- Solanum nigrum is a species of flowering plant in the genus Solanum.
- There is a tendency to refer to many other "black nightshade" species as Solanum nigrum.
- Solanum nigrum has been recorded from deposits of the Paleolithic and Mesolithic era of ancient Britain. Edward Salisbury, botanist and ecologist, suggested that it was part of the native flora there before Neolithic agriculture emerged. The species was mentioned by Pliny the Elder in the 1st century AD and by the great herbalists, including Dioscorides. In 1753, Carl Linnaeus described six varieties of Solanum nigrum in Species Plantarum. (87)
Lubi-lubi is an erect, branched, smooth or nearly smooth herb, up to 1 meter or less in height. Stems
are green and 3-angled. Leaves are ovate to oblong, 5 to 8 centimeters long,
pointed at both ends, with subentire or undulately toothed or
lobed margins. The flowers are umbellately disposed, 5 - 8 on
each peduncle. Calyx is green with ovate-oblong lobes. Corolla
is white, about 8 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is a berry, dark purple
or black, smooth, shining, rounded, about 5 millimeters in diameter. Seeds
are yellow and minutely pitted.
- Introduced to the Philippines. (73)
Throughout the Philippines
in open, waste places, recently disturbed soil; from sea level
to a height of 2000 meters.
- Native to Assam, Bangladesh, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, etc. (73)
• In 1821, solanine was isolated from the fruit. The leaves yield an unidentified mydriatic alkaloid; in 1892, saponin was isolated from
• The unripe fruit contains the toxin solanine.
• Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and proteins.
• Besides solanine, plant also yielded a tropeine alkaloid with a mydriatic action.
• Analysis of the cultivated large-fruit variety show it to be a rich
source of calcium and phosphorus and a good source of iron.
• Some studies suggested a poisoning from ingestion of the fruit; other
suggest that as the fruit matures, it gradually decreases in toxicity,
and when ripe, contains nontoxic amounts of solanin.
• Extract studies yielded saponin, flavonoids, coumarins, phytosterols, tannins, fixed oils and fats.
• Ethanolic extract yielded major components of flavonoids and moderate amount of alkaloid, tannins, glycosides, and terpenoid/sterols
• Study isolated six compounds: (+)-pinoresinol (I), (+)-syringaresinol (II), (+)-medioresinol (III), scopoletin (IV), tetracosanoic acid (V) and beta-sitosterol (VI). (23)
• In a study, 1 gram of fresh leaves yielded 1.74 mg of coumaric acid, 1.08 mg of quercitin, 0.82 mg of catechol, 0.52 mg of caffeic acid, 1.06 mg of gallic acid, and 0.46 mg of protocatechnic acid. (see study below) (32)
• Ethanolic extract yielded major components of flavonoids and moderate amount of alkaloid, tannins, glycosides, and terpenoid/sterols.
(see study below) (33)
• Phytochemical study of crude extracts of leaves, fruits, and stems yielded saponins, tannins, alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, proteins and steroids. (see study below) (51)
• Study of Solanum nigrum
for non-saponins chemical constituents isolated five compounds viz., 6-methoy-hydroxycoumarin (I), syringaresinol-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (II), pinoresinol-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (III), 3, 4-dihydroxhbenzoic acid (IV), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (V), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyienzoic acid (VI), adenosine (VII). (70)
- Phytochemical screening of berries yielded carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, phenols, and steroids. (see study below)
- Numerous metabolites have been isolated from S. nigrum, including (+) syringaresinol (2), (+)-medioresinol (3), scopoletin (4), tetracosanoic acid (5), and beta-sitosterol (6). They also contain various toxic secondary metabolites, steroidal glycoalkaloids such as alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine. (see study below) (80)
- Considered antipyretic, antiseptic, diaphoretic, analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, febrifuge, purgative, sedative, vasodilatory, and vulnerary.
- Young shoots, eaten after boiling, considered corrective, cooling, tonic
to men (improves virility) and women (improves menses).
- Poisoning is reported from ingestion of the fruit. However, as the fruit matures, it gradually decreases in toxicity, until, when ripe, it becomes nontoxic, containing only small amounts of solanin. The harmlessness of the mature fruit is evidenced by its extensive consumption by children.
- Generally considered safe and cultivated
as food crop in some places. However, there are reports of toxicity
regarding the fruit and leave depending on the cultivar and where
it is grown. The unripe green fruit is considered toxic and contains the higher amount of toxin solanine.
Berries are edible when fully ripe. Leaves should be boiled.
- Toxicity and death have been reported in livestock who fed on the plant/berries in the field or dried in hay.
