HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Zingiberaceae
Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe

Yu jin

Scientific names  Common names
Amomum latifolium Lam. Alimpuyas (C. Bis.) 
Amomum latifoium Salisb. Alimpuying (C. Bis.)
Amomum zedoaria Christm. Barak (Tag.)
Costus luteus Blanco Konik (Ilk.) 
Costus nigricans Blanco Koniko (Bon.)
Curcuma malabarica Velay., Amalraj & Mural Lampoyang (P. Bis.) 
Costus pallida Lour. Langkauas (Ilk.)
Curcuma raktakanta Mangalay & M.Sabu Langkuas (Ilk.) 
Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe Tamahiba (Tag.()
Emdlia zerumbet Giseke Tamahilan (Bik.) 
Roscoea nigrociliata Hassk. Tamo (Pamp., Tag.) 
  Tamokansi (Tag.) 
  Unig (If.)
  Long zedoary (Engl.) 
  Round zedoary (Engl.) 
  White tumeric (Engl.)
  Zedoary root (Engl.)
Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Gadwâr, Satwâl, Zadwâr.
BANGLADESH: Shoti, Wheet.
BOSNIAN: Beli isiot, Isiot, Setvar.
CHINESE: E zhu, Yu jin.
CROATIAN: Beli isiot, Isiot, Setvar.
DANISH: Zedoar.
DUTCH: Zedoar, Zedoarwortel.
FRENCH: Curcuma zédoaire, Gingembre bâtard, Zédoaire.
GERMAN: Zedoarwurzel, Zitwer, Zittwer kurkume.
HINDI: Kachur.
ITALIAN: Radice di curcuma, Zedoaria, Zedoaria lunga.
LAOTIAN: Khi min khay.
MALAY: Temu kuning, Temu puteh, Temu putih (Indonesia).
NEPALESE: Kacur, Van haledo..
RUSSIAN: Kurkuma zedoarskaia.
SERBIAN: Beli isiot, Isiot, Setval.
SPANISH: Cedoaria, Cetoal.
THAI: Haeo dam, Kha mîn oi, Kha mîn khuen.
TURKISH: Çevdar, Gulpa hamar.
VIETNAMESE: Bông truât, Ngái tim, Nga truât, Tam nai.

Gen info
Zedoary was one of the ancient food plants of the Austronesian peoples, spreading during prehistoric times to the Pacific Islands and Madagascar. during the Austronesian expansion (x, 5000 BP). (57)

Luya-luyahan is a large perennial herb with underground tuberous rootstock. Rhizomes, like that of dilaw (Curcuma longa), are fleshy, aromatic with an odor like that of ginger, pale yellow in color. Leaves are usually in pairs, erect, petioled, green, often with a purplish blotch in the center, elliptic-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, slenderly acuminate, 25 to 70 centimeters long, 8 to 15 centimeters wide. Scape arises from the rootstock and not from the leaf-tuft, often appearing before the leaves. Peduncle is 10 to 20 centimeters long and covered with few loose bracts. Spikes are cylindric, 10 to 15 centimeters long, 5 to 8 centimeters in diameter, composed of numerous ovate to obovate, somewhat spreading rounded bracts, the lower ones green, more or less tipped with pink, the upper ones usually longer and purple, each containing several flowers, the lower flowers opening first. Calyx is small and 2-fid. Corolla tube is about 2 centimeters long, yellowish-white, and sometimes tinged with purple, the lip is usually yellow and 2-lobed. Fruits are capsules, membranaceous, globose, 3-valved.

- Grows abundantly throughout the Philippines in open waste places in and near towns.
- Introduced.
- Occurs from India to Malaya.

