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Family Menispermaceae
Malabuta
Stephania japonica (Thumb.) Miers.
SNAKE VINE

Qian jin teng

Scientific names Common names
Stephania japonica (Thumb.) Miers. Kureng (Iv.)
Stephania corymbosa Turez. Lektan (Bon.)
Stephania hernandifolia Walp. Malabuta (Ig.)
Menispermum japonicum Thunb. Maratugi (Ilk.)
Cissampelos psilophylla Presl Snake vine (Engl.)
  Tape vine (Engl.)
  Thousand gold metal vine (Engl.)
  Qian jin teng (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Akanadi, Nimuka, Maknadi.
INDONESIA: Areuy geureung, Kepleng, Ginato bobudo.
THAI: Kon pit, Pang pon, Tap tao.
VIETNAMESE: Thi[ee]n kim d[awf]ng, d[aa]y l[ox]i ti[eef]n.

Botany
Malabuta is a woody smooth vine. Leaves are oval or sub-rounded oval in shape, 6 to 15 centimeters in length, and 4 to 12 centimeters in width, with obtuse and nearly retuse apex and rounded base, and smooth on both surfaces, with long petioles, 4 to 12 centimeters long. Inflorescences are in umbels on peduncles 3 to 4 centimeters in length. Male and female flowers are small, and pale yellow. Fruit is red, small, rounded but flattened, about 8 millimeters long and 6 millimeters wide.

Distribution
- In thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes in the Batan Islands; in Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Batangas, Rizal, and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; in Camiguin de Misamis.
- Also occurs in India to Japan, China and Taiwan.

Constituents
- Phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts yielded alkaloids, glycosides, flavanoids, saponins, carbohydrates, tannins, phenols, and mucilage. (8)
- Stem yields alkaloids, metastephanin, protosetaphin; phenol base and base.
- Roots, tubers and leaves yield alkaloids, steroids, and fats.
- Roots and tuber alkaloids are: aknadinine, aknadine and aknadicine.
- Stems yield bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, stephasubine and 3'-4'-dihydro-stephasubine, saponins, steroids and fats.
- Roots yield alkaloids, franchinoline, dl-tetrandrine, d-tetrandrine and d-isochondrodendrine.
- Aerial parts have yielded aknadinine, epistephaine, hernandifoline and magnoflorine.
- Study isolated an alkaloid with a phenanthrene nucleus, hasubanonine.

Properties
- Leaves and roots are bitter and astringent.

Parts used

Whole plant, roots.

Uses

Folkloric
- Plant used to cure itches.
- In Ayurveda, one of the three plants used as sources of "Patha," used in the treatment of urinary and heart related disorders.
- Used for skin sores, ulcers, furuncles, snake bites, stomach pains and leg edema.
- In northeast India, roots used for treatment of fever, diarrhea, dyspepsia and urinary diseases.
- In Japan and Taiwan, plant decoction used for malaria.
- In Indonesia, roots used for stomach aches.
- In Bangladesh, roots and leaves used for fever and diarrhea. Leaves applied on abscesses to facilitate pointing. Leaves macerate in water, mixed with molasses and drunk as cure for urethritis. Leaves also used for gastritis. Root paste used for vertigo and dysentery. Root tuber mixed with root juice of Flemingia stricta for asthma. Warmed root paste rubbed onto hydrocoeles.


Studies
Antioxidant / Analgesic / Cytotoxicity:
A crude methanolic extract exhibited moderate antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging and NO scavenging assays. The extract displayed analgesic activity with significant reduction in acetic acid writhing in mice. In Brine Shrimp lethality assay, it showed significant toxicity to Brine Shrimp nauplii. (1)
Diuretic Activity: Study of Stephania japonica roots showed diuretic activity, with significant increase of urinary output; the effect was much less than that of furosemide. (2)
Multidrug-Resistance Modulator: Alkaloidal extract of vines of Stephania japonica showed multidrug-resistance-reversing activity. Two known besbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids, isotrilobine and trilobine, were isolated. Trilobine showed to be as active as verapamil in reversing doxorubicin resistance in human breast cancer cells. (5)
Hasubanonine: Study has isolated an alkaloid, hasubanonine, which was tested against opiate-withdrawal. The compound also worked against multi-drug resistance.
Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant / Anti-Diarrheal: Plant showed significant anti-inflammatory effect on all phases of carrageenan-induced inflammation. The DPPH radical scavenging effect was 33.57 µg/mL compared to 15.57µg/ml for ascorbic acid. An anti-diarrheal effect in a castor oil-induced diarrheal model showed a reduction of total number of feces. (9)
Stephabenine: Study of fresh fruits yieled a hasubanan ester-ketal alkaloid, stephabenine. (11)
Diuretic Activity: In a study of comparative diuretic potential of methanolic extracts of C. pareira, Cyclea peltata, and Stephania japonica, all three demonstrated dose-dependent diuretic effects., with C. peltata exhibiting the most significant activity. (12)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update June 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Stephania japonica var. discolor / Photographer: Fagg, M / Taken at : Monga Nat Pk, bottom of Clyde Mtn NSW / © Australian National Botanic Gardens / Australian National Herbarium
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Peltate vine at the sand dune, north Palm Beach, NSW, Australia. Likely to be Stephania japonica / File:Peltate vine Barrenjoey.JPG / Poyt448 Peter Woodard / 24 February 2011 / Public Domain / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antioxidant, Analgesic and Toxic Potentiality of Stephania Japonica (Thunb.) Miers. Leaf / M. Habibur Rahman, M Badrul Alam et al / International Journal of Pharmacology, 2011, Vol 7, No 2, Pp 257 - 262
(2)
Studies on diuretic activity of three plants from Menispermaceae family / K.K Hullatti, M.S Sharada and I.J Kuppasth / Pelagia Research Library, Der Pharmacia Sinica, 2011, 2 (1): 129-134
(3)
Micropropagation of Stephania japonica, a rare medicinal plant of north-east India / Handique PJ and Sharma Deboja /Journal of Hill Agriculture, 2010, Volume : 1, Issue : 2
(4)
STEPHANIA JAPONICA (Thunb.) Miers. / Dr. Shaikh Bokhtear Uddin / Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh
(5)
Multidrug-resistance modulators from Stephania japonica / Hall A M, Chang C J / J Nat Prod. 1997 Nov;60(11):1193-5.
(6)
Stephania japonica (Thunb.) Miers / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(7)
The Chemistry of the Morphine Alkaloids / JAMA. 1954;156(4):458. / doi:10.1001/jama.1954.02950040164029.
(8)
Pharmastical and phycognotochemical studies on leaves of Stephania japonica Linn. / R. Senthamarai, A.M. Ismail, T. Shri Vijaya Kiurbha and P. Balasubramanian* / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2012, 4(3):1457-1464
(9)
Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant and Anti-Diarrheal Effects of Ethanol Extract of Stephania Japonica / NU Ahmed, R Akter, Mohammed A Satter, MS Khan, F Islam, AM Abdullah / Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research > Vol 46, No 4 (2011)
(10)
Alkaloid of Stephaniajaponica Miers On Protostephanine(12) / Kyoji TAKEDA / Bull. Agr. Chem. Soc. Japan, Vol 20, No 4, pp 165-173, 1956
(11)
Alkaloids from the fruits of Stephania japonica Miers. I. Structure of stephabenine: A new hasubanan ester-ketal alkaloid. / SACHIKO KONDO; MATAO MATSUI; YASUO WATANABE (N/A) / CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN; ISSN:0009-2363; VOL.31; NO.8; PAGE.2574-2577; (1983)
(12)
Studies on diuretic activity of three plants from Menispermaceae family
/ K.K Hullatti*, M.S Sharada and I.J Kuppasth / Der Pharmacia Sinica, 2011, 2 (1): 129-134



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