solanum nigrum L. is a synonym of Solanum americanum Mill. The Plant List
Solanum americanum Mill. is an accepted name The Plant List
While some taxonomists consider S. nigrum and S. americanum as synonyms, some some consider them separate, although very closely related.

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: 'Enab edh dhi'b, 'Enab eth tha'lab, Ribriq.
BRAZIL: Guaraquinha.
CHINESE: Lung Kuei, Long kui.
DUTCH: Zwarte nachtschade.
FINNISH: Mustakoiso.
FRENCH: Morelle commune, Morelle des jardins, Morelle à fruits noirs, Morelle noire.
GERMAN: Schwarzer Nachtschatten, Nachtkraut, Wolfstraube.
HAWAIIAN: Popolo.
HINDI: Mokoi.
ITALIAN: Morella, Solano nero, Solatro del frutto nero, Solatro ortense.
JAPANESE: Inu hôzuki.
MALAY: Ranti.
MALAYALAM: Mulaku thakkali.
MARATHI: Laghukavali.
PORTUGUESE: Erva-moira.
SLOVAKIAN: Ľuľok čierny.
SPANISH: Hierba mora, Yerba mora.
SUNDANESE: Leunca ayam (Indonesia - West Java), Leunca manuk (Indonesia - West Java).
TAMIL: Manatakkali.
TELUGU: Kasaka.
TURKISH: Köpek memesi, Köpek üzümü, Tilki üzümü.
 

Botany
Lubi-lubi is an erect, branched, smooth or nearly smooth herb, up to 1 meter or less in height. Stems are green and 3-angled. Leaves are ovate to oblong, 5 to 8 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, with subentire or undulately toothed or lobed margins. The flowers are umbellately disposed, 5 - 8 on each peduncle. Calyx is green with ovate-oblong lobes. Corolla is white, about 8 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is a berry, dark purple or black, smooth, shining, rounded, about 5 millimeters in diameter. Seeds are yellow and minutely pitted.

Distribution
- Throughout the Philippines in open, waste places, recently disturbed soil; from sea level to a height of 2000 meters.
- Cosmopolitan.

Constituents
• In 1821, solanine was isolated from the fruit. The leaves yield an unidentified mydriatic alkaloid; in 1892, saponin was isolated from the fruit.
• The unripe fruit contains the toxin solanine.
• Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and proteins.
• Besides solanine, plant also yielded a tropeine alkaloid with a mydriatic action.
• Analysis of the cultivated large-fruit variety show it to be a rich source of calcium and phosphorus and a good source of iron.
• Some studies suggested a poisoning from ingestion of the fruit; other suggest that as the fruit matures, it gradually decreases in toxicity, and when ripe, contains nontoxic amounts of solanin.
• Extract studies yielded saponin, flavonoids, coumarins, phytosterols, tannins, fixed oils and fats.
Ethanolic extract yielded major components of flavonoids and moderate amount of alkaloid, tannins, glycosides, and terpenoid/sterols
• Study isolated six compounds: (+)-pinoresinol (I), (+)-syringaresinol (II), (+)-medioresinol (III), scopoletin (IV), tetracosanoic acid (V) and beta-sitosterol (VI). (23)

• In a study, 1 gram of fresh leaves yielded 1.74 mg of coumaric acid, 1.08 mg of quercitin, 0.82 mg of catechol, 0.52 mg of caffeic acid, 1.06 mg of gallic acid, and 0.46 mg of protocatechnic acid. (see study below) (32)
Ethanolic extract yielded major components of flavonoids and moderate amount of alkaloid, tannins, glycosides, and terpenoid/sterols. (see study below) (33)

Properties
- Considered antipyretic, antiseptic, diaphoretic, analgesic, antispasmodic, antiinflammatory, diuretic, febrifuge, purgative, sedative, vasodilatory, and vulnerary.
- Young shoots, eaten after boiling, considered corrective, cooling, tonic to men (improves virility) and women (improves menses).
- Poisoning is reported from ingestion of the fruit. However, as the fruit matures, it gradually decreases in toxicity, until, when ripe, it becomes nontoxic, containing only small amounts of solanin. The harmlessness of the mature fruit is evidenced by its extensive consumption by children.