• Phytochemical screening of crude extracts of dried rhizomes yielded terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, flavanoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolics, tannins, and phytosterols.
• Volatile oil (zedoary oil), 0.25-0.665% cineol, camphene, zingiberene, borneol, camphor, curcumin, zedoarin; gum; starch; resin.
• Bioassay fractional of EtOH extract isolated an active curcuminoid, demethoxycurcumin (2), along with curcumin (1) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (3), 3,7-dimethylindan-5-carboxylic acid (4), curcolonol (5), and guiaidiol (6). (see study below) (10)
Phytochemical evaluation of the rhizome yielded: moisture, 83.22%; total ash, 6.64%; acid insoluble ash, 0.64%; alcohol soluble extractives, 15.53%, water soluble extractives, 18.96%; sugar, 12.51% and starch 15.70%. (
Essential oil yielded active compounds 8,9-dehydro-9-formyl-cycloisolongifolene, 6-ethenyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3,6-dimethyl-5-isopropenyl-trans-benzofuran, eucalyptol and γ-elemene. (26)
Zerumbone and its natural analog zerumbone 2,3-epoxide were isolated from the rhizomes. see study below) (
Study on EtOAc-soluble fraction of the rhizomes isolated two new sesquiterpenoids, 13-hydroxycurzerenone (1) and 1-oxocurzerenone (2), and 11 known compounds (3-13). (see study below) (
Methanolic extract of rhizome isolated sesquiterpenes furanodiene (1) and furanodienone (2) along with new sesquiterpene compound 3 and known eight sesquiterpenes, zederone (4), curzerenone (5), curzeone (6), germacrone (7), 13-hydroxygermacrone (8), dehydrocurdione (9), curcumenone (10), and zedoaronediol (11). (see study below) (
• Phytochemical screening of rhizomes yielded tannins, saponins, flavonoids, gums and carbohydrates, steroids, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and terpenoids. (see study below) (38)
• Study for secondary metabolites yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, tannins, and saponins. Total curcumin content was 88 mg/100 g. (41)
Proximate composition analysis of zedoary rhizome dried powder yielded abundant crude protein (13.5 ± 0.68 %), total dietary fiber (21.86 ± 0.71%), acid detergent fiber (13.22 ± 0.44%), neutral detergent fiber (18.68 ± 0.53%0 and mineral contents. (see study below) (45)
• GC-MS analysis of essential oil showed high content of epicurzerenone and curdione representing 46.6% and 13.7% of total oil, respectively. (see study below) (46)
• Hydrodistillation of dried leaves yielded yellowish essential oil (0.8%, w/w). GC-MS analysis yielded 24 constituents accounting for 92.4% of total oil with a complex mixture of mainly oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenes, and mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Major compounds in the leaf oil were eucalyptol (22.4%),α-caryophyllene (17.2%), 1-octen-3-ol (12.4%), ß-elemene (9.6%) and caryophyllene oxide (8.3%). Minor components were benzyl alcohol (2.6%), ledol (1.6%), cycloheptanol (1.6%) and pentadecanoic acid (1.8%). (48)
• Study of C. zedoaria for active chemical constituents yielded 26 compounds. Dominant compounds in order of relative area percentage were L. camphor, isoborneol, borneol, beta elemene, isocaryophyllene, germacrene-D, beta selinene, benzofuran, L-selinene, germacrene-B. (see study below) (49)
Study of rhizomes for essential oil and oleoresins yielded curzerenone (31.6%) as the major component in the volatile oil, followed by germacrene (10.8%), In ethanol, isopropanol and ethyl acetate oleoresin, a total of 26, 25, and 40 components were identified respectively and major components were curzerenone, germacrene, camphor, and curcumenol. (see study below) (53)
• Study isolated a new sesquiterpenoid (1), curcuzederone, along with a known flavonoid, endearing (2). (56)

- Pungent tasting, warming and slightly aromatic.
- Traditionally considered analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, diuretic, antiallergic, antiulcer, and antiasthmatic.
- Improves Ch'i and blood circulation, anticontusion, and improves menstrual flow.
- Rhizomes are considered cooling, diuretic, stomachic, emmenagogue, digestive, improves appetite.
- Volatile oil is a viscid liquid of a greenish color, with a smell of ginger oil mixed with camphor. The presence of cineol
sence of cineol imparts the scent that suggests camphor and sesquiterpene.
- Studies have suggest antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-babesial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticlastogenic, anti-tyrosinase, antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antipyretic, anti-candidal, wound healing, insecticidal, immunomodulatory, anti-diarrheal properties,,

Parts used and preparation
· Part utilized: rhizome.
· Collect rhizome during August to October.
· Rinse, remove roots, cut into sections and sun-dry.

· In Malaya, leaves are cooked with fish.
· Tender rhizomes used as flavoring for salad.
· Its use as a spice has become rare, replaced by ginger and yellow tumeric.
· In the Philippines the juice of the fresh rhizome is used as remedy for certain kinds of dermatitis (paño blanco).
· The rhizome is used as topical and applied to the stomach as stomachic.
· In Bulacan Province the fresh rhizomes are burned and the ash applied externally to wounds, ulcers and sprains.
· Decoction of dried materials used for abdominal cramps, amenorrhea-abdominal pain, and rheumatic pains.
· In India the rhizomes are used for poulticing. Plant used for flatulent colic and debility. Used as ingredient in bitter tincture of zedoary and anti-periodic pills. In Punjab and Cashmere, used for liver pains.
· In Ceylon the rhizome is used as tonic and carminative; the Arabs used it as tonic and aphrodisiac.
· Rhizome paste used externally for cuts, wounds, itching and sprains.
· Arabs consider it a tonic and aphrodisiac.
· Pain and swelling associated with sprains: Use pounded and fried rhizome with alcohol and apply as poultice. Or, warm fresh rhizome over fire, crush and apply on abdomen or affected part.
· In Ayurveda, used for diarrhea, cancer, flatulence and dyspepsia.
· According to the Dispensatory of the USA zedoary is a gastrointestinal stimulant in flatulent colic and other afflictions of the gastrointestinal system.
· In Bangladesh the rhizomes and fruits are used in the treatment of diabetes. Also used in the treatment of leprosy, mental disorders, leucorrhea, hepatitis, diarrhea and hemorrhoids.
· In Java and India the rhizome is chewed, or as decoction, as strengthening tonic after childbirth.
· In the Malay Peninsula decoction is given as tonic and for indigestion.
· Fresh rhizome considered cooling and diuretic, used for leucorrheal and gonorrheal discharges, and as a blood purifier. Rhizome also used as emmenagogue in amenorrhea. Also, rhizome used as an ingredient of stomachic elixirs and bitter drops preparations.
· Perfumery: In India, the rhizomes was once the most important source of native perfumery.
· Aromatherapy: Essential oil used in aromatherapy, reported to facilitate digestion and warm the Chi.

