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Family Elaeocarpaceae
Elaeocarpus grandiflorus Sm.

Scientific names Common names
Cerea radicans Thouars Mala (Tag.)
Elaeocarpus grandiflorus Sm. Blue olive berry (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus lanceolatus Blume Fairy petticoat (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus radicans (Thouars) Hiern Fairy petticoats (Engl.)
Monocera grandiflora Hook.               Unresolved Fringe bells (Engl.)
Monocera lanceolata Hassk.              Unresolved Lily of the valley tree (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus grandiflorus Sm. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BURMA: Ye saga.
INDONESIA: Anyang-anyang, Ki ambit, Kemaitan.
MALAYSIA: Ando, Andor.
THAILAND: Khrai yoi, Mun nam, Phi nai.
VIETNAM: C[oo]m hoa l[ows]n, C[oo]m n[uw][ows]c.

Mala is a rather large and smooth tree growing to a height of 24 meters. Leaves are elliptic-lanceolate, 9 to 14 centimeters long, 2.5 to 4 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends. Flowers are white, about 2 centimeters long, growing on short sprays at the top of branchlets. Sepals are lanceolate, 15 millimeters long, 3 to 4 millimeters wide. Petals are white, oblong-obovate, about 2 centimeters long, and deeply fringed at the tip. Fruit is a drupe, pale green, ellipsoid, with a thin layer of flesh.

- In Busuango forests at low altitude.
- Also occurs in Burma, Indo-China, and Java.

- Leaves yield tannin, geraniin and 3, 4, 5-trimethoxy geraniin.
- Tannin, geraniin, and 3,4,5-trimethoxy geraniin have been isolated from E. grandiflorus leaves (Rahman et al, 1998). (7)

- Bark is very bitter.
- Considered antibacterial, antiviral, antidiuretic.
- Studies suggest antibacterial, anti-diuretic, anti-diabetic and antiviral properties.

Parts used
Bark, leaves and seeds.


- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Leaf decoction drunk as tonic and used for treatment of bilious afflictions.
- Crushed bark used for poulticing ulcers.
- Leaves used for treatment of syphilis.
- Used for diseases of women.
- In Indonesia, fruit used for dysentery and bladder pain; bark, for kidney inflammation, and topically for ulcers.
- In Malaysia, used after childbirth as general tonic.
Ground bark used in hot water mixture with other plant materials to improve blood circulation, encourage contraction of the uterus, expel wind, and as laxative. (6)
- Water extract of leaves, fruit, and twigs has been used traditionally tor treatment of diabetes. (7)

Anti-Diabetic / Concern on Long-Term Effects:
Study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of a water extract of Elaecarpus grandiflorus in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The water extract exhibited hypoglycemic effect. However, results suggest the extract should not be used for longer than two consecutive weeks, Close follow up for toxicity should be done during chronic use of E. grandiflorus.
HIV1 Protease Inhibitory Activity: Aqueous extracts of 75 different traditional medicines in China, Japan, and Indonesia were screened for possible inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease. Forty extracts showed inhibitory activity at concentration of 250 µg/mL. E. grandiflorus (fruit) showed inhibition of 53.9% at 250 µg/mL and 23% at 25 µg/mL.
• PTP1B (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase) Inhibition / Antidiabetic and Anti-Obesity: Study evaluated water extracts of 18 plants--traditional components in Jamu antidiabetic and antiobesity formulations--for inhibitory effect on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). About 44% of the examined samples, including Elaeocarpus grandiflorus, showed more than 80% inhibition against PTP1B, with IC50s ranging from 2.05 to 6.90 µg/mL. A disaccharide from E. grandiflorus could be an active inhibitor towards PTP1B. (8)


Updated October 2019 / October 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Elaeocarpus grandiflorus / © WELLGROW Horti Trading / Non-Commercial Use / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE / WELLGROW Horti Trading
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / :Elaeocarpaceae - Elaeocarpus grandiflorus - Monocera grandiflora / From: Flore des serres et des jardins de l'Europe by Charles Lemaire and others. / Gand [Gent], Louis van Houtte, 1853, volume 8, plate 817. / click on image to go to source page / MeemeLink
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antidiabetic and Long-term Effects of Elaeocarpus grandiflorus / Chunlada Bualee, Anan Ounaroon and Rattima Jeenapongsa / Naresuan University Journal, 2007; 15(1): pp 17-28
SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT AND THERAPEUTIC USE OF ELAEOCARPUS SPECIES: A REVIEW / Gagan Shah1*,Prabh Simran Singh, S.Mann, R.Shri / International Journal of Institutional Pharmacy and Life Sciences 1(1): July-August 2011
PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, VOL.10,207-210 (1996) Screening of Traditional Medicines for their
Inhibitory Activity Against HIV-1 Protease /
Hong-Xi Xu, Min Wan, Boon-Nee Loh, Oi-Lian Kon, Peng-Wai Chow and Keng-Yeow Sim* / PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, VOL.10,207-210 (1996)
Elaeocarpus grandiflorus J. E. Smith / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED

Elaeocarpus grandiflorus / Synonyms / The Plant List
Medicinal Plants used for Postnatal Care in Malay Traditional Medicine in the Peninsular Malaysia / Jamia Azdina Jamal, Zakiah Abd. Ghafar & Khairana Husain / Pharmacognosy Journal, Aug 2011; 3(24): pp 15-24 / DOI: 10.5530/pj.2011.24.4
SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT AND THERAPEUTIC USE OF ELAEOCARPUS SPECIES: A REVIEW / Gagan Shah, Prabh Simran Singh, A.S.Mann, R.Shri / International Journal of Institutional Pharmacy and Life Sciences, July-August 2011; 1(1)
Potent water extracts of Indonesian medicinal plants against PTP1B / Azis Saifudin. Tepy Usia, Subehan AbLallo, Hiroyuki Morita, Ken Tanaka, Yasuhiro Tezuka / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Jan 2016; 6(1): pp 38-43 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.021
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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