- When toxicity occurs, it presents as vomiting, diarrhea, headache, colic, and depression.
Belladonna-life effect on the eyes start half an hour after ingestion; mydriasis
is maximum in 6 hours. Throat dryness in less than 2 hours, persisting
for 50 hours. Decreased sweating is noted with dryness of the skin, mouth, larynx, and esophagus. Treatment usually through an emetic and use of a tannin-containing
Stalks, leaves, roots, fruits.
Edibility / Toxicity Concerns
- Solanum nigrum has been widely used as food since early times; it was recorded as a famine food in 15th-century China. (86)
Fruit of some varieties is edible,
excellent for use in pies and jams.
- Ripe black berries are described as sweet and salty, with hints of liquorice and melon. (86)
Unripe fruit reported to have toxicity. [see toxicity above].
- Boiled leaves eaten as vegetable; often, as ingredient of soup preparations.
- In Maritius and Bourbon, leaves are eaten in place of spinach.
- Widely eaten in Africa.
- Among the Abagusii in Kenya, it is a vegetable delicacy, blanched and sauteed or boiled to soften, salted, and sauteed and eaten with Ugali (a corn meal product). (86)
- In some places in India, the berries are referred to as "fragrant tomato". (86)
- Caution: There is much disagreement whether the leaves and fruit of the plant are poisonous. The toxicity might vary according to where the plant is grown. Also, the unripe fruit is considered to have the highest amount of toxins. (2)
- In the Philippines, fruit has been used for diabetes.
- Poultice of leaves is sedative and has healing properties. As an alcoholate, used to alleviate neuralgic pains.
- Decoction of plant used as fomentation for sore eyes and various skin diseases.
- Young shoots are considered cooling, corrective, and tonic (increasing virility in men) and benefiting menstrual disorders in women.
- Poultice of roots, stems and leaves used for sores, boils and wounds.
In Chinese traditional medicine, long used for antitumor and anticancer effects.
- In Sinaloa, roots have been used for bubonic plague.
- Decoction of stalk, leaves, roots used for wounds and cancerous sores.
- Juice of leaves used for kidney problems and gonorrhea.
- Infusion of leaves used as enema for abdominal upsets in children.
- Paste of green berries used for ringworm.
- Dried leaves infused in boiling water used as sudorific.
- Decoction of juice herb used for cleaning foul ulcers.
- Decoction of plant used for vaginal irrigation.
- Heated leaves used for testicular pains and swellings.
- In Bohemia, poultice of leaves placed in cradles of infants to induce sleep.
- The fruit has been used for erysipelas.
- Chinese use the leaves to alleviate pains associated with kidney and bladder inflammation and in virulent gonorrhea.
- Lotion from a decoction used for yaws.
- Zulus use an infusion enema to infants with abdominal upsets.
- Sutos rub the burnt powder of roots into incisions in the back for the relief of lumbago.
- Plant is used a native application to anthrax pustules.
- Paste of green berries applied to ringworm.
- Mixed with honey, sometimes used for pulmonary tuberculosis.
- In South Africa, expressed juice of the herb and decoction used for cleaning and healing foul ulcers.
- Plant used for headaches.
- Plant used internally as diuretic and as emetic.
- Poultice of leaves used over rheumatic and gouty joints.
- Fluid extract of leaves and stems used for dropsy, heart disease, skin diseases, piles, gonorrhea, inflammatory swellings, and chronic enlargement of the liver and spleen.
- Syrup used as cooling drink for fevers, and to promote perspiration.
- Heated leaves applied to painful and swollen testicles.
- In Rhodesia, plant used for malaria, blackwater fever, and dysenteries.
- In Mexico, plant decoction used externally as cooling agent, as vulnerary in form of fomentations, and for vaginal irritations.
Fruit used as domestic remedy for erysipelas.
- Paste of immature fruit used for ringworm.
- In ZuHindu medicine, fruits used as tonic, diuretic, and in treatment of heart diseases and anasarca.
- In Bengal, berries used for fever, diarrhea, eye diseases, hydrophobia.
- Bruised leaves used externally to ease pain and inflammation. Arabs are known to apply them to burns and ulcers. Juice used for ringworm, gout
, and earache; and mixed with vinegar, used as gargle and mouthwash.
- In South India, leaves and berries are used in the treatment of gastric ulcers, gastritis, and other gastric problems. (31)
- Decoction of berries and flowers used for cough and consumption.
- In Ayurveda, used for
treatment of gastric ulcers.