Study supports the traditional use of CZ for bacterial and fungal infections. (1) Study showed the hydroalcoholic extract to have potent antimicrobial activity against B cereus and moderate activity against K pneumonia and C albicans.
Phytochemical / Analgesic: Phytochemical Analysis and Analgesic Properties of Curcuma zedoaria Rhizomes Grown in Brazil: Phytochemical studies yielded dichloromethane and curcumenol which exhibited analgesic activity and justifies its folkloric use for painful conditions. (2)
Anti-inflammatory / Curcuminoid and Sesquiterpenoids / Rhizomes:
Study suggests the use of CZ rhizome as an anti-inflammatory may be explained partly by inhibition of NO production. (
Antitumor / Genotoxicity / Anticlastogenic:
Antitumor, genotoxicity and anticlastogenic activities of polysaccharide from Curcuma zedoaria: Study suggests the CZ-I-III, the polysaccharide fraction from CZ, decreases tumor size of mouse and prevents chromosomal mutation. (
Decreased Melanin Synthesis / Anti-Tyrosinase / Combination of C. zedoaria and Aloe Vera:
Study showed the combination of extracts of C zedoaria and Aloe vera is effective in decreasing melanin synthesis when tested in murine melanoma cells. The mechanism was through tyrosinase blockage. Tyrosinase is the primary enzyme involved in the oxidation of tyrosine to melanin, and its inactivation is essential in achieving the skin lightening effects of various cosmetic preparations. Furthermore, the approach is reversible, safe, without permanent damage. (
Antimicrobial / Mouth Rinse Activity:
Study comparing the antimicrobial activity of CZ against S mutans, E faecalis, S aureus and C albicans with five commercial mouth rinses showed it to be comparable to that of commercial products. Its incorporation into a mouth rinse could be an alternative for improving the antimicrobial efficacy of the oral product. (
Sedative Effect / Phytochemicals / Toxicity Study:
Phytochemicals yielded alkaloid groups and triterpenoids, curcuminoids - curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin (most common). Results showed the chloroform soluble fraction might contain active sedative compounds, and effect achieved through the GABA pathway, muscarinic receptor pathway and the opioid receptor pathway. Toxicity study also classifies it as practically non-toxic. (
Antitumor Effect / Immunomodulation:
Study of crude extract of CZ on peripheral blood cells and tumor progression in mice injected with murine melanoma cells showed intraperitoneal therapy caused a significant increase in white and RBC count, decrease in peritoneal cell number, tumor volume reduction. The results suggest a phototherapeutic potential to compounds against tumor progression and possible immunomodulation. (
Reduction of Meat Cholesterol in Broiler:
Study showed that although the addition of CZ meal in the broiler ration did not significantly affect the percentage of abdominal fat, it significantly reduced the level of cholesterol broiler meat. (
Cytotoxicity / Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Line / Curcumins:
Study isolated an active curcuminoid, demethoxycurcumin, together with curcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. The curcuminoids demonstrated cytotoxicity against human ovarian cancer OVCAR-3 cells. (see constituents above) (
Uterine Myoelectric Effect:
Study showed C. zedoaria has an exciting effect on the smooth muscle of uterus in rats, with a mechanism that may be associated with M- and alpha-receptors. (
Pharmacognostic Evaluation:
Photochemical evaluation of the rhizome yielded: moisture, 83.22%; total ash, 6.64%; acid insoluble ash, 0.64%; alcohol soluble extractives, 15.53%, water soluble extractives, 18.96%; sugar, 12.51% and starch 15.70%. (
Antitumor / Isocurcumenol:
Study evaluated antitumor principles from rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria to assess its cytotoxic effects on human and murine cancer cells. Spectroscopy characterized isocurcumenol as the active compound, which was found to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells without inducing significant toxicity to normal cells. In vivo tumor reduction studies showed that a dose of 35.7 mg/kbw significantly reduced the ascitic tumor in DLA-challenged mice and increased lifespan. (
Benefits in Arthritis-Induced Behavior Modulation:
Study in rats showed the efficacy of extracts treatment in behavior modulation induced by arthritis by decreasing irritation, anxiety, increased intention to walk, and reduction of joint swelling. (
(1) Various extracts from the dried rhizomes were evaluated for antioxidant activity. Maximum antioxidant activity was seen in the ethyl acetate, n-hexane and water extracts. (2) Study of organic and aqueous fractions showed the chloroform soluble fraction to be rich in in strong antioxidants while the ethyl acetate fraction showed moderate amounts of antioxidant. Results suggest a potential source of natural antioxidants and bioactive materials.
Analgesic / Antimicrobial:
A crude extract of methanol and pet ether showed mild analgesic and antimicrobial property. (17)
Anti-Inflammatory / Roots:
Various extracts were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats using carrageenan and histamine-induced hind paw edema methods. Except for the methanol extract, all extracts showed significant anti-inflammatory activity, using the standard drug Indomethacin as control.    (
18) Study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of roots for anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats using carrageenan and histamine induced hind paw edema methods. Ethanol root extracts showed significant p<0.001 anti-inflammatory activity. The aqueous extract showed non-significant activity. Indomethacin was used as standard. (47)
Antihyperglycemic Effect:
Study evaluated the anti-hyperglycemic potential of a methanol extract of C. zedoaria rhizomes and fruits. Results showed significant and dose-dependent reduction of serum glucose concentrations. The reduction from fruits were less than those of the rhizomes. (2
Anti-Candida Activity:
Study evaluated the anticandida activity of C. zedoaria volatile oil in vitro. Results showed all the candida test strains to be susceptible, suggesting a fungicidal mechanism.
