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Family Molluginaceae
Trigastrotheca stricta (L.) Thulin

Di ma huang

Scientific names Common names
Mollugo linkii Ser. Lepouo (Bon.)
Mollugo malabarica Oken Malagoso (Tag.)
Mollugo multiflora Ser. ex DC. Malugoso (Tag., Bis.)
Mollugo paniculata Burm.f. Pisig-pisig (Bag.)
Mollugo pentaphylla (L.) Thulin Salsalida (Bis.)
Mollugo pentaphylla var. stricta (L.) Hochr. Sudlai (Sub.)
Mollugo stricta L. Sulangkang (Sub.)
Mollugo stricta var. angustifolia Franch. & Sav. Carpet weed (Engl.)
Mollugo stricta var. latifolia Franch. & Sav. Erect carpetweed (Engl.)
Mollugo subserrata Blanco Indian chickweed (Engl.)
Mollugo sumatrana Gand. Itch flower (Engl.)
Mollugo trifolia Schult. Pig weed (Engl.)
Mollugo triphylla Lour.  
Pharmaceum linkii D.Dietr.  
Pharmaceum multiflorum (Ser. ex DC.) G.Don  
Pharmaceum strictum (L.) Spreng.  
Trigastrotheca stricta (L.) Thulin  
Some compilations suggest Mollugo pentaphylla L. is a distinct species from Mollugo stricta; some consider them synonyms.
POWO lists Mollugo pentaphylla L. as a synonym of Trigastrotheca pentaphylla (L.) Thulin and Mollugo stricta / Mollugo pentaphylla (L.) Thulin as synonyms of Trigasthrotheca stricta (L.) Thulin.
Quisumbing's compilation lists Mollugo stricta Linn. and Mollugo sumatrana Gandog. as synonyms.
Note: The page has been revised into Malagoso withTrigastrotheca stricta as scientific name.
Trigastrotheca stricta (L.) Thulin is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Khet papra.
CHINESE: Su mi cao, Di ma huang, Mei fan hen.
FRENCH: Mollugine, Olsine.
HINDI: Jharasi
INDONESIA: Jampang kulut, Jukut taridi, Gaingsa.
JAPANESE: Zakuro sou.
MALAYALAM: Parpadakapullu.
MALAYSIA: Tapak burong, Rumput belangkas, Bunga karang, Daum mutiara.
MARATHI: Jharasi, Sarsalida.
NEPAL: Nyauli.
ORIYA: Pita-gohun.
TAMIL: Parpadakam.
TELUGU: Verrichatarasi.
THAI: Soi nok khao, Yaano khao, Yaa khai hao.
VIETNAMESE: C[or] b[uj]ng cu, B[if]ink cu, Binh cu.

Gen info
- Trigastrotheca is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the Molluginaceae, the Carpetweed family. The native range is Tropical and Subtropical Asia to Pacific.
- Genus has four species: Trigastrotheca molluginea, T. pentaphylla, T. rupestris, and T. stricta. (30)

• Malagoso is similar in habit to sarsalida (Mollugo oppositifolia) – a slender, spreading or ascending, smooth, branched, annual herb, with branches 10 to 40 centimeters in length. Leaves are 1.5 to 3 centimeters long, 3 to 5 centimeters wide, whorled or opposite, usually linear-lanceolate, and narrowed at both ends. Flowers are borne in compound cymes, with very slender and very short stalks. Sepals are 1.5 to 2 millimeters long. Capsule is as long as the sepals, and nearly spherical, with many seeds which are dark chestnut, thin-walled, and covered with raised tubercular points. The species differs from sarsalida (M. oppositifolia) in the shape of the leaves, and in the smaller flowers and capsules.

• Annual or ephemeral herb, branches angular, ascending to erect, to 35 cm long, glabrous, green or reddish brown. Leaves: 2–7 per whorl, sessile or shortly petiolate, mostly narrowly elliptic or lanceolate, at least the basal ones sometimes obovate to oblanceolate, all leaves 10–65 mm long, 1–12 mm wide, 1-veined, the vein raised on the lower surface, apically rounded to acute and with a small mucro. Flowers: Axillary or terminal in pseudo-racemose inflorescences, pedicels 1.5–7 mm long. Perianth segments elliptic, ovate or somewhat circular, 1.5–1.8 mm long, 0.8–1 mm wide, the midrib green, margins scarious, white or pinkish. Stamens 3–5. Stigmas sessile or almost so. Capsule: Capsule subglobular, c. 2 mm long, enclosed or almost so within the perianth. Seeds: Seeds c. 10, reniform, longest axis 0.5–0.6 mm, smooth to finely tuberculate, dark reddish-brown. (31)

