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Family Zingiberaceae
Luiang-usiu
Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm.

SHAMPOO GINGER
Hong qiu jiang

Scientific names Common names
Amomum silvestre Poir.  Balauag (Bik.) 
Amomum silvestre Lam.  [Illegitimate] Barik (Tag.)
Amomum zerumbet Linn.  Lampayang (Buk.)
Zerumbet zingiber T.Lestib.  Langkauas (Tag.)
Zingiber sylvestre Garsault [Invalid] Layag sasulug (Bik.)
Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm. Luiang-usiu (Tag.)
  Tamohilang (Buk.)
  Tumbong-aso (Tag.)
  Lempoyang (Malay)
  Broad-leaved ginger (Engl.)
  Pinecone ginger (Engl.)
  Shampoo ginger (Engl.)
  Wild ginger (Engl.)
  Zerumbet ginger (Engl.)
  Hong qiu jiang (Chin.)
Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Zurunbah, Zurunbâd.
BENGALI: Maha baribach, Ekangi.
CHINESE:Hong qiu jiang.
FRENCH: Amome sauvage, Gingembre blanc, Gingembre fou, Zérumbet.
GERMAN: Wilder Ingwer, Zerumbet.
ITALIAN: Zenzero bianco, Zenzero salvatico.
JAPANESE: Niga shouga.
MADURESE: Lampojang.
MALAY: Lempuyang (Java), Kathu inshi kua.
PORTUGUESE: Gengibre amargo.
SPANISH: Jengibre, Jengibre amargo.
SUNDANESE: Lampuyang.
COUNTRY: Haeo dam, Hiao dam, Hiao kha, Hiao daeng, Kaen, Ka thue, Kra thue, Ple phon, Wanfai.
TURKISH: Yabani zencefil, Zurunbad, Zerunebat, Zernebat.
VIETNAMESE: Gừng đại, Gừng gió, Ngải xanh, Rieng daï.

Botany
Luiang-usiu is a smooth, erect, herbaceous plant. Rootstocks are large and tuberous, pale yellow within. Leafy stem is 0.6 to 2 meters high. Leaves are numerous, distichous, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 15 to 30 centimeters long, 5 to 8 centimeters wide. Flowering stem from the rootstock is 10 to 30 centimeters long, clothed with long, appressed, obtuse sheaths, bearing at the apex an ovoid, oblong, or cylindric spike, red or green in color, 5 to 20 centimeters long. Bracts are numerous, imbricate, orbicular, 2 to 3 centimeters long, greenish, merging into red, and holding water. Flowers are 5 centimeters long, white or cream colored, the tube as long as the bracts, with 3-lobed lips. Fruit is oblong, about 2.5 centimeters long. Seeds are oblong, black, about 4 millimeters in diameter.

Distribution
- From norther Luzon to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces, In thickets and near settlements at low and medium altitudes.
- A native of tropical Asia.
- Now pantropic.

Constituents
- Volatile oils of the rhizomes contain zerumbone, humulene and camprene.
- Studies have isolated bioactive compounds: humulene, monoterpenes, zerumbone from the essential oil.
- (Z)-nerolidol have been isolated from extracts of stems, leaves, and flowers.
- Ethanol extract has yielded sesquiterpene and zederone.
- Aqueous extract has yielded phenolic compounds, saponins and terpenoids.
- Study isolated two aromatic compounds, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and vanillin, and six kaempferol derivatives from the rhizomes.
- Preliminary phytochemical analysis of rhizomes revealed glycosides, sterols, triterpenes, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and volatile oils. (23)
- Study of leaf oil yielded 29 components with major components of zerumbone 36.98%, α-caryophyllene 16.35%, and camphene 9.24%. Rhizome oil yielded major components of zerumbone 46.83%, α-caryophyllene 19.00%, and 1,5,5,8-tetramethyl-12-oxabicyclo[9.1.0]dodeca-3,7-diene 4.28%. (27)

Properties
- Considered antihyperglycemic, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antioxidant, anti-platelet activating factor, antimicrobial
.