Cytotoxicity / Safety of Zedoary Oral Hygiene Products:
Study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of C. zedoaria fluid extracts preparations used for oral hygiene, mostly for anti-septic reasons. Results showed the zedoary fluid extract has low cytotoxicity and can probably be used in oral hygiene products. (21)
Antipyretic / Rhizome:
Study investigated the antipyretic effect of ethanol extract of CZ rhizome in animal model. There was significant reduction of yeast-induced pyresis in rats in a dose dependent manner, comparable to standard antipyretic drug paracetamol. (24)
Anti-Ulcer / Roots:
Study investigated effect of root powder of CZ on gastric acid secretion in adult Wistar rats. Results showed significant reduction of pH, free acid, total acid, gastric juice volume, and ulcer index. Findings suggest root powder is useful in treating hyperacidity and gastric ulcers. (2
Anti-Cancer / Non-Small Cell Cancer / Essential Oil:
Study on essential oil reports CZ possess efficient cytotoxic effects on non-small cell lung carcinoma cells and caused cell apoptosis. (see constituents above) (26)
Anticancer / Synergism of Essential Oil and Paclitaxel:
Study determined the synergistic antitumor effects of CZ essential oil and PTX (a first-line chemotherapeutic agent used in ovarian carcinoma). Results suggest CZEO and PTX synergistically enhanced the inhibition of SKOV3 proliferation, possibly via induction of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Results suggest a potential for PTX supplemented with CZEO to decrease dose and toxicity of PTX. (27)
Anti-Asthmatic / Rhizomes:
Study investigated an ethanolic extract of C. zedoaria rhizomes for antiasthmatic activity using milk induced eosinophilia in mice. Results showed the extract significantly decreased milk induced eosinophilia in mice in a dose dependent manner, suggesting potential usefulness in the management and prevention of asthma. (28)
Antiproliferative / Breast Cancer Cell Line:
Study investigated a petroleum ether extract on proliferation of human triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Results showed the cell line was inhibited in a concentration and time dependent manner. (29)
Cytotoxicity / Mitochondrial Activation on Ovarian Cancer Cells:
Study investigated the mechanism of apoptotic effect of α-curcumene on the growth of human ovarian, SiHa cells. Results showed cell viability of SiHa cells was inhibited >73%. The apoptotic effect of α--curcumene on SiHa cells may converge caspase-3 activation through the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. (
Antihyperglycemic / Combination with Eucalyptus globules:
Study investigated the antidiabetic potency of aqueous extract of powder mixture of dried fruits of E. globules and rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria using streptozotocin as the diabetogenic agent. Results showed a significant dose dependent antihyperglycemic activity when compared to standard Glibenclamide. (
Antimetastatic / Pulmonary Mets of B16 Melanoma Cells:
Study investigated the antimetastatic effect of Curcuma zedoaria on pulmonary metastasis of B16 melanoma cells. B 16 melanoma-conditioned medium reduced NO production by macrophages. CZZ treatment reversed the reduction in NO production. Results suggest that macrophage function-modulating activity by CZ appears to underlie its antimetastatic activity, leading to decrease in number of lung metastatic surface nodules which lead to extension of life span. (
Antioxidant / Comparative Radical Scavenging Activity / Fresh and Dry Rhizomes:
In a study comparing the antioxidant activity of fresh and dry rhizomes of C. zedoaria, the methanol extract of both rhizomes showed good radical scavenging activity. (
Anti-Angiogenesis / Essential Oil:
Study evaluated the anti-angiogenic effect of essential oil in various assays: cell proliferation assay and two angiogenic models, rat aortic ring assay and chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay. Results showed the essential oil, a fat-soluble fraction of CZ, exhibited anti-angiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro, resulting in suppression of melanoma growth and metastasis, which was associated with down-regulating MMPs. (
Zerumbone / Rhizomes / Anti-Inflammatory :
Zerumbone and its natural analog zerumbone 2,3-epoxide were isolated from the rhizomes of Vietnamese Curcuma zedoaria species. Study for anti-inflammatory activity showed a dose-dependent effect on LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced NF-kB activation in RAW 264.7 cells. (
Inhibition of Collagen Induced Platelet Aggregation:
Study on EtOAc-soluble fraction of the rhizomes isolated two new sesquiterpenoids, 13-hydroxycurzerenone (1) and 1-oxocurzerenone (2), and 11 known compounds (3-13). Among the isolated compounds, 13-hydroxycurzerenone (1), 1-oxocurzerenone (2), curzerenone (3), germacrone (4), curcolone (5), procurcumenol (6), and mixture of stigmast-4-en-3,6-dione (12) and stigmasta-4,22-dien-3,6-dione (13) exhibited inhibition against collagen-induced platelet aggregation at 100µM. (
Anti-Inflammatory Sesquiterpenes / Rhizomes:
Study methanolic extract of the rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria isolated anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene furanodiene (1) and furanodienone (2) along with new sesquiterpene compound 3 and known eight sesquiterpenes. Compounds 1 and 2 suppressed TPA-induced inflammation of mouse ears, comparable to indomethacin. (
• Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Rhizomes:
Study investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of C. zedoaria ethanolic rhizome extract using both in vitro and in vivo methods in Swiss albino mice. Results showed inhibition in acetic acid induced writhing response, increased reaction time in hot plate method, significant licking inhibition in formalin inducing writhing test, and significant dose dependent inhibition in carrageenan induced inflammatory response. The central and peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity was attributed to the possible presence of one or more secondary metabolites. (see constituents above) (38)
• Anticancer / Human Gastric Cancer Cell Line / Volatile Oil:
