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Family Fabaceae
Makahiyang-lalaki
Mimosa diplotricha C.Wright
GIANT SENSITIVE PLANT
Ba xi han xiu cao

Scientific names Common names
Mimosa diplotricha C.Wright Makahiyang-lalaki (Tag.)
Accepted infraspecifics Balunsari (C.Bis.)
Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha Balunsuri (C.Bis.)
Mimosa diplotricha var. odibilis Barneby Basuri (C.Bis.)
  Creeping sensitive plant (Engl.)
  Giant false sensitive plant (Engl.)
   
   
   
   
  Giant sensitive plant (Engl.)
  Nila grass (Engl.)
Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright is accepted. KEW: Plants of the World Online
Various compilations list Mimosa invisa Mart. as a synonym. (see Gen info below)

Other vernacular names
BRAZIL: Analeira, Dormideira, Juquiri-rasteiro, Malicia-de-mulher, Sensitiva.
CAMBODIAN: Banla saet.
CHINESE: Ba xi han xiu cao.
COOK ISLANDS: Pikika'a papa'a.
CUBAN: Sensitiva trepadora.
FIJIAN: Co gadrogadro, Was ngandrongandro ni wa ngalelevu, Wa ngandrongandro levu.
FRENCH: Grande sensitive, Sensitive geante.
INDIA: Anthottawadi, Padaincha.
INDONESIAN: Pis koeting.
JAPANESE: Gingokwan.
JAVA: Rembete.
MALAYSIA: Duri semalu.
NEPALI: Aarakande, Thulolajjawatijhar.
PALAU: Mechiuaiuu.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Nila grass.
SAIPAN: Singbiguin sasa.
SAMOAN: Vao fefe palagi.
SPANISH:  Raspancilla.
THAI: Maiyaraap thao.
VIETNAMESE: Co trinh nu moc.

Gen info
- Mimosa diplotricha is a species of leguminous woody shrub native to the Neotropics.  It is invasive with a pantropical distribution. It belongs to the genus Mimosa in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the legume family, Fabaceae.
- The specific epithet derives from the Greek 'diploos' meaning 'double' and 'thrix' meaning 'hair'.
- It was first described by American botanist Charles Wright in 1869. It was also described earlier by German botanist Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius as Mimosa invisa in 1837, but he had already given the name M. invisa in 1834 to a different species. Wright's name is accepted today as the correct name for the species, and Mimosa invisa is accepted as the correct name for Mimosa rhodastachya. (7)

Botany
Mimosa diplotricha is a fast-growing, erect shrub and a scrambling climber, which can form dense thickets in a short span of time. It is an annual, although behaves as a perennial. Leaves are bright green, feathery, alternate, each leaf with about 20 pairs of small leaflets, bipinnate, sessile,opposite, lanceolate, acute, 6 - 12 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, sensitive to disturbance. The stem is four-angled, woody at the decumbent base, with re-curved thorns (3 - 6 mm long), up to 3 m in height. The inflorescence is a clustered fluffy ball, about 12 mm across, pale pink, occurs on short stalks (1 cm long) in leaf joints; the corolla is gamopetalous; there are twice as many stamens as petals. The flowering period is from August to February, but can vary from region to region; it flowers throughout the year in some tropical countries. The pods are clustered, 10 - 35 mm long and 6 mm wide, linear, flat, clothed with small prickles, splitting transversely into one-seeded sections at the groves. The seeds are flat, ovate, spiny, 2 - 2.5 mm long and 0.6 - 1.4 mm thick, glossy and light brown. Seed production is in the range of 8,000 - 12,000 per m2. The weight of 1,000 seeds is around 6 gm. Seed setting is from September to February. Roots are profusely branched and with root nodules. (8)

Distribution
- Introduced to the Philippines. (1)
- Extensively introduced; invasive in many countries.