Parts utilized
Rhizome.

Uses
Edibility
- Used as food flavoring and appetizer in various Malays' cuisines.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, decoction is prescribed for asthma, and as a topical for rheumatism.
- Pulverized rhizome also used for diarrhea.
- The fluid squeezed from the swollen ends of club-shaped stems is used for shampoo.
- Rhizome is used like the common ginger, as a remedy for coughs, asthma, parasitism, and variety of skin diseases.
- In China, used for stomach aches, tonic and stimulant.
- Malays use the fresh rhizome for edema, stomach aches, sores. The juice of boiled rhizomes are used to treat worm infestation in children.
- In Thailand, fresh rhizomes are used as antiflatulent.
- In China, rhizomes macerated in alcohol are used as tonic, depurative, stimulant.
- In Taiwan, plant used as antiinflammatory adjuvant for stomach pains, fever and sprains.
- In India, rhizome powder mixed with Morinda citrifolia used for severe pain. Cooked and softened rhizome used for toothache, asthma, cough, worms, leprosy and other skin diseases.
- In Hawaii, compressed rhizomes used for bruises and cuts and to treat headaches, toothaches, ringworm, joint sprains. The milky juice from the pine cones are used as shampoo.
- In Southeast Asia, used for fever, toothache, loss of appetite, constipation and pain.

Latino healers in NY use ZZ for uterine fibroids.
Others
- Perfume: Powdered rhizomes used as perfume.