Study reports on the extraction process of C. zedoaria volatile oil and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells and induction of apoptosis. (39)
• Antimicrobial / Rhizomes:
Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of rhizomes for antimicrobial activities using disc diffusion method. The ethanolic extract showed excellent activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (40)
• Antidiarrheal / Rhizome:
Study evaluated ethanol extracts of C. zedoaria rhizomes for antidiarrheal activity. Results showed dose dependent reduction of severity and frequency of diarrhea in mice compared with standard antimotility drug loperamide. (42)
• Zedoary Induced Cardiovascular Disorders:
Study describes 2 cases of Zedoary induced bradyarrhythmias and severe prolonged hypotension that presented to the Center of Poison Control in Saudi Arabia. (43)
• Phytopreventive / Antihypercholesterolemic and Antilipidemic /
Rhizome: Study evaluated the zedoary (C. zedoaria) herbal tea for antihypercholesterolemic and antilipidemic activities. Zedoary rhizome dried powder (ZRDP) showed high TPC, DPPH inhibition, and total flavonoids of 9.74 ± 0.64 (mg GAE/ g DW), 47.28 ± 1.62 (%), and 17.12 ± 0.75 (QE mg/g), respectively. Results showed a protective role against hypercholesterolemia and lipidemic conditions, which was attributed to strong phenolic contents and radical scavenging activity of the zedoary rhizome. (45)
• Antimicrobial Activity / Apoptosis of Human Cancer Cell Line / Essential Oil:
GC-MS analysis of essential oil showed high content of epicurzerenone and curdione representing 46.6% and 13.7% of total oil, respectively. The essential oil showed antimicrobial activity against V. parahemolyticus. E. coli was the most resistant strain. On MTT assay, NBT reduction and cell morphology study, the EO could inhibit proliferation of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. (46)
• Antioxidant Potential / Essential Oil and Leaves: Study evaluated various leaf extracts i.e., methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate for antioxidant potential. Of all samples studies, essential oil and EA extract showed the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 14.8 ± 2.2 and 17.56 ± 1.6 µg/ml, respectively. All extracts showed noticeable superoxide radical scavenging activity. The highest was found in the EA extract with IC50 23.47 ± 1.2 ¨g/ml. The values are significantly higher than positive control kojic acid (IC50 8.27 ± 1.4 µg/ml) suggest the leaves are superoxide scavengers which contribute to their antixoidant activity. (see constituents above) (48)
• Cytotoxicity on Ovarian Cancer Cells and HUVEC Cells / Rhizomes: Study sought to identify active extracts of C. zedoaria and their cytotoxic activities. GC-MS analysis of hexane fraction yielded 26 compounds. Study evaluated four crude extracts against two ovarian cancer cell lines and primary endothelial cell lines. Results showed more cytotoxic effect on metastatic ovarian cancer cells and HUVEC cells than primary ovarian cancer CaOV3 cells. (see constituents above) (49)
• Insecticidal: A Sri Lankan study evaluated 101 solvent extracts prepared from 55 plants for insecticidal activity. Curcuma zedoaria showed insecticidal activity against Aphis craccivora Koch and Plutella xylostella (40% mortality 24 HAT). (50)
• Wound Healing: Study isolated one homogenous polysaccharide (ZWP) from rhizomes of C. zedoaria and evaluated the potential of chitosan/silk hydrogen sponge loaded with plate-rich plasma exosomes (PRP-Exos), ZWP or PRP-Exos/ZWP on wound healing in diabetic rats. Results showed separate or combined treatments all resulted in wound contraction in diabetic rats, as evidenced by decrease in ulcer and increase in epidermal thickness. The PRP-Exos/ZWP combination therapy was more successful in measure of wound closure. It could be due to upregulation of collagen synthesis and deposition, as well as angiogenesis at the wound site. Results suggest a potential therapeutic strategy for accelerating skin repair in diabetes. (51)
• Antimicrobial / Tubers: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of extracts of Curcuma zedoaria and C. malabarica tubers against six bacterial and two fungal strains using agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods. Petroleum ether, hexane, chloroform, acetone and ethanol extracts exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity. The MIC values for different strains and extracts ranged from 0.01 to 0.15 mg/ml in C. zedoaria. (52)
• Antioxidant / Essential Oil and Oleoresins / Rhizomes: GC-MS study evaluated the essential oil and oleoresins of rhizome extracts of C. zedoaria. The EO and oleoresins (ethyl acetate and isopropanol) showed potent antioxidant activity using peroxide and thiobarbituric acid, ferric thiocyanate, DPPH radical scavenging, metal chelating and reducing power methods. Curzerenone and germacrone were the major components in volatile oil and oleoresins. Results showed promising alternatives to synthetic antioxidants. (see constituents above) (53)
• Inhibitors of MacrophageTNF
-α Release / Curcuminoid and Sesquiterpenes : Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) is one of the major mediators produced in activated macrophages which contribute to the circulatory failure associated with septic shock. Study of a crude methanolic extract of rhizomes exhibited significant TNF-a antagonistic activity. Fractionation isolated 3 active compounds: 1,7-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (1) procurcumenol (2) and epiprocurcumenol (3) by spectral data analysis. They inhibited the production of TNF-α by lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-activated macrophages from the results of bioassay (IC50 values of 1 and 2 are 12.3 and 310.5 µM, respectively). Results suggest the traditional use of C. zedoaria rhizome as anti-inflammatory drug may be due in part, by the inhibition of TNF-α production. (54)
• Anti-Babesial / Bark: Study of bark extract isolated active ingredients: zedoalactones A, B, and C. Antibabesial activity study showed IC59 values of 16,5m 1,6m and 4,2 µg/mL, respectively for zedoalactones A, B, and C, with standard drub, diminazene aceturate at 0.6 µg/mL. (55)