Toxicity !
- Generally considered safe and cultivated as food crop in some places. However, there are reports of toxicity regarding the fruit and leave depending on the cultivar and where it is grown. The unripe green fruit is considered toxic and contains the higher amount of toxin solanine. Berries are edible when fully ripe. Leaves should be boiled.

- Toxicity and death have been reported in livestock who fed on the plant/berries in the field or dried in hay.
- When toxicity occurs, it presents as vomiting, diarrhea, headache, colic, and depression. Belladonna-life effect on the eyes start half an hour after ingestion; mydriasis is maximum in 6 hours. Throat dryness in less than 2 hours, persisting for 50 hours. Decreased sweating is noted with dryness of the skin, mouth, larynx, and esophagus. Treatment usually through an emetic and use of a tannin-containing solution.

Parts utilized
Stalks, leaves, roots, fruits.

Uses
Edibility / Toxicity Concerns
- Fruit of some varieties is edible, excellent for use in pies and jams.
- Unripe fruit reported to have toxicity. [see toxicity above].
- Boiled leaves eaten as vegetable.
- In Maritius and Bourbon, leaves are eaten in place of spinach.
- Widely eaten in Africa.
· Caution: There is much disagreement whether the leaves and fruit of the plant are poisonous. The toxicity might vary according to where the plant is grown. Also, the unripe fruit is considered to have the highest amount of toxins. (2)
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, fruit has been used for diabetes.
- Poultice of leaves is sedative and has healing properties. As an alcoholate, used to alleviate neuralgic pains.
- Decoction of plant used as fomentation for sore eyes and various skin diseases.
- Young shoots are considered cooling, corrective, and tonic (increasing virility in men) and benefiting menstrual disorders in women.
- Poultice of roots, stems and leaves used for sores, boils and wounds.
- In Sinaloa, roots have been used for bubonic plague.
- Decoction of stalk, leaves, roots used for wounds and cancerous sores.
- Juice of leaves used for kidney problems and gonorrhea.
- Infusion of leaves used as enema for abdominal upsets in children.
- Paste of green berries used for ringworm.
- Dried leaves infused in boiling water used as sudorific.
- Decoction of juice herb used for cleaning foul ulcers.
- Decoction of plant used for vaginal irrigation.
- Heated leaves used for testicular pains and swellings.
- In Bohemia, poultice of leaves placed in cradles of infants to induce sleep.
- The fruit has been used for erysipelas.
- Chinese use the leaves to alleviate pains associated with kidney and bladder inflammation and in virulent gonorrhea.
- Lotion from a decoction used for yaws.
- Zulus use an infusion enema to infants with abdominal upsets.
- Sutos rub the burnt powder of roots into incisions in the back for the relief of lumbago.
- Plant is used a native application to anthrax pustules.
- Paste of green berries applied to ringworm.
- Mixed with honey, sometimes used for pulmonary tuberculosis.
- In South Africa, expressed juice of the herb and decoction used for cleaning and healing foul ulcers.
- Plant used for headaches.
- Plant used internally as diuretic and as emetic.
- Poultice of leaves used over rheumatic and gouty joints.
- Fluid extract of leaves and stems used for dropsy, heart disease, skin diseases, piles, gonorrhea, inflammatory swellings, and chronic enlargement of the liver and spleen.
- Syrup used as cooling drink for fevers, and to promote perspiration.
- Heated leaves applied to painful and swollen testicles.
- In Rhodesia, plant used for malaria, blackwater fever, and dysenteries.
- In Mexico, plant decoction used externally as cooling agent, as vulnerary in form of fomentations, and for vaginal irritations. Fruit used as domestic remedy for erysipelas.
- Paste of immature fruit used for ringworm.
- In ZuHindu medicine, fruits used as tonic, diuretic, and in treatment of heart diseases and anasarca.
- In Bengal, berries used for fever, diarrhea, eye diseases, hydrophobia.
- Bruised leaves used externally to ease pain and inflammation. Arabs are known to apply them to burns and ulcers. Juice used for ringworm, gout , and earache; and mixed with vinegar, used as gargle and mouthwash.
- In South India, leaves and berries are used in the treatment of gastric ulcers, gastritis, and other gastric problems. (31)
- Decoction of berries and flowers used for cough and consumption.
- In Ayurveda, used for treatment of gastric ulcers.
Others
- Cosmetic: Bote women rub the seeds of fresh fruit on their cheeks to remove freckles and improve the complexion.
- Dye: Fruit reported as source of blackish purple dye.