STUDIES
Antipyretic / Analgesic:
Study evaluated ethanol and aqueous rhizome extracts of ZZ for analgesic activity using acid induced writhing in mice and antipyretic activity in Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Results showed ZZ possess both analgesic and antipyretic activities. Although the mechanism is unclear, the possibility of prostaglandin inhibition is considered. (1)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antinociceptive: Study of the methanol extract of ZZ rhizomes showed anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities probably involving the inhibition of bradykinin-, prostaglandin-, histamine- and opioid-mediated processes.
Antiinflammatory / Rhizomes:
Study of water-soluble extract of rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet yielded a potent inhibitor of acute inflammation. The extracts were devoid of any toxicity up to 500 mg/kg in rats. The anti-inflammatory effect was similar to the reference drug mefenamic acid. (
2)
Zerumbone / Anti-Inflammatory: Study yielded zerumbone and kaempferol pyranosides. Compounds 1 and 2 demonstrated potent inhibition of NO production.
Zerumbone / Inhibitor of Tumor Promoter:
Study isolated zerumbone from the rhizomes of Z. zerumbet as a a potent inhibitor of tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced Epstein-Barr virus activation. (
3)
Anti-tumor / Zerumbone:
Zerumbone, an active principle from Zingiber zerumbet, exhibited antitumor effects in P-388D1 cells in vitro and in vivo: Results suggest a potential lead compound for the development of anticancer drugs. (
4)
Apoptosis in Liver Cancer / Zerumbone: Zerumbone was found to induce the apoptotic process in HepG2 cells through the up-and-down regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein independently of functional p53 activity.(12)
Immunomodulation:
(1) Anti-hypersensitive and anti-inflammatory activities of water extract of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith: Results show ZZ can be beneficial for asthmatic patients through immunomodulation and cytokine production. (2) Study evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of zerumbone isolated from ZZ. Results showed zerumbone can be used as an immunomodulatory agent which can react toward the immune cell cytokine production in a dosage dependent pattern.
Chemopreventive: A study on the modifying effects of dietary feeding of zerumbone isolated from ZZ showed zerumbone to have possible chemopreventive abilities through expression of COX-2 expression, cell proliferating activity of colonic mucosa and induction of detoxification enzymes in the development of carcinogen-induced ACF.
Antiproliferative: A study showed ZZ extracts and fractions exhibited antiproliferative effect on human breast carcinoma cell lines. (
7)
Anti-Asthma / Antiinflammatory: A study showed ZZ extracts have beneficial effects for the treatment of asthmatic patients through its ability to inhibit synthesis of LTC4 and through immunomodulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine production.
Essential Oils: A study yielded 29 components in the leaf oil, the major components as zerumbone, a-caryophyllene and camphene. The rhizome oil yielded 30 components, the main ones being zerumbone, a-caryophyllene, 1,5,5,8-tetramethyl-12-oxabicyclo[9.1.0]dedeca-3,7-diene. (
10)
Antiplatelet Aggregation: Methanol extract exhibited strong antiplatelet aggregation in human whole blood in vitro.
Anthelmintic: In a comparative study, it was observed that Z. zerumbet showed better activity than C. maxima compared to the standard Albendazole. The study concludes the potential use of the ethanol extracts of both plants as anthelmintic against P. posthuma in an in vitro model. (17)
Absence of Genotoxic Effects: Study evaluated the potential genotoxicity of the ethanol extracts of rhizome. Results suggest the use of the extract in traditional medicine pose no risk of genotoxicity. (19)
Antimicrobial Effects: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract and fractions of ZZ against pathogenic bacterial and fungi. Results showed potent antibacterial and antifungal phytochemicals in the extracts. The crude ethanol extract showed highest activity against Vibrio parahemolyticus. (20)
Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity: Study evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of an ethanolic extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome. Results showed significant radical scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. On cytotoxicity assessment by in vitro trypan blue exclusion test, the rhizome extract was found to be cytotoxic at concentrations higher for human consumption. ZZ was also found to be a rich source of kaempferol. (22)
Gastroprotective / Zerumbone: Study evaluated the gastroprotective effect of zerumbone, the main bioactive compound of Z. zerumbet rhizome, against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Results showed zerumbone promotes ulcer protection, probably attributable to maintenance of mucus integrity, antioxidant activity, and HSP-70 induction. Zerumbone also exhibited antibacterial activity against H. pylori. (24)
Antiproliferative / Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Lines: Study investigated the effect of extracts and fractions of Z. zerumbet on growth on human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines. A comparative study between both subfractions and tamoxifen showed that the active subfraction of ZZ displayed a strong antiproliferative effect with EC50 of 2.81 ± 0.24 and 2.49 ± 0.13 µg/mL, respectively on MCF-7, with less cytotoxicity to normal cells. (25)
Larvicidal / Rhizome: Study of dichlormethane and methanol extracts of Z. zerumbet rhizome showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari mosquitoes, higher against AN than the former. (26)
Anti-Leishmanial / Induction of Apoptosis / Zerumbone: Study showed zerumbone could induce ROS mediated apoptosis in Leishmania donovani promastigotes and was also found effective in reducing intracellular amastigoes in infected-macrophages. (28)
Zerumbone / Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study evaluated the in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of zerumbone isolated from ZZ in rats. Results showed zerumbone potently inhibited inflammation induced by both λ-carrageenan and prostaglandin E2 and potently inhibited pain in the abdominal writhing test. (2
9)
Cytotoxicity / Thymoquinone and Zerumbone / Prevention of Leukemia Cancer Progression: Study evaluated the cytotoxicity effects of Nigella sativa and Zingiber zerumbet extracts on acute Human myeloid leukemia cell line (HL60) and compared the compounds thymoquinone from NS and zerumbone from ZZ. Results showed the PE extract of Nx and HEX extract of Zz showed cytotoxic effect on HL60 cells and triggers apoptotic cell death. The HEX extract of Zz was more effective a an anticancer agent than the PE extract of Ns for human myeloid leukemia. (
30)

Availability
Wild-crafted. 