• Erect Carpetweed is a spreading herb, 10-30 cm. Stems are rising up, slender, much branched, angled, hairless, when old often reddish brown. Leaves are arranged in pseudo-whorls of 3-5 or opposite; leaf-stalk short or leaves nearly stalkless; leaf blade lanceshaped or linear-lanceshaped, 1.5-4 cm x 2-7 mm, base narrowed, tip pointed or tapering; midvein prominent. Flowers are borne at branch-ends or in seemingly leaf-opposed lax cymes; flower-cluster-stalk slender. Flower-stalks are 1.5-6 mm. Tepals 5, greenish, elliptic or round, 1.5-2 mm, veins reaching 2/3, margin membranous, stamens 3. Ovary broadly elliptic or rotund, 3-loculed; styles 3, linear, short. Capsules are nearly spherical, about as long as persistent tepals, 3-valved. Seeds numerous, chestnut-colored, kidney-shaped, tuberculate. (Flowers of India)

- Native to the Philippines. (29) (32)
- Throughout the Philippines as a weed in cultivated areas, in open grasslands, etc., at low and medium altitudes.
- Also native to Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Fiji, Hainan, India, Japan, Jawa, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Queensland, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya
. (29)

- Studies have yielded a saponin and much salt-peter.
- Study yielded two closely related triterpene alcohols - mollugogenol A and mollugogenol B.
- Phytochemical screening yielded flavanoids, saponins, terpenoids and tannins.
- Study of methanolic extract of whole plant yielded alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins. (see study below) (21)
- Phytochemical screening of various extracts of leave, stem, and root yielded carbohydrates, proteins, polyphenols, carotenoid, ascorbic acid, alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid, glycosides, volatile oil, among others. (26)

- Considered stomachic, aperient, antiseptic, emmenagogue, and spermicidal.
- Leaves are bitter and antiperiodic.
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, hypoglycemic, antipyretic, anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, spermicidal, diuretic, laxative, antiarthritic, anti-gout properties.

Parts used
Whole plant (stems, fruits, leaves, roots).


- Not so well known a vegetable as sarsalida, and less desired because of its smaller leaves. However, it is much esteemed by the Hindus as a bitter vegetable.
- In India, leaves used as bitter pot herb.
- Malays used it as poultice for sore legs.
- In Java, used for sprue and mouth infections.
- In India, used as aperient, antiseptic, emmenagogue, and stomachic; also, used as mild laxative. Infusion of the plant is used to promote menstrual discharges, to improve digestion and to stimulate the liver. Also used as diuretic, anthelmintic, antioxidant, anthelmintic, antipyretic, spermicidal. Decoction of roots used to treat eye diseases. Leaves are warmed after smearing with oil and applied to ear to relieve earaches.
- Used for allergic skin conditions.
- In Taiwan folk medicine, used as anticancer, antitoxic, and diuretic.
- In China, soup used to promote appetite; root decoction used for eye diseases. (•) The Shui people in southwest China use the plant as antidiarrheal; for treatment of dysentery. (33)
- In Thailand, entire plant used as antipyretic.
- In Bangladesh, stems and fruits used in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
- In Assam, India, leaves used for urinary problems; prescribed to women after childbirth. (34)
- Insect repellent: In the Solomon Islands, whole plant is burnt for mosquito repellent effect.

Conflicts in taxonomy create confusion in the attribution of studies: Mollugo pentaphylla (L) is listed as synonym of Trigastrotheca pentaphylla while Mollugo pentaphylla (L.) Thulin is listed as synonym of Trigastrotheca stricta.
• Antioxidant / Peh-Hue-Juwa-Chi-Cao:
Three plants used interchangeably as "Peh-Hue-Juwa-Chi-Cao (PHJCC) - Hedyotis diffusa, Hedyotis corymbosa, and Mollugo pentaphylla were investigated for their antioxidant activities. Mollugo pentaphylla was found to have the greatest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity compared to HD and HC.
Mollugogenol A / Antifungal Triterpenoid: Study yielded an antifungal compound, mollugogenol A, along with inactive mollugogenol B. (11)
Antibacterial / Fruit: Aqueous extract of the fruit of Mollugo pentaphylla revealed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria (B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. epidermis) and gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, Salmonella flexneri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). (3)
Hypoglycemic Potential: Study of aqueous extract of leaves of M. pentaphylla exhibited anti- hyperglycemic activity probably due to free radical scavenging potential of the test extract. (4)
Antipyretic: Study of methanolic extract of the whole plant of M. pentaphylla in albino mice exhibited significant antipyretic activity. (5)
Anthelmintic / Aerial Parts: Ethanolic extract and fraction of aerial parts exhibited significant dose-dependent anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and Ascardia galli. Activity was comparable to piperazine citrate and albendazole. (6)
Analgesic / Whole Plant: The ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol extracts of the whole plant of M. pentaphylla were able to reduce pain in Swiss albino mice; the ethyl acetate extract was comparably better than the others. (7)
Anti-Inflammatory / Hepatoprotective / Peh-Hue-Juwa-Chi-Cao: as "Peh-Hue-Juwa-Chi-Cao (PHJCC) is the commercial name for the herbal extract of either Hedyotis diffusa, Hedyotis corymbosa, or Mollugo pentaphylla. In a study, all three plants showed anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effect. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, M. pentaphylla showed the greatest inhibition. (8)
Spermicidal / Antifungal Saponin: The ethyl acetate fraction of Mollugo pentaphylla contains an antifungal saponin, mollugogenol-A. Study showed a dose-dependent and time-dependent effect of this saponin on sperm motility and viability. Results indicate the natural saponin has potential as a spermicidal, besides its known antifungal activity. (9)
Hepatoprotective: Study in rats of an alcohol extract of M. pentaphylla exhibited significant protection from liver damage in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage model. (10)
Antidiabetic / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of Mollugo pentaphylla and Glinus oppositifolius in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rat models. The extracts produced significant decrease in blood glucose levels comparable to standard drug glibenclamide. (13)
Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanolic extract of Mollugo pentaphylla in a subacute model using cotton pellet-induced granuloma technique. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity which was attributed to steroidal saponins. Also, the lower dose (200mg/kbw produced better activity than the higher dose. (14) Study of an ethanolic extract of M. pentaphylla in a subacute model of cotton pellet induced granuloma technique showed anti-inflammatory activity. Preliminary phytochemical study yielded the presence of steroidal saponins which may be responsible for its anti-inflammatory activity. (22)
Antipyretic: Study evaluated the antipyretic activity of methanolic extract of whole plant of Mollugo pentaphylla in brewer's yeast injection induced pyrexia in albino mice. Results showed significant antipyretic activity. The action might be due to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. (15)
Gastroprotective Antiulcer / Toxicity Study / Aerial Parts: Study investigated the gastroprotective activity of ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of the methanolic extract of aerial parts of M. pentaphylla against various ulcer models in rats. Results showed significant reduction of ulcer index value. The antiulcer activity may be due to phytochemicals such as flavonoids, saponins and glycosides in the plant. Acute toxicity study showed no toxicity in the group treated with 5000 mg/kbw. (16)
Inhibition of Proliferation and Migration and Collagen Synthesis: Study showed M. pentaphylla can inhibit the proliferation and migration and collagen synthesis of rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Results suggest a potential strategy for the treatment of vascular hyperplasia diseases. (17)
Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Antipyretic / Aerial Parts: An ethanolic extracts of aerial parts exhibited significant peripheral and central analgesic activity together with marked anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity in rats. (18)
Anti-Acne Inducing Bacteria: Study evaluate ethanol extracts of four medicinal plants against etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Results suggest M. pentaphylla, A. anomala, M. orientalis and O. japonica are attractive ace-mitigating candidates for topical application. (19)
Cardiovascular Effects / Saponin: Intravenous injection of total saponin of M. pentaphylla into rabbits and anesthetized rats significantly produced negative chronotropic and negative dromotropic effects. A small dose could dilate the coronary artery of the rabbit model without influencing heart rate; large dose could decrease coronary blood flow and heart rate. (20)
• Anti-Diabetic: Study of methanolic extract of whole plant of M. pentaphylla in STZ induced diabetic rats showed significant glucose lowering activity. (see constituents above) (21) Study evaluated an aqueous extract of aerial parts for antidiabetic and antioxidant potential in different experimental models. Results showed dose dependent antidiabetic activity evidenced by a significant fall in blood sugar and its ability to increase plasma insulin level along with decreased amount of liver oxidants and increased antioxidant enzymes. (24)
• Diuretic / Laxative: Study evaluated a crude ethanolic extract of M. pentaphylla for diuretic and laxative activity in albino rats. Results showed