Studies
Mosquito Larvicidal / Leaves: Studies on larvicidal properties of leaf extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. Preliminary results of the crude extract leaf study showed it exhibited toxicity to three disease vector species – An. culicifacies, Cx quinquefasciatus and Ae aegypti, and suggests further investigation. (1)
Anti-Seizure: Anti-seizure activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Solanum nigrum linn (solanaceae) in experimental animals : Leaf extract of SN produced a dose-dependent protection against electrically, pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin-induced seizures in mice and rates. The anticonvulsant property was potentiated by amphetamine with an activity probably via the dopaminergic pathway. (3)
Anti-Ulcer / Antioxidant on Aspirin-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury: Study suggests that SN berries extract may exert gastroprotective effect by a free radical scavenging action and offers a therapeutic potential in the treatment of gastric diseases. (4)
Hepatoprotective / Thiocetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis: Inhibitory effect of Solanum nigrum on thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in mice: Study confirmed SNE reduced the degree of fibrosis caused by TAA treatment.
(5)
Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity: Ethanol extract showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. (16)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Study showed the water extract of S. nigrum could protect the liver against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats. The hepatoprotective effect could be due to its modulation of enzyme detoxification, its antioxidant and free-radical scavenging effects.

Hepatoprotective / Free Radical Induced DNA Damage: Crude extracts of hepatoprotective plants, Solanum nigrum and Cichorium intybus inhibit free radical-mediated DNA damage; C intybus effect was more pronounced than SN. Hepatoprotective effects may be due to suppression of oxidative degradations of DNA in tissue debris. (6)
Hepatoprotective: Extract of S. nigrum and Cichorium intybus possess significant hepatoprotective activity in comparison to standard drug silymarin.
Cytoprotective / Gentamicin Induced Toxicity: A 50% ethanol extract of the whole plant of SN was tested in vitro for cytoprotection against gentamicin-induced toxicity on Vero cells. Results showed significant inhibition of cytotoxicity. It also showed significant radical scavenging potential explaining its probable mechanism of cytoprotection. (7)
Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Hepatic Damage: Study showed the ethanol extract of the dried fruits of Sn with remarkable hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats.
(8)
Anti-Tumor / Immunomodulation: Study showed the the crude polysaccharides isolated from S nigrum possess potent antitumor activity, possibly through activation of different immune responses in the host rather than a direct attack on cancer cells on cervical cancer bearing mice. It suggests a potential for use as an immunomodulator and anticancer agent. (9)
Liver Cancer : Study showed extract of SN induced cell death in hepatoma cells via two distinct antineoplastic activities - the ability to induce apoptosis and autophagocytosis, suggesting potential for the treatment of liver cancer.
Anti-Ulcer / Ulcer Healing Effects: Study showed Solanum nigrum extract provides antiulcer activity through blockage of acid secretion via inhibition of H+K+ATPase and decrease of gastrin secretion; its ulcer healing property might also be due to its antisecretory activity. (10)

Anti-Angiogenesis: Study showed Solanum nigrum could inhibit the angiogenesis on chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). (12)

Cytotoxicity / Anticancer: In a study evaluating the anticancer activity of the fruits of Solanum nigrum fruits, results showed the methanolic extract with greater activity on the HeLa cell line and little activity on the Vero cell line, suggesting use for its anticancer activity. (13)

Anti-Inflammatory / Berries: Study on the methanolic extracts of berries of S. nigrum showed good anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced paw edema. (14)

Antioxidant / Antihyperlipidemic: Study of the protective effect of S nigrum fruit extract in ethanol-induced toxicity in rats showed significant antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity.
(15)
Antihepatoma / Antihepatocarcinogenesis: Study showed SN water extract supplement significantly alleviated the AAF-induced hepatic injury and early hepatocarcinogenesis, as well as the AAF/NaNO2-induced lethal hepatoma, possibly from the over-expression of glutathione S-transferases, Nrf2 and antioxidant enzymes. (17)
Anticonvulsant: Study showed a significant dose-dependent effect against seizures induced by MES (maximum electric shock) in rats. The seizure inhibition may be by regulating GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition through action at distinct sites of the synapse. (18)
Seeds Oil / Physiochemical Properties: Study showed: (1) seeds are rich in protein and carbohydrate (2) Seed oil yields oleodilinolein (OLL) 56.54% of total triacylglycerols, palmitoleo-linolein (POL) and dioleolinolein (OOL). (3) Oil extracts showed good physiochemical properties and can be useful as edible oils and for industrial uses. (19)
Solamargine / Apoptosis in Human Hepatoma: Solamargine has shown remarkable anticancer activity on SMMC-7721 cells through activation of caspase-3 and the regulation of cell cycle progression to induce apoptosis and inhibition of of hepatoma cells proliferation. (20)
Antibacterial / Whole Plant: Study evaluated the anti-bacterial activity of ethanolic and methanolic extract of stem, berries, and whole plant of Solanum nigrum against E. coli, B. subtilis, K. pneumonia, and P. aeruginosa. The methanolic extract showed better antibacterial activity and the whole plant extract showed greater potential antibacterial activity than stem and berries. (24)