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update Februaru 2016

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Close-up of flower / Flower at Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui / Forest and Kim Starr - Plants of Hawaii / Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License / alterVISTA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Anti-pyretic and Analgesic Activity of Zingiber zerumbet / Somchit M.N, Shukriyah M.H.N, Bustamam A.A, Zuraini A / International Journal of Pharmacology, 1(3): 277-280, /2005;
(2)
ANTI INFLAMMATORY PROPERTY OF ETHANOL AND WATER EXTRACTS OF ZINGIBER ZERUMBET / M Nhareet Somchit and M H Nur Shukriyah / Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2003; 35: 181-182
(3)
Identification of zerumbone in Zingiber zerumbet Smith as a potent inhibitor of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced Epstein-Barr virus activation / Mura kami A, Takahashi M, Jiwajinda S, Koshimizu K, Ohigashi H / Bioscience, Biotechnology and Boichemistry, 1999, Vol 63, No 10, pp 1811-1812.
(4)
Antitumor effects of zerumbone from Zingiber zerumbet in P-388D1 cells in vitro and in vivo. / Huang GC et al / Planta Med. 2005 Mar;71(3):219-24.
(5)

Anti-hypersensitive and anti-inflammatory activities of water extract of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith / Hso-Chi Chaung et al / Food and Agricultural Immunology, Volume 19, Issue 2 June 2008 , pages 117 - 129 / DOI: 10.1080/09540100802047783
(6)
Chemoprevention of azoxymethane-induced rat aberrant crypt foci by dietary zerumbone isolated from Zingiber zerumbet / Takuji Tanaka et al / Life Sciences Volume 69, Issue 16, 7 September 2001, Pages 1935-1945 / doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(01)01277-2
(7)
The Antiproliferative Effects Of Zingiber Zerumbet Extracts And Fractions On The Growth Of Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Lines / Rumiza Abd Rashid et al / Malaysian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3 (1). pp. 45-52.
(8)
Anti-inflammatory constituents of Zingiber zerumbet / T.Y. Chien et al / Food Chemistry Volume 110, Issue 3, 1 October 2008, Pages 584-589 / doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.038
(9)
ANTI-PYRETIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF Zingiber zerumbet EXTRACTS / Somchit M N et al /
(10)
Chemical investigation of the leaf and rhizome essential oils of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith from Bangladesh / Nazrul Islam Bhuiyan et al / Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2009; 4: 9-12
(11)
Antiinflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Zingiber zerumbet Methanol Extract in Experimental Model Systems / Z A Zakaria et al /
Medical Principles and Practice, 2010;19:287-294 / (DOI: 10.1159/000312715)
(12)
Zerumbone induced apoptosis in liver cancer, HepG2 cells via modulation of bax/bcl-2 ratio / S A Sharifah Sakinah et al / Cancer Cell Int (2007) 7: 4.
(13)
MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY LATINO HEALERS FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH CONDITIONS IN NEW YORK CITY / Michael J Balick, Fredi Kronenberg et al / Economic Botany 54(3) pp. 344–357. 2000
(14)
Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith: A Review of Its Ethnomedicinal, Chemical, and Pharmacological Uses / N J Yob, S Mohd Jofrry, M M R Meor et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol 2011 (2011), Article ID 543216 / doi:10.1155/2011/543216
(15)
IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF ZERUMBONE ISOLATED FROM ROOTS OF ZINGIBER ZERUMBET / YEAP SWEE KEONG, NOORJAHAN BANU ALITHEEN, SHUHAIMI MUSTAFA, SURAINI ABDUL AZIZ et al / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.23, No.1, January 2010, pp.75-82
(16)
Flavonoids and Aromatic Compounds from the Rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet / Dae Sik Jang, Ah-Rheum Han et al / Arch Pharm Res Vol 27, No 4, 386-389, 2004
(17)
An in vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Zingiber zerumbet rhizomes and Cucurbita maxima seeds on Pheretima posthuma model: A comparative study / Awanish Pandey, Shambaditya Goswani et al / Journ of Pharm and BioAllied Sci, 2011, Vol 3, No 2
(18)
Sorting Zingiber names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(19)
Absence of Genotoxic and Mutagenic Effects of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith (Zingiberaceae) Extract
/
Chia Ju Chang, Thing-Fong Tzeng, Shorong-Shii Liou, Yuan-Shiun Chang, and I-Min Liu / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 (2012) / doi:10.1155/2012/406296
(20)
Antimicrobial activities of the rhizome extract of Zingiber zerumbet Linn / Golam Kader, Farjana Nikkon, Mohammad Abdur Rashid, Tanzima Yeasmin*/ Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2011)409-412 / doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60090-7
(21)
Zingiber zerumbet / Synonyms / The Plant List
(22)
Antioxidant Activities and Cytotoxicity of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith Rhizome / Anish Nag, Maumita Bandyopadhyay, Anita Mukherjee / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2013; 2 (3): 102-108
(23)
Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Studies of Zingiber zerumber (L.) Sm. Rhizome / Rout Om Prakash, Rout Kedar Kumar, Acharya Rabinarayan, Mishra Sagar Kumar /IJRAP 2011, 2(3) 698-703
(24)
Antisecretory, Gastroprotective, Antioxidant and Anti-Helicobcter Pylori Activity of Zerumbone from Zingiber Zerumbet (L.) Smith / Heyam Mohamed Ali Sidahmed , Najihah Mohd Hashim, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Syam Mohan, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Manal Mohamed Elhassan Taha, Loke Mun Fai, Jamuna Vadivelu / PLoS ONE 10(3): e0121060. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0121060
(25)
The Antiproliferative Effects of Zingiber zerumbet Extracts and Fractions on the Growth of Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Lines /
Rumiza Abd Rashid and Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie / Malaysian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, No 1, 45-52 (2005)
(26)
Evaluation of larvicidal activity and brine shrimp toxicity of rhizome extracts of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith / Augusto Bücker Nádia Cristina Falcão-Bücker, Cecília Veronica Nunez, Carlos Cleomir de Souza Pinheiro, Wanderli Pedro Tadei / Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Vol. 46, No. 3 Uberaba May/June 2013/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-1309-2013
(27)
Chemical investigation of the leaf and rhizome essential oils of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith from Bangladesh
/ Md. Nazrul Islam Bhuiyan, Jasim Uddin Chowdhury and Jaripa Begum / Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2009; 4: 9-12 / DOI: 10.3329/bjp.v4i1.845
(28)
Induction of apoptosis by zerumbone isolated from Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith in protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani due to oxidative stress / Debarati Mukherjee, Chingakham Brajakishor Singh, Somaditya Dey, Supratim Mandal, Joydip Ghosh, Suvadip Mallick, Aabid Hussain, Ningombam Swapana, Samir Anis Ross, Chiranjib Pal / The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 20, Issue 1, January–February 2016, Pages 48–55
(29)
Zerumbone isolated from Zingiber zerumbet inhibits inflammation and pain in rats / M. N. Somchit*, J. H. Mak, A. Ahmad Bustamam, A. Zuraini, A. K. Arifah, Y. Adam and Z. A. Zakaria / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6(2), pp. 177-180, 16 January, 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR10.492
(30)
Cytotoxicity Study of Nigella Sativa and Zingiber zerumbet Extracts, Thymoquinone and Zerumbone Isolated on Human Myeloid Leukemia (HL60) Cell / M.N. Norfazlina*, M.Y. Farida Zuraina, Rajab N.F, S. Mohd Nazip, A.R. Rumiza, C.F. Suziana Zaila, L. Lek Mun, N. Nurshahirah, and L. Florinsiah / The Open Conference Proceedings Journal, 2013, 4, (Suppl-2, M16) 99-107 99


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