Constituents
- Bioassay-guided isolation of Mimosa diplotricha isolated four new 5-deoxyflavones, diplotrins A-C (1-3) and diplotasin (4), together with 12 known flavonoids, flavonolignans, and triterpenoids. Compounds 14were characterized as 2′,5′-dihydroxy-3,7,8,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (1), 3′-hydroxy-3,7,8,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (2), 2′-hydroxy-7,4′,5′-trimethoxyflavone (3), and 4-hydroxy-3,10,11-trimethoxyisochromeno-[4,3-b]-chromen-7(5H)-one (4). (see study below) (3)
- Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, phytosterols, phenols, flavonoids, proteins, and lipids.  (see study below)  (5)

Properties
- Root and leaf extracts and powders considered insecticidal.
- Weed is a nitrogen fixer, used as cover crop, green manure and soil renovator to add soil nitrogen and organic matter and to reduce soil erosion.
(6)
- Studies have suggested cytotoxic, antiproliferative properties.

Environmental Invasive impact
- It has invaded many countries throughout Africa, Asia, Oceania and many islands. It forms impenetrable spiny thickets that invade highly disturbed areas, but agricultural systems in particular. It is extremely difficult to control effectively using mechanical and chemical means. (2)
- In the Philippines it is a principal weed of sugarcane, tomato, abaca, pineapple, low-land and upland rice. (
2)
- It can produced up to 20,000 seeds/m2/year; even seedlings a few weeks old can produce viable seed.
(2)
- Avoidance of Mimosa diplotricha by livestock during grazing is attributed to its sharp and curved thorns and/or the presence of mimosine (a non-protein amino acid), which is toxic to herbivores, which if ingested can cause vascular endothelial damage, anemia, heart and liver disease in cattle.
(
6)
- It is a wildland fire hazard when dry.


Uses

Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
Others
- Uses. While it looms as a big threat to forest ecosystems, agricultural land and pastures in many countries, it offers some uses. It is a nitrogen fixing cover crop and green manure in several countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The spineless variety is an excellent soil improver and soil binder. In Indonesia, the plant is used as fodder for buffaloes.
(8)

Studies
Cytotoxicity:
Bioassay-guided isolation of Mimosa diplotricha isolated four new 5-deoxyflavones, diplotrins A-C (1-3) and diplotasin (4), together with 12 known flavonoids, flavonolignans, and triterpenoids. The cytotoxic effects of the isolated compounds were evaluated against A549, AGS. HT-29, and PC3 human cancer cell lines. Compounds 2 and 5 (5"-methoxyhydnocarpin-D) showed most potent antiproliferative activity. (3)
Antinociceptive Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the antinociceptive activity of Mimosa diplotricha using acetic acid induced writhing method and tail immersion method using Swiss albino mice. The methanolic extract of leaves and n-hexane fraction showed significant peripheral antinociceptive activity at dose of 400 mg/kbw with percentage inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing  at 56.25% (p<0.001) and 51.62% (p<0.001), respectively. Antinociceptive activity by tail immersion method was also significant (p<0.001) with 59.35% and 58.94% elongation of reaction time, respectively, compared to morphine at 64.17% (p<0.001). (see constituents above) (5)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

October 2022

 

PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Mimosa diplotricha / Dick Culbert /CC Attribution 2.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Mimosa diplotricha / Obsidian Soul / CC by SA 4.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Mimosa diplotricha leave with some that have curled up after being touched / Challiyan / CC by 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Mimosa diplotricha / KEW: Plants of the World Online
(2)
Mimosa diplotricha (Giant sensitive plant) / CABI: Invasive Species Compendium
(3)
5-Deoxyflavones with Cytotoxic Activity from Mimosa diplotricha / Lie-Chwen Lin, Chun-Tang Chiou, Jing-Jy Cheng / J Nat Prod., 2011; 74(9): pp 2001-2004 / DOI: 10.1021/np200307r

(4)
Mimosa diplotricha / Wikipedia
(5)
Phytochemical screening and antinociceptive activity of Mimosa diplotricha leaves / Jannatul Naima, Mohammad Rashedul Islam, Nawreen Monir Proma / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2019; 10(8): pp 3679-3684 / DOI: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.10(8).3679-84 /
eISSN: 0975-8232 / pISSN: 2320-5148
(6)
Mimosa diplotricha: a review and synthesis of its problem and control options / Osariyekemwen Uyi / CAB Reviews, 2020; 15, No 014 / DOI: 10.1079/PAVSNNR202015014
(7)
Mimosa diplotricha / Wikipedia
(8)
Mimosa diplotricha (Giant sensitive plant) / Dr. KV Sankaran, Kerala Forest Research Institute / Asia-Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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