Antiviral / Hepatitis C Virus: Methanol and chloroform extracts of S. nigrum seeds exhibited 37% and more than 50% inhibition of HCV respectively at non toxic concentration. The chloroform extract decreased the expression or function of HCV NS3 protease in a dose-dependent manner and GAPODH remained constant. Results suggest a potential for the combination of SN extract and interferon as a option for treatment of chronic HCV. (25)
Anti-Tumor Polysaccharides / Hepatitis C Virus: Study evaluated the anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides from S. nigrum Linne and its relationship with the immune function of tumour-bearing organisms. Results showed significant inhibition of growth of mouse H22 solid tumors, improved survival time, increased proliferation of lymphocytes, elevated levels of IL-2 and increased concentration of calcium ions in the lymphocytes. The anti-tumor effect was assumed related with cellular immune functions that regulates the body. (26)
Hepatoprotective / Alcohol Induced Liver Toxicity: Study investigated the effect of S. nigrum fruit extract on ethanol induced toxicity in rats. Results showed improvement of hepatic and renal markers to near normal levels. Results suggest a potential as adjuvant treatment in liver disorders. (27)
Corrosion Inhibition / Natural Source / Solasodine: Study evaluated the corrosion inhibition potential of S. nigrum in mild steel. Results showed increased in inhibition efficacy with increasing concentration of the plant extract. The anti-corrosion effect was attributed to the presence of solasodine. (28)
Chemopreventive / DEN Induced and Phenobarbital Promoted Hepatocarcinogenesis: Study of an ethanol extract in experimental animals showed significant chemopreventive effect against DEN induced and phenobarbital promoted hepatocarcinoma. (29)
Anti-Diabetic / Anti-Hyperlipidemic: Study of a Solanum nigrum fruit extract in STZ -induced diabetic rats showed efficacy in ameliorating diabetes and its associated complications. It also showed restoration of lipid parameters to near control levels. (30)
Anti-Gastritic / Antiulcerogenic: Study investigated S. nigrum leaf and berry extracts for protective effect on ethanol induced gastritis and aspirin induced gastric ulcers of pylorus ligated rats. Results sowed gastroprotective and antiulcer effects. The aqueous extract showed more protection against arthritis than the leaf extracts. (31)
Anti-Diabetic / Leaves: Study
evaluated water and ethanol extracts of fresh leaves for in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic activity. Results showed dose-dependent significant inhibition of α-amylase (73.15%), α-glucosidase (64.5%) and glucose diffusion (68.67%). (32)
Antifungal / Leaves: Study
evaluated aqueous and crude extracts of leaves for antifungal activity against A. niger, A. flavus, and C. albicans. Extracts using crude solvents exhibited higher antifungal activity compared to the aqueous extracts. The pathogen inhibiting activity was dose dependent. (34)
Attenuation of TPA-Induced Migration and Invasion / Potential for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Study showed treatment with water or polyphenol extracts of S. nigrum attenuated TPA-induced migration and invasion, effects that presents a potential for a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
(35 )
Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Antipyretic / Leaves: Study showed dose-dependent effects of the lipid-soluble extract of S nigrum leaves. on various animal models.
(36)
Nitric-oxide Production: Nitric oxide (NO) is an anti-tumor molecule produced in activated macrophages. Study showed Sn increased the production of NO by macrophages primed by recombinant interferon-y.
(37)
Molluscicidal / Anti-parasitic: Study of the molluscicidal and antiparasitic activity of SNV showed the unripe fruit extract can be applied for the control of in the larval stages of G. truncatula and F hepatica. (38)
Antimicrobial / Fruit: Study investigated the antimicrobial activity of fruit extracts of two Solanaceous plants: Solanum nigrum and S. xanthocarpus against five species of gram-negative bacteria, three species of gram-positive bacteria, and three species of fungi. Doses of 5, 10,and 15 mg/ml of methanolic extracts of powdered fruit material of both plants exhibited significant zones of inhibition. However they were not as potent as standards: ampicillin or amphotericin B. (41)
Protective on Chemo-Radiotheray Induced Oral Mucositis / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous extracts of leaves for protective effect on rat models with chemradiotherapy- (busulfan plus infrared radiation) and chemotherapy (methotrexate)-induced oral mucositis. Results showed protective effect in both models, the effect higher in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. (43)
Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic / Leaves: Study of methanolic and water extract of Solanum nigrum leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed significant hypoglycemic activity, together with a marked decrease in triglycerides, TC, LDL, and VLDL, and a decrease in HbA1c. The mechanism of antidiabetic action was attributed to an increase in pancreatic secretion of insulin by beta cells and its release from the bound form. (44)
Antimicrobial: Study evaluated various extracts of S. nigrum against respiratory pathogens isolated from sputum samples. An ethanolic extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity compared to aqueous and diethyl ether extracts. Phytochemical analysis yielded alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, and phenols. (45)
Antifertility Effect: Study evaluated leaf extracts of Solanum americanum on fertility in male albino rats. Results showed decreased sperm count and motility in treated groups, together with decreased levels of glycogen, protein in the testis and liver of treated groups. The ethanol extract showed greater effect than the acetone extract. (46)
Cardioprotective Effect / Doxorubicin Induced Cardiotoxicity: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of S. nigrum for protective effect against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Results showed S. igrum pretreated group displayed significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum cardiac enzymes and parameters in a time dependent manner. (47)
Antiproliferative / Human Leukemic Cell Lines: Study evaluated varies extracts from S. nigrum berries for antiproliferative activity on leukemic cell lines, Jurkat and HL-60 )Human promyelocytic leukemia cells). Results showed increased cytotoxicity with increasing concentration. A 50% inhibitory concentration value of methanol extract was the lowest on both cell lines. Cell growth inhibition was more pronounced on Jurkat cells compared to HL-60 cell line. (48)
Protective Effect on Immobilization Stress Induced Changes in Rat Brain / Leaves: Study evaluated the preventive or curative antioxidant effect of crude extract of leaves in modulating inherent antioxidant system altered by immobilization stress in rat brain tissues. Treatment resulted in significant modulation in parameters (glutathione, SOD, GST, catalase, etc). Poststress extract treatment was more effective compared with prestress extract treatments in preventing/restoring stress induced modulation in the antioxidant enzymatic activities and GSH and LPO levels. Results suggest a potential for leaf extracts or isolated constituents for use as nutritional supplement for scavenging free radicals generated in the brain from stress or neuronal disease. (49)
Mosquito Larvicidal / Berries: Study evaluated the mosquitocidal activity various extracts of berries against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Both crude and chloroform:methanol (1:1 v/v) extracts showed good larvicidal activity. Results suggest a potential larvicide for mosquito larvae control with its high target specificity, biodegradability, and non-toxicity to non-target organisms. (50)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update September 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER GRAPHIC IMAGE / Public Domain File / Jan Kops - Flora Batava, Volume 2 (1807) - Permission granted to use under GFDL by Kurt Stueber. Source: www.biolib.de
OTHER GRAPHIC IMAGE / A Modern Herbal / Mrs. M. Grieve/ Botanical.com

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Studies on larvicidal properties of leaf extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. (family Solanaceae) /
S P Singh, K Raghavendra et al / CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 81, NO. 12, 25 DECEMBER 2001
(2)
Solanum nigrum / Plants For A Future
(3)
Anti-seizure activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Solanum nigrum linn (solanaceae) in experimental animals / Noel Wannang et al / Afr Health Sci. 2008 June; 8(2): 74–79 /
(4)
Antioxidant effect of methanolic extract of Solanum nigrum berries on aspirin induced gastric mucosal injury
/ Mallika Jainu, C. S. Shyamala Devi / Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, Jan 2004, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 57-61
(5)
Inhibitory effect of Solanum nigrum on thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in mice / Chang-Chi Hsieh et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 119, Issue 1, 2 September 2008, Pages 117-121/ doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.06.002
(6)

Crude extracts of hepatoprotective plants, Solanum nigrum and Cichorium intybus inhibit free radical-mediated DNA damage
/ Sarwat Sultana, Shahid Perwaiz et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 45, Issue 3, March 1995, Pages 189-192 / doi:10.1016/0378-8741(94)01214-K
(7)
Cytoprotective role of Solanum nigrum against gentamicin-induced kidney cell (Vero cells) damage in vitro / V Prashanth Kumar et al / Fitoterapia • Volume 72, Issue 5, June 2001, Pages 481-486 / doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(01)00266-0
(8)
Effect of Dried Fruits of Solanum nigrum LINN against CCl4-Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats(Toxicology) / Raju Kuppuswamy et al / Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin 26(11) pp.1618-1619 20031101

(9)
Antitumor and immunomodulating effects of polysaccharides isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne / Jian Li et al / Phytotherapy Research • Volume 23 Issue 11, Pages 1524 - 1530 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.2769
(10)
Antiulcerogenic and ulcer healing effects of Solanum nigrum (L.) on experimental ulcer models: Possible mechanism for the inhibition of acid formation / Mallika Jainu et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 104, Issues 1-2, 8 March 2006, Pages 156-163 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.064

(11)
Induction of Autophagy and Apoptosis by the Extract of Solanum nigrum Linn in HepG2 Cells / Hui-Mei Lin et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55 (9), pp 3620–3628 / DOI: 10.1021/jf062406m
(12)
Experimental study of Solanum nigrum on inhibiting angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane / Xu Y, Pan R L et al /
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008 Mar;33(5):549-52.
(13)
IN-VITRO CYTOTOXICITY ACTIVITY OF SOLANUM NIGRUM EXTRACT AGAINST HELA CELL LINE AND VERO CELL LINE / Sanjay Patel et al / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 1, Suppl 1, Nov.-Dec. 2009
(14)
Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Methanolic Extract of Solanum nigrum Linn Berries / V, Saleem TSM et al / International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products, Vol. 2(2), pp. 33-36, June-July 2009

(15)
Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract on the experimental model against chronic ethanol toxicity / Vadivel Arulmozhi, Mani Krishnaveni et al / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2010 | Volume : 6 | Issue : 21 | Page : 42-50
(16)
Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn extract against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in rats / Lin HM, Yseng HC et al /
Chem Biol Interact. 2008 Feb 15;171(3):283-93. Epub 2007 Aug 19
(17)
Solanum nigrum L. Extract Inhibits 2-Acetylaminofluorene-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis through Overexpression of Glutathione S-Transferase and Antioxidant Enzymes / Jeng-Dong Hsu et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2009, 57 (18), pp 8628–8634 / DOI: 10.1021/jf9017788
(18)
Phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of Solanum nigrum Linn. / V Ravi, T S M Saleem et al / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 3(9). pp. 454-457, September, 2009
(19)
Solanum nigrum L. Seeds as an Alternative Source of Edible Lipids and Nutriment in Congo Brazzaville
/ J M Nzikou, M Mvoula-Tsieri et al / J. Applied Sci., 7: 1107-1115. / DOI: 10.3923/jas.2007.1107.1115
(20)
Induction of apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells by solamargine from Solanum nigrum L
. / Xia Ding, Fang-Shi Zhu, Min Li, Si-Guo Gao / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 139, Issue 2, 31 January 2012, Pages 599–604
(21)
Study of Hepatoprotective Activity of Solanum nigrum and Cichorium intybus / K.R. Subash, K.S. Ramesh, Binoy Vargheese Charian, Francis Britto, N. Jagan Rao and S. Vijaykumar / International Journal of Pharmacology, 2011 | Volume: 7 | Issue: 4 | Page No.: 504-509 / DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2011.504.509
(22)
Nightshade, Black / Solanum nigrum / A Modern Herbal / Mrs. M. Grieve/ Botanical.com
(23)
Studies on the chemical constituents of Solanum nigrum / Zhao Y, Liu F, Lou HX. / Zhong Yao Cai. 2010 Apr;33(4):555-6.
(24)
In Vitro Antibacterial Activity In The Extracts Of Solanum Nigrum / Parameswari.K, Sudheer Aluru and Kishori. B / Indian Streams Research Journal, Volume 2, Issue. 7, Aug 2012

(25)
In-vitro antiviral activity of Solanum nigrum against Hepatitis C Virus / Tariq Javed, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Sana Riaz, Sidra Rehman and Sheikh Riazuddin / Virology Journal 2011, 8:26 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-26
(26)
Study on the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum linne on cellular immune function in tumour-bearing mice / H Chen, X Qi / African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, Vol 10, No 4 (2013)
(27)
Protective effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract on the functional status of liver and kidney against ethanol induced toxicity / Arulmozhi V, Krishnaveni M, Mirunalini S* / J Biochem Tech (2012) 3(4):339-343
(28)
Solanum nigrum as natural source of corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in sulphuric acid medium / P. Bothi Raja; M. G. Sethuraman / Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, Volume 45 Issue 6 (01 December 2010), pp. 455-460
(29)
Chemopreventive Property Of Solanum Nigrum On Diethylnitrosamine Induced And Phenobarbital Promoted Hepatocarcinogenesis In Rats / Arun G. Maddi / KLE University,Belgaum,Karnataka. 2013
(30)
Effect of Solanum nigrum L. on blood glucose concentration and lipid profile in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats / Ahir KB*, Patel BG2, Patel SB and Mehta FA / Pharmacognosy Communications, 2013; 3(2):6-11 / doi:10.5530/pc.2013.2.3
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Anti gastritic and antiulcerogenic effects of Solanum nigrum in laboratory animals / Maddala Rajeswari*, Subbulakshmi Gurumurthy, Sandhya Kamat / International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 2013; 2(6): 266-271 Published online October 20, 2013 / doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20130206.11
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In-vitro and in-vivo studies of antidiabetic activity of Solanum nigrum leaves. / Nandita, Dasgupta / Food Sci. & Technol. Information Services (2013) / Institutional Repository of CSIR-CFTRI
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Biochemical Studies on Solanum nigrum L. Fruits Extracts / Yasser S. Helmy / Thesis / Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cairo University
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ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF LEAF EXTRACT OF SOLANUM NIGRUM LINN / SWETA PRAKASH* AND ASHOK K. JAIN / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Suppl 4, 2011
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Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Solanum nigrum Attenuated PKC α-Mediated Migration and Invasion of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells / Mon-Yuan Yang et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2010, 58 (9), pp 5806–5814 / DOI: 10.1021/jf100718b
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Antinociceptive, Anti-inflammatory and Antipyretic Effects of Solanum nigrum Chloroform Extract in Animal Models / Zakaria Zainul Amiruddin et al / Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan • 126(11) pp.1171-1178 20061101

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Solanum nigrum produces nitric oxide via nuclear factor-[kappa]B activation in mouse peritoneal macrophages / An, H J et al / European Journal of Cancer Prevention: August 2005 - Volume 14 - Issue 4 - pp 345-350
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Molluscicidal and antiparasitic activity of Solanum nigrum villosum against Galba truncatula infected or uninfected with Fasciola hepatica / H Hammami and A Ayadi / Journal of Helminthology (2008), 82:235-239 / doi:10.1017/S0022149X08982584
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Solanum americanum / Synonyms / The Plant List
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Solanum americanum / Earth Medicine Institute
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Antimicrobial activity of fruits of Solanum nigrum and Solanum xanthocarpum. / Abbas K, Niaz U, Hussain T, Saeed MA, Javaid Z, Idrees A, Rasool S. ./ Acta Pol Pharm. 2014 May-Jun;71(3):415-21.
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American Nightshade: A Much Maligned Edible / Green Deane / Eat The Weeds
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Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. Leaves in Rat Models of Oral Mucositis /
Alkesh Patel, Subhankar Biswas, Muhammed Haneefa Shoja, Grandhi Venkata Ramalingayya, and K. Nandakumar / The Scientific World Journal. Volume 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/345939
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HYPOGLYCEMIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF SOLANUM NIGRUM IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO RATS / Arumugam Sengottaiyan*, L. Praburaman, Koildhasan Manoharan, Rathika Rajinikanth, Muthusamy Govarthanan and Thangaswamy Selvankumar / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES AND RESEARCH
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SCREENING OF SOLANUM NIGRUM FOR ITS PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST RESPIRATORY TRACT PATHOGENS / M. Rajathi D Modilal*, R. Anandan, R. Sindhu, and M.N. Logeshwari / International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp: 210-215, 2015
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Effect of Solanum americanum Extracts on Fertility in Male Albino Rats / B Prabhakar, R Vijay Kumar, C Venkat Raji Reddy, T Bikshapathi, and M Krishna Reddy / World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Issue 5
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Cardioprotective effect of Solanum nigrum against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity-an experimental study / Privy Varshney, Pinki Vishwakarma, Monica Sharma, Manish Saini, Shaily Bhatt, Ganesh Singh, K.K. Saxena. / Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2016; 5(3): 748-753 / doi: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20161513
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Antiproliferative Effect of Solanum nigrum on Human Leukemic Cell Lines / REEMA GABRANI*, RAMYA JAIN, ANJALI SHARMA, INDIRA P. SARETHY, SHWETA DANG AND S. GUPTA / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, September - October 2012
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Protective Effect of Solanum nigrum Leaves Extract on Immobilization Stress Induced Changes in Rat’s Brain / Syed Kashif Zaidi, Md. Nasrul Hoda, Shams Tabrez,3Shakeel Ahmed Ansari, Mohammad Alam Jafri, Mohd Shahnawaz Khan, Shirin Hasan, Mohammed H. Alqahtani, Adel Mohammed Abuzenadah, and Naheed Banu / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2014 (2014) / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/912450
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Mosquito larvicidal activity of Solanum nigrum berry extracts / Anjali Rawani, Nandita Chowdhury, Anupam Ghosh, Subrata Laskar & Goutam Chandra / Indian J Med Res 137, May 2013, pp 972-976

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