Updated December 2021 / June 2017 / August 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Photogrph: Curcuma zedoaria / Scott Zona / Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami, FL, USA / click on image to go to source page / Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic / wikimedia commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Curcuma zedoaria / Franz Eugen Köhler / Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen / 1897 / Meemelink

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antimicrobial activity of Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma malabarica tubers / B Wilson, G Abraham et al /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 99, Issue 1, 13 May 2005, Pages 147-151 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.02.004 |
Phytochemical Analysis and Analgesic Properties of Curcuma zedoaria Rhizomes Grown in Brazil / The Free Library
A Curcuminoid and Two Sesquiterpenoids from Curcuma zedoaria as Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Activated Macrophages / Arch Pharm Res Vol 27, No 12, 1220-1225, 2004
Antitumor, genotoxicity and anticlastogenic activities of polysaccharide from Curcuma zedoaria
Effect of the extract combinations of Curcuma zedoaria and Aloe vera in retarding melanin synthesis in murine melanoma cells /
J R Krishnamoorthy et al / Egyptian Dermatology Online Journal, 5(2): 7
Antimicrobial efficacy of Curcuma zedoaria extract as assessed by linear regression compared with commercial mouthrinses / Adriana Bugno, Maria Aparecida Nicoletti et al /
Braz. J. Microbiol. vol.38 no.3 São Paulo July/Sept. 2007 / doi: 10.1590/S1517-83822007000300011
Sedative Effects and Toxicity Test of Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe in Mice / Jutathip Tidkum / Thesis 2005 / ISBN 974-04-5555-7
Effect of Curcuma zedoaria crude extract against tumor progression and immunomodulation / Carvalho FR, Vassao RC et al / J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis vol.16 no.2 Botucatu 2010 / doi: 10.1590/S1678-91992010000200013
Cytotoxicity of Curcuminoids and Some Novel Compounds from Curcuma zedoaria / Wan-Jr Syu, Chien-Chang Shen et al / J. Nat. Prod., 1998; 61(12): pp 1531–1534 / DOI: 10.1021/np980269k
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Rhizome of Curcuma aromatica And Curcuma Zeodaria, Leaves of Abutilon Indicum. / A R Srividya et al / Arch Pharm Sci & Res Vol 1 No 1 14-19 July 2009