- Tribal people of the Central Himalayan region use the plant for relief of various sorts of body pain. (54)
- Reported anxiolytic use in 19th Century Brazilian medical records. (60)
- In traditional Chinese medicine,
used for diuretic and antipyretic effects. (64)
- Cosmetic: Bote women rub the seeds of fresh fruit on their cheeks
to remove freckles and improve the complexion.
- Dye: Fruit reported as source of blackish purple dye.
• Note: I have revised the page and updated the studies with S. nigrum as a separate species from S. americanum. Studies relating to S. americanum have been removed. (Dr G Stuart)
Mosquito Larvicidal / Leaves: Studies on larvicidal properties of leaf extract of Solanum
nigrum Linn. Preliminary results of the crude extract leaf study showed it
exhibited toxicity to three disease vector species – An. culicifacies,
Cx quinquefasciatus and Ae aegypti, and suggests further investigation. (1)
• Anti-Seizure / Leaves: Anti-seizure
activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Solanum nigrum (solanaceae)
in experimental animals : Leaf extract
of SN produced a dose-dependent protection against electrically, pentylenetetrazole
and picrotoxin-induced seizures in mice and rates. The anticonvulsant
property was potentiated by amphetamine with an activity probably via
the dopaminergic pathway. (3)
• Anti-Ulcer / Antioxidant on Aspirin-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury: Study suggests that SN berries extract may exert gastroprotective effect by a free radical scavenging action and offers a therapeutic
potential in the treatment of gastric diseases. (4)
• Hepatoprotective / Thiocetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis: Inhibitory effect of Solanum nigrum on thioacetamide-induced
liver fibrosis in mice: Study confirmed SNE reduced the degree of fibrosis
caused by TAA treatment. (5)
• Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity: Ethanol extract showed
remarkable hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced
hepatic damage in rats. (16) In vitro experiments show significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) reduced by CCl4. Glutathione was maintained in drug treated rats. Significant chloretic effect was observed without any adverse effect.
• Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Study showed the water extract of S. nigrum could protect the liver against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats. The hepatoprotective effect could be due to its modulation of enzyme detoxification, its antioxidant and free-radical scavenging effects.
• Hepatoprotective / Free Radical Induced DNA Damage: Crude extracts of hepatoprotective plants,
Solanum nigrum and Cichorium intybus inhibit free radical-mediated DNA
damage; C intybus effect was more pronounced
than SN. Hepatoprotective effects may be due to suppression of oxidative
degradations of DNA in tissue debris. (6)
• Hepatoprotective: Extract of S. nigrum and Cichorium intybus possess significant hepatoprotective activity in comparison to standard drug silymarin.
• Cytoprotective / Gentamicin Induced Toxicity:
A 50% ethanol extract of the whole plant of SN was tested in vitro for
cytoprotection against gentamicin-induced toxicity on Vero cells. Results
showed significant inhibition of cytotoxicity. It also showed significant
radical scavenging potential explaining its probable mechanism of cytoprotection. (7)
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Hepatic Damage / Fruits / Whole Plant: Study showed the ethanol extract of the dried fruits of Sn with remarkable hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. (8) Study evaluated water and methanolic extracts of whole plant of Solanum nigrum for hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced liver damage. The water extract appeared to have better hepatoprotective effect than the methanolic extract, which may be due to more polar phytoconstituents. (53)
• Anti-Tumor / Immunomodulation: Study showed the the crude polysaccharides isolated from
S nigrum possess potent antitumor activity, possibly through activation
of different immune responses in the host rather than a direct attack
on cancer cells on cervical cancer bearing mice. It suggests a potential
for use as an immunomodulator and anticancer agent. (9)
• Liver Cancer : Study showed extract of SN induced cell death in hepatoma cells via
two distinct antineoplastic activities - the ability to induce apoptosis
and autophagocytosis, suggesting potential for the treatment of liver
• Anti-Ulcer / Ulcer Healing Effects:
Study showed Solanum nigrum extract provides antiulcer activity through
blockage of acid secretion via inhibition of H+K+ATPase and decrease
of gastrin secretion; its ulcer healing property might also be due to
its antisecretory activity. (10)
Study showed Solanum nigrum could inhibit the angiogenesis on chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). (12)
• Cytotoxicity / Anticancer:
In a study evaluating the anticancer activity of the fruits of Solanum nigrum fruits, results showed the methanolic extract with greater activity on the HeLa cell line and little activity on the Vero cell line, suggesting use for its anticancer activity. (13)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Berries: Study on the methanolic extracts of berries of S. nigrum showed good anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced paw edema. (14)
• Antioxidant / Antihyperlipidemic: Study of the protective effect of S nigrum fruit extract in ethanol-induced toxicity in rats showed significant antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity. (15)
• Antihepatoma / Antihepatocarcinogenesis: Study showed SN water extract supplement significantly alleviated the AAF-induced hepatic injury and early hepatocarcinogenesis, as well as the AAF/NaNO2-induced lethal hepatoma, possibly from the over-expression of glutathione S-transferases, Nrf2 and antioxidant enzymes. (17)
• Anticonvulsant: Study showed a significant dose-dependent effect against seizures induced by MES (maximum electric shock) in rats. The seizure inhibition may be by regulating GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition through action at distinct sites of the synapse. (18)
• Seeds Oil / Physiochemical Properties: Study showed: (1) seeds are rich in protein and carbohydrate (2) Seed oil yields oleodilinolein (OLL) 56.54% of total triacylglycerols, palmitoleo-linolein (POL) and dioleolinolein (OOL). (3) Oil extracts showed good physiochemical properties and can be useful as edible oils and for industrial uses. (19)
• Solamargine / Apoptosis in Human Hepatoma: Solamargine has shown remarkable anticancer activity on SMMC-7721 cells through activation of caspase-3 and the regulation of cell cycle progression to induce apoptosis and inhibition of of hepatoma cells proliferation. (20)
• Antibacterial / Whole Plant: Study evaluated the anti-bacterial activity of ethanolic and methanolic extract of stem, berries, and whole plant of Solanum nigrum against E. coli, B. subtilis, K. pneumonia, and P. aeruginosa. The methanolic extract showed better antibacterial activity and the whole plant extract showed greater potential antibacterial activity than stem and berries. (24)
• Antiviral / Hepatitis C Virus: Methanol and chloroform extracts of S. nigrum seeds exhibited 37% and more than 50% inhibition of HCV respectively at non toxic concentration. The chloroform extract decreased the expression or function of HCV NS3 protease in a dose-dependent manner and GAPODH remained constant. Results suggest a potential for the combination of SN extract and interferon as a option for treatment of chronic HCV. (25)
• Anti-Tumor Polysaccharides / Hepatitis C Virus: Study evaluated the anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides from S. nigrum Linne and its relationship with the immune function of tumor-bearing organisms. Results showed significant inhibition of growth of mouse H22 solid tumors, improved survival time, increased proliferation of lymphocytes, elevated levels of IL-2 and increased concentration of calcium ions in the lymphocytes. The anti-tumor effect was assumed related with cellular immune functions that regulates the body. (26)
• Hepatoprotective / Alcohol Induced Liver Toxicity: Study investigated the effect of S. nigrum fruit extract on ethanol induced toxicity in rats. Results showed improvement of hepatic and renal markers to near normal levels. Results suggest a potential as adjuvant treatment in liver disorders. (27)
• Corrosion Inhibition / Natural Source / Solasodine: Study evaluated the corrosion inhibition potential of S. nigrum in mild steel. Results showed increased in inhibition efficacy with increasing concentration of the plant extract. The anti-corrosion effect was attributed to the presence of solasodine. (28)
• Chemopreventive / DEN Induced and Phenobarbital Promoted Hepatocarcinogenesis: Study of an ethanol extract in experimental animals showed significant chemopreventive effect against DEN induced and phenobarbital promoted hepatocarcinoma. (29)
• Anti-Diabetic / Anti-Hyperlipidemic: Study of a Solanum nigrum fruit extract in STZ -induced diabetic rats showed efficacy in ameliorating diabetes and its associated complications. It also showed restoration of lipid parameters to near control levels. (30)
• Anti-Gastritic / Antiulcerogenic / Leaves and Berries: Study investigated S. nigrum leaf and berry extracts for protective effect on ethanol induced gastritis and aspirin induced gastric ulcers of pylorus ligated rats. Results sowed gastroprotective and antiulcer effects. The aqueous extract showed more protection against arthritis than the leaf extracts. (31)
• Anti-Diabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated water and ethanol extracts of fresh leaves for in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic activity. Results showed dose-dependent significant inhibition of α-amylase (73.15%), α-glucosidase (64.5%) and glucose diffusion (68.67%). (32)
• Antifungal / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous and crude extracts of leaves for antifungal activity against A. niger, A. flavus, and C. albicans. Extracts using crude solvents exhibited higher antifungal activity compared to the aqueous extracts. The pathogen inhibiting activity was dose dependent. (34)
• Attenuation of TPA-Induced Migration and Invasion / Potential for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Study showed treatment with water or polyphenol extracts of S. nigrum attenuated TPA-induced migration and invasion, effects that presents a potential for a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. (35 )
• Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Antipyretic / Leaves: Study showed dose-dependent effects of the lipid-soluble extract of S nigrum leaves. on various animal models. (36)
• Nitric-oxide Production: Nitric oxide (NO) is an anti-tumor molecule produced in activated macrophages. Study showed Sn increased the production of NO by macrophages primed by recombinant interferon-y. (37)
• Molluscicidal / Anti-parasitic: Study of the molluscicidal and antiparasitic activity of SNV showed the unripe fruit extract can be applied for the control of in the larval stages of G. truncatula and F hepatica. (38)
• Antimicrobial / Fruit: Study investigated the antimicrobial activity of fruit extracts of two Solanaceous plants: Solanum nigrum and S. xanthocarpus against five species of gram-negative bacteria, three species of gram-positive bacteria, and three species of fungi. Doses of 5, 10,and 15 mg/ml of methanolic extracts of powdered fruit material of both plants exhibited significant zones of inhibition. However they were not as potent as standards: ampicillin or amphotericin B. (41)
• Protective on Chemo-Radiotherapy Induced Oral Mucositis / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous extracts of leaves for protective effect on rat models with chemoradiotherapy- (busulfan plus infrared radiation) and chemotherapy (methotrexate)-induced oral mucositis. Results showed protective effect in both models, the effect higher in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. (43)
• Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic / Leaves: Study of methanolic and water extract of Solanum nigrum leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed significant hypoglycemic activity, together with a marked decrease in triglycerides, TC, LDL, and VLDL, and a decrease in HbA1c. The mechanism of antidiabetic action was attributed to an increase in pancreatic secretion of insulin by beta cells and its release from the bound form. (44)
• Antimicrobial: Study evaluated various extracts of S. nigrum against respiratory pathogens isolated from sputum samples. An ethanolic extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity compared to aqueous and diethyl ether extracts. Phytochemical analysis yielded alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, and phenols. (45)
• Cardioprotective Effect / Doxorubicin Induced Cardiotoxicity: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of S. nigrum for protective effect against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Results showed S. nigrum pretreated group displayed significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum cardiac enzymes and parameters in a time dependent manner. (47)
• Antiproliferative / Human Leukemic Cell Lines: Study evaluated varies extracts from S. nigrum berries for antiproliferative activity on leukemic cell lines, Jurkat and HL-60 )Human promyelocytic leukemia cells). Results showed increased cytotoxicity with increasing concentration. A 50% inhibitory concentration value of methanol extract was the lowest on both cell lines. Cell growth inhibition was more pronounced on Jurkat cells compared to HL-60 cell line. (48)
• Protective Effect on Immobilization Stress Induced Changes in Rat Brain / Leaves: Study evaluated the preventive or curative antioxidant effect of crude extract of leaves in modulating inherent antioxidant system altered by immobilization stress in rat brain tissues. Treatment resulted in significant modulation in parameters (glutathione, SOD, GST, catalase, etc). Post-stress extract treatment was more effective compared with pre-stress extract treatments in preventing/restoring stress induced modulation in the antioxidant enzymatic activities and GSH and LPO levels. Results suggest a potential for leaf extracts or isolated constituents for use as nutritional supplement for scavenging free radicals generated in the brain from stress or neuronal disease. (49)
• Mosquito Larvicidal / Berries: Study evaluated the mosquitocidal activity various extracts of berries against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Both crude and chloroform:methanol (1:1 v/v) extracts showed good larvicidal activity. Results suggest a potential larvicide for mosquito larvae control with its high target specificity, biodegradability, and non-toxicity to non-target organisms. (50)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves, Fruits and Stems: Study evaluated Solanum nigrum for antimicrobial activity against six pathogenic bacteria viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. While all the extracts showed antimicrobial activities against all selected pathogenic bacteria, the water extract of leaves, acetone extract of fruits, and hexane extract of stems showed maximum zones of inhibition i.e., 21.30 ± 1.50 mm, 16.67 ± 0.58 mm and 14.30 ± 1.52 mm, respectively against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (see constituents above) (51) Study of crude leaf extract showed antimicrobial activity against two test microorganisms, Fusarium oxysporum and Pseudomonas syringae. (54)
• Antidiabetic / Antihyperlipidemic /
Prevention of Vascular Complications / Fruit: Study evaluated aqueous extract of fruit from S. nigrum on plasma glucose, lipid profiles and sensitivity of vascular mesenteric bed to Phenylephrine in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Administration of Solanum nigrum cause Ca/Mg ration, plasma glucose, HDL, LDL, VLDL, TC and triglyceride concentrations to return to normal levels, along with decrease in the alterations in vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictor agents. (see constituents above) (52)
• Anticancer / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated crude ethanolic extracts of C. italica and Solanum nigrum leaves. Eight active compounds were identified from S. nigrum. Identified compounds showed variable On DPPH assay, the S. nigrum extract band 2 gave the highest antioxidant activity (80.5%). Compounds were tested for anticancer properties against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EACC) line and Hepatoma cell (HepG2) line. Treatment of cancer cells with active compounds led to growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. (56)
• Cardioprotective /
Antioxidant / Berries: Study evaluated the cardioprotective and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of berries using global in-vitro ischemia-reperfusion injury and tissue biochemical anti-oxidant profile. Results showed significant (p<0.001) cardioprotective activity and significant (p<0.001) antioxidant potential. The activities were dose-independent. (57)
• Cytotoxicity /
Breast and Liver Cancer Cell Lines / Green Fruits and Leaves: Study evaluated green unripe S. nigrum fruits and leaves for cytotoxic activity. Ethanolic extract of green fruits showed marked cytotoxicity against breast (MCF-7) and liver (HepG2) cancer cell lines with IC50 of 12.7 and 16.6 µg/mL, respectively. Activity was attributed to high steroidal glycoalkaloids in unripe green fruits. (58)
• Antidiabetic / Prevention of Diabetic Nephropathy / Fruits: Study evaluated the antidiabetic and nephroprotective effects of aqueous extract of S. nigrum fruits in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed decrease in blood glucose of diabetic rats, along with decrease in BUN, Cr levels, kidney weight and damage. Plasma and kidney levels of NO and MDA were also decreased. Results suggest a role for SN in the management of DM and prevention of diabetic nephropathy. (59)
• Anti-Radical / Antibacterial: Study evaluated in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of various extracts of Solanum nigrum. Phenol content was significantly higher in the ethanol extract of berry (228.40 ± 3.09 mg/g) than the water extract (132.2 ± 1.23 mg/g). At 0.5 mg/ml, the water extracts showed higher ferrous reducing action and DPPH radical scavenging activity than ethanol extracts. The ethanol extracts of berry, leaf, stem and roots showed 100% antibacterial activity against test bacteria with MICs of 0.1 mg/ml. Activities were attributed to polyphenol components. (61)
• Uttroside B / Potential Against Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Study reports on the efficacy of uttroside B, a potent saponin isolated from the leaves of Solanum nigrum against liver cancer. Uttroside B is ten times more cytotoxic to liver cancer cells HepG2 with IC50 of 0.5µM than sorafenib with IC50 of 5.8 µM, the only FDA-approved drug for liver cancer. Uttroside B induced cytotoxicity to all liver cancer cell types, irrespective of HBV status, while being non-toxic to normal immortalized hepatocytes. It induces apoptosis via down-regulation of MAPK and mTOR pathways activation. (62)
• Hepatoprotective / Nimesulide Induced Toxicity / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of aerial parts of Solanum nigrum in acute and chronic damage induced by Nimesulide, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that may cause hepatotoxicity at higher doses. In acute toxicity, there was significant reduction (p<0.001) of serum ALP, SGOT, SGPT, and total bilirubin level. In chronic liver damage, higher doses were found to be more effective than lower doses. Histopathological examination of rat liver tissue confirmed the hepatoprotection. (63)
• Antitumor / Polysaccharides / U14 Cervical Carcinoma: Study evaluated the effect of crude polysaccharide isolated from S. nigrum on a mice model. Results showed significant growth inhibition effect on cervical cancer (U14) of tumor-bearing mice. Tumor inhibition was associated with a significant increase in number of apoptotic tumor cells, increased expression of Bax and expression of Bcl-2 with dramatic decrease in mutant p53 in cervical cancer sections. Results suggest SNL-P is a potential antitumor agent. (64)
• Degalactotigonin / Effect on Growth and Metastasis of Osteosarcoma: Degalactotigonin (DGT), extraction from S. nigrum, has been shown to have anticancer properties without serious side effects. Study investigated the effect of DGT on growth and metastasis of osteosarcoma. DGT inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed migration and invasion in osteosarcoma cells. The antitumor effect was through modulation of GSK3ß inactivation-mediated repression of the Hedgehog/Gli pathway. (65)
• Glycoprotein / Anticancer / Apoptosis of HT-29 Cells: Study previously isolated glycoprotein from SNL and was shown to decrease viable HT-29 cell numbers at low concentration. Study investigated the apoptotic signaling pathway triggered by glycoprotein isolated from SNL in HT-29 cells. Results showed SNL glycoprotein has remarkable inhibitory effects on the activities of TPA (100 nM)-stimulated PKCa and NF-kB. The SNL glycoprotein-induced apoptosis is associated with the regulation of bcl-2 and Bax expression. The glycoprotein causes HT-29 cell death through apoptosis by its ability to modulate anti-apoptotic signals. (66)
• Solamargine / Apoptosis of Human Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Line: Solamargine, an active ingredient of SN, has been shown to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells. This study investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of solamargine in human cholangiocarcinoma QBC939 cells. Results showed dose-dependent inhibition of viability of QBC939 cells, induced apoptosis of the cells and altered the mitochondrial membrane potential of cells. Study suggests potential as an effective chemotherapeutic agent against cholangiocarcinoma in clinical practice. (67)
• Antitumor / Total Alkaloids: Study showed that total alkaloids isolated from S. nigrum inhibited the growth of human cervical cancer HeLa cells in culture medium with lower toxicity to human normal lymphocytes. The SNL alkaloids were shown to induce cell death by apoptosis. Immunohistochemical assay showed down-regulation of the bcl-2 and p53 genes with no obvious change of bax gene. SNL-A showed significant inhibitory effect on tumor formation. Results suggest a potential, natural apoptosis-inducing agent for cervical cancer. (68)
• Antifungal / Leaf, Seed and Roots: Study evaluated three solvent extracts from leaf, seed, and roots of S. nigrum for antifungal activity against fungal strains such as Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Trichoderma viridae. The organic solvent extracts (ethanol, methanol, and ethyl acetate) exhibited strong antifungal activity against all the tested fungal strains. The ethyl acetate seed extract showed the highest antifungal activity with relatively low MICs in the range of 2.0-6.0 µg/mL. (69)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study reports on the simple and eco-friendly synthesis of AgNPs using Solanum nigrum aqueous leaf extract. Study showed high antibacterial effect of the nanoparticles against disease causing virulent bacterial strains (Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. (71)
• Antidiabetic / Acute Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study evaluated hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activities of leaves of Solanum nigrum on a guinea pig model. Results showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in blood glucose levels. No mortality or side effects were seen on doses under 270 mg/kbw. At 8640 mg/kbw, there was 100% mortality. (72)
• Antitumor Effect on High-Grade Glioma: Study evaluated the anti-tumor effects of Solanum nigrum extract on rat C6 glioma in vitro and in vivo. The SN extract suppressed the viability of C6 cells in a dose-dependent manner, attenuated cell cloning, migration and invasion, and induced cell Annexin V+ PI+ late-stage apoptosis. SN induced expression of apoptotic proteins, downregulated anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and decreased level of migratory proteins MMP-2 and MMP-9, and reduced the growth and infiltration of C6 glioma tissue and suppressed proliferation of tumor cells in rat brain. (74)
• Neuroprotective Against Lead Induced Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the protective effect of aqueous leaf extracts of Solanum nigrum and S. trilobatum against lead acetate neurotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. Results showed administration of extract for 30 days to affected ice significantly increased the levels of antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) and decreased the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO). Results showed protective effect against lead acetate induced toxicity in brains of albino mice. (75)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant effect of two methanolic/water (80:20) leaves extracts of S. nigrum. The extracts prevented the increase in glutamate intake and inhibited glutamate excitotoxicity, which leads to cell damage and showed notable antioxidant property. (76)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Protective on Alloxan-Induced Diabetes: Study reports on the synthesis of AgNPs using a leaf extract of Solanum nigrum. The AgNPs were evaluated for antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significantly improved dyslipidemia and reduction of blood glucose, and improvement in body weight. Results showed safe and environmentally friendly AgNPs with potential for use in treating diabetes associated syndrome. (77)
• Tumor Suppression Efficacy / Potential Complementary Chemotherapy: Study evaluated the tumor suppression efficacy of AE-SN using DLD-1 and HT-29 human colorectal carcinoma cells and the combined drug effect with chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin, doxorubicin, docetaxel, and 5-FU. AE-SN induced autophagy via microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 A/B II accumulation but not caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in both cell lines. AE-SN also demonstrated a combined drug effect with all tested drugs by enhancing cytotoxicity in tumor cells. AE-SN has potential in the development of complementary chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. (78)
• Anticonvulsant / Acute Oral Toxicity / Berries: Study evaluated the phytochemical properties, acute oral toxicity, and anticonvulsant activity of berries of S. nigrum. The oral median lethal dose of the extract was 3129 mg/kbw. The extract significantly delayed latency of convulsion (p<0.05) in PTZ-induced seizure in mice at dose of 300 mg/kg p.o. Extract also reduced frequency of convulsion and provided 100% protection at 300 mg/kg p.o. against death. (see constituents above) (79)
• Metabolites with Common Biosynthetic Pathways / Potential of CRISPR Technology: Numerous metabolites have been isolated from S. nigrum, including (+) syringaresinol (2), (+)-medioresinol (3), scopoletin (4), tetracosanoic acid (5), and beta-sitosterol (6). They also contain various toxic secondary metabolites steroidal glycoalkaloids such as alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine. Study reports on potential of CRISPR/Cas9 technology to improve and enhance plant architecture, secondary metabolites, and therapeutic applications in eliminating toxic compounds in S. nigrum, especially solanine and chaconine. (80)
• Antimalarial Against Plasmodium berghii / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimalarial activity of crude extract and fractions of S. nigrum leaves against P. berghii infection in mice. Crude extract of leaves of S. nigrum showed chemosuppression of 30.68 (p<0.05), 42.42 (p<0.01), and 50.75% (p<0.001) at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses of extract, respectively. In the suppressive model, the EA fraction showed mean chemosuppression of 56.81% (p<0.001). 65.9% (p<0.001) and 70.83% (p<0.001). In the prophylactic model, the fraction showed suppression of 42.70% (p<0.05), 53.11% (p<0.001) and 71.03% (p<0.001) at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses. Acute oral toxicity testing showed safety at 2 g/kg dose. Results showed antimalarial activity and supports traditional medical practice. (81)
• Antitumor / Cytotoxicity in Human Endometrial Carcinoma / Leaves: Study evaluated the antitumor effects of AE-SN and assessed the synergistic effects with docetaxel on human endometrial cancer cell lines, HEC1A, HEC1B, and KLE. The AE-SN treated showed significant cytotoxicity on tested endometrial cancer cells with accumulation of LC3 A/B II and demonstrated a synergistic effect with docetaxel in HEC1A and HEC1B cells. Extract treatment was effective in suppressing endometrial cancer cells via the autophagic pathway and enhanced the cytotoxicity of docetaxel in human endometrial cancer cells. Results suggest potential for integrative cancer therapy in the future. (82)
• Potentiation of Cisplatin and Doxorubicin in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells: Study evaluated the tumor-suppression efficacy of AE-SN integrated with a standard chemotherapeutic drug, cisplatin or doxorubicin, in human HCC cells, namely, Hep3B and HepJ5. The AE-SN potentiated cisplatin and doxorubicin induced cytotoxicity through the cleavage of caspase-7 and accumulation of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3 A/B II (LC-3 A/B II), which were associated with apoptotic and autophagic cell death, respectively, in both Hep3B and HepJ5 cells. Results suggest, AE-SN has potential for novel integration in chemotherapy with cisplatin or doxorubicin to treat HCC patients. (83)
• Antitumor Mechanism Against Human Breast Cancer MCF7 Cells: Study evaluated the potential anticancer mechanism of aqueous extract of A. nigrum (AESA) towards human breast cancer cell line MCF7. At 10 g/L, AESN caused 43% cytotoxicity, inhibited the migration, and suppressed the activities of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase, 30% and 40%, respectively, towards MCF7 cells. Gene ontology and functional disease ontology analysis showed the antitumor function of S. nigrum involves multiple genes, which are shared across other diseases and disorders. (84)
• Antiglycation / Antioxidation / Antidiabetes / Leaves: Hyperglycemia results in the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE), which causes an inflammatory response that induces insulin resistance. Study showed a 95% ethanolic extract of black nightshade exerted significant antioxidative activity and produced antiglycative activity, which contributed to inhibition of fructosamine and generation of α-dicarbonyl compounds. The concentrations of solasonine and solamargine in the extract were 0.484 and 0.183 mg/mg, respectively. Results suggest SN can be a novel source of functional ingredients that exert antiglycation and antidiabetes activities. (85)
• Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles /
Anticancer: Study reports on the green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using the plant Solanum nigrum. The ZnO NPs exhibited significant anticancer activity against HeLa cell lines through the apoptotic pathway. It showed dose-dependent cytotoxic effect against HeLa cell lines through inhibition of ß-catenin and increasing levels of p53, caspase-3, and caspase-9. (86)