Effect of Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Bosc on the myoelectric activity of uterus in rats and study of its mechanisms / Xu XB, Qin XM, Xu JD, Pang JJ / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2001 May;26(5):334-7.
Pharmacognostic evaluation of the rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. / Sharad Srivastava, Shanta Mehrotra and AKS Rawat / Pharmacognosy Journal / DOI: 10.5530/pj.2011.21.3
Antitumour Effects of Isocurcumenol Isolated from Curcuma zedoaria Rhizomes on Human and Murine Cancer Cells / S Lakshmi, G Padmaja, P Remani / International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2011;
Volume 2011 / doi:10.1155/2011/253962
Sorting Curcuma names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress/ The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Effect of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc root extracts on behavioral and radiology changes in arthritic rats / Madan L. Kaushik and Sunil S. Jalalpure / J Adv Pharm Technol Res., Jul-Sep 2011; 2(3): pp 170–176 /
doi: 10.4103/2231-4040.85537
ANTI­-INFLAMMATORY EFFICACY OF CURCUMA ZEDOARIA ROSC ROOT EXTRACTS / MADAN L. KAUSHIK*, SUNIL S. JALALPURE / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 2011; 4(3): pp 90-92
Antioxidant Activity and Radical Scavenging Effects of Various Fractions from Curcuma zedoaria / Muhammad Athar Abbasi, Aziz-ur-Rehaman / Asian J Phar Biol Res. 2011; 1(4): 525-533
Antihyperglycemic activity Evaluation of Rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe and Fruits of Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engl. / Mohammed Rahmatullah*, Md. Nur Kabidul Azam, Sujan Pramanik, Sania, Shahnaz Rahman, Rownak Jahan / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.4, No.1, pp 125-129, Jan-Mar 2012
Cytotoxicity evaluation of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe fluid extract used in oral hygiene products / Fernandes, joao paulo dos Santos; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Marques, Marcia Martins; Nicoletti, Maria Aparecida / Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, Volume 70, Number 6, December 2012 , pp. 610-614(5)
Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe / Synonyms / The Plant List
A Quantum Chemical and Statistical Study of Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Curcuma zedoaria. / Hamdi OA, Anouar el H, Shilpi JA, Trabolsy ZB, Zain SB, Zakaria NS, Zulkefeli M, Weber JF, Malek SN, Rahman SN, Awang K / Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Apr 27;16(5):9450-68. doi: 10.3390/ijms16059450
Phytochemical Screening and Antipyretic Effect of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. (Zingiberaceae) Rhizome / Md. Golam Azam, Md. Shibly Noman and Md. Mamun Al-Amin / British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2014; Vol 4, Issue 5
Evaluation of anti-ulcer effect of root of Curcuma zedoaria in rats / Raghuveer Gupta P S, Md. Majed Ali, Eranna D and Ramachandra Setty S* / Indian Journal of Tradional Knowledge, Oct 2003; 2(1): pp 375-377
Chemical constituents and anticancer activity of Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe essential oil against non-small cell lung carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo / Chien-chang Chen, Yuhsin Chen, Yi-Ting Hsi, Chih-Sheng Chang, Li-Fen Huang, Chi-Tang Ho4, Tzong-Der Way* and Jung-Yie Kao*
Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Rosc. essential oil and paclitaxel synergistically enhance the apoptosis of SKOV3 cells / Yunxiao Zhou Jie Shen Liqun Xia Yanli Wang / Molecular Medicine Reports, July 2015; 12(1): pp 1253-1257 / DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2015.3473
PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT OF CURCUMA ZEDOARIA RHIZOMES ON MILK INDUCED EOSINOPHILIA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ASTHMA / Aslam Pathan, Abdulrahman Alshahrani, Feras Al-Marshad / International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine, Feb 14, 2015; 2(1)
Extracts from Curcuma zedoaria Inhibit Proliferation of Human Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231 In Vitro. / Xiu-Fei Gao, Qing-Lin Li, Hai-Long Li, Hong-Yan Zhang, Jian-Ying Su, Bei Wang, Pei Liu, Ai-Qin Zhang /
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014 5;2014:730678.
Cytotoxic Activity from Curcuma zedoaria Through Mitochondrial Activation on Ovarian Cancer Cells / Yujin Shin and Yongkyu Lee / Toxicol. Res., Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 257-261 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.5487/TR.2013.29.4.257
A Study on Antidiabetic potency of mixture of powders of dried fruits of Eucalyptus globules and rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria. / M Jaffar Sadiq*, Bheemachari, Shiv Kumar, E Vigneshwaran, Kalava Balaji / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences
Suppressive Effect of Curcuma Zedoaria Roscoe on Pulmonary Metastasis of B16 Melanoma Cells. / Jae-Cheol Hwang, Mi-Rang Kim, Young-Jae Jung, Young-Ja Lee, Wun-Suk Jung, Un-Kyo Seo / J Korean Oriental Med 2005;26(1):1-10
Anti-angiogenesis effect of essential oil from Curcuma zedoaria in vitro and in vivo / Wenxing Chen, Yin Lu, Ming Gao, Jiaming Wu, Aiyun Wang, Ronghuo Shi / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2011,133(1): 220-226
Comparative Study on Inhibitory Activity of Zerumbone and Zerumbone 2,3-Epoxide on NF-κB Activation and NO Production / Phan M. GIANG * , Phan T. SON, HuiZ.JIN, JeongH.LEE, JungJ.LEE / Scientia Pharmaceutica / http://dx.doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.0907-16
Bioactive constituents from the rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria / JJ Chen, TH Tsai, KS Chen, HR Liao / Planta Med 2014; 80 - P2O71 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1395061
Anti-inflammatory sesquiterpenes from Curcuma zedoaria / Makabe, H; Maru, N; Kuwabara, A; Kamo, T; Hirota, M / NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH. 20(7): 680-685 (2006)
Evaluation of antinociceptive, in-vivo & in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Curcuma zedoaria rhizome / H M Arif Ullah et al / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014, 14:346 / DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-346
Study on Extraction Process of Curcuma zedoaria Volatile Oil and Its Effect on Anticancer / SHAN-BIN, GUO, YUE TIAN and LING-YAN JIAN* / Asian J. of Chem., 2013; Vol 25, No 13 / http://dx.doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2013.15494

Antimicrobial Activity of Rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. / Chachad D. P., Talpade M. B., Jagdale S. P. / International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Vol 5, Issue 11, November 2016

Study of secondary metabolite constituents and curcumin contents of six different species of genus Curcuma / Bimal Dutta / Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 2015; 3(5): pp 116-119
Evaluation of anti-diarrhoeal activity of Curcuma zedoaria rhizome / Md. Golam Azam, Md. Shibly Noman and Md. Adit Muktadir Pavel / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2017; 6(3): pp 171-173
Zedoary-Induced Cardiovascular Disorders ( case report) / Usama M. El-Barrany and Magdy A. Ismail / Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine,  Cairo* and Al-Azhar “Boys” **  Universities
New Sesquiterpenoids and Anti-Platelet Aggregation Constituents from the Rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria / Jih-Jung Chen, Tung-Han Tsai, Hsiang-Ruei Liao, Li-Chai Chen, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Ping-Jyun Sung, Chun-Lin Chen and Chun-Sheng Wei / Molecules 2016, 21, 1385 / doi:10.3390/molecules21101385
Phytopreventive antihypercholesterolmic and antilipidemic perspectives of zedoary (Curcuma Zedoaria Roscoe.) herbal tea / Sara Tariq, Muhammad Imran, Zarina Mushtag, and Nosheen Asqhar / Lipids Health Dis. 2016; 15: 39 / doi:  10.1186/s12944-016-0210-y
Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity of the Essential Oil of Curcuma zedoaria / Eric Y C Lai, Charng-Cherng Chyau, Jeng-Leun Mau, Chien-chou Chen, Yi-Jui Lai, Ching-Fang Shih and Long-Liu Lin / The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 2004; 32(2): pp 281-290
Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ethanolic And Aqueous extracts of Curcuma Zedoaria Rosc Root / Madan L. Kaushik, Sunil S. Jalalpure / Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res., Jan-March 2011; 3(1): pp 360-365
In vitro antioxidant potential of the essential oil and leaf extracts of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. / Atiqur Rahman, Monira Afroz, Rafiquel Islam, Kazi Didarul Islam, M. Amzad Hossain and Minkyun Na / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, February 2014; 4(2): pp 107-111 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2014.40217
Identification of active extracts of Curcuma zedoaria and their real- time cytotoxic activities on ovarian cancer cells and HUVEC cells / Si Lay Khaing, Siti Zawiah Omar, Chung Yeng Looi, Aditya Arya, Nooshin Mohebali, Mustafa Ali Mohd / Biomedical Research, 2017; Volume 28, Issue 21
Insecticidal Activity of Some Medicinal Plants of Sri Lanka / C M Hewage, K A N P Bandara, V Karunaratne, B M R Bandara and D S A Eijesundara / J Natn Sci Coun Sri Lanka, 1997; 25(3): pp 141-150
Wound healing effects of a Curcuma zedoaria polysaccharide with platelet-rich plasma exosomes assembled on chitosan/silk hydrogel sponge in a diabetic rat model. / Xu N, Wangl L, Guan J, Tang C, He N, Zhang W, Fu S / International Journal of Biological Macromolecules,14 May 2018; 117: pp 102-107 / DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.05.066
Antimicrobial activity of Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma malabarica tubers / B Wilson, B ambisan et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, May 2005; 99(1): pp 147-151 /
DOIL https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.02,004
Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of essential oil and oleoresins from Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes, part-74 / Pratubha Singh, Lech Szczepaniak et al / Food Bioscience, Seeptember 2013; Vol 3; pp 42-48 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2013.06.002
A Curcuminoid and Sesquiterpenes as Inhibitors of MacrophageTNF-a Release from Curcuma zedoaria / Mi Kyung Jang, Dong Hwan Sohn, Jae-Ha Ryu / Planta Med, 2001; 67(6): pp 550-552 / DOI: 10.1055/s-2001-16482
Anti-Babesial Co0mpounds from Curcuma zedoaria / Ken Kasahara, Shinkichi Nomura et al / Planta Med, 2004; 71(5): pp 481-484 / DOI: 10.1044/s-2004-871216
A New Sesquiterpenoid from the Rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria / Sohee Eun, Inho Choi, Sabg Hee Shim / Bull. Korean Chem. Soc, 2010; 31(5) / DOI: 10.5012/bkcs.2010.31.5.1387

Curcuma zedoaria / Wikipedia

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

Potential Herbal Medicines and Drug Interactions
Story Behind the Medicinal Plant Compilation
Latest Updated Tagalog and English Lists of Philippine Medicinal Plants
List of Plants with Known Toxicity
                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
Abuse and Plagiarism of the Compilation on Philippine Medicinal Plants Under the Guise of Fair Use

Bahay Kubo

The Illustrated Medicinal Plant Song
Alternative Medicine Dictionary
Dialect and Language Abbreviations for Sources of Common and Local Names
Plant Names
List of Philippine Medicinal Plants with Chinese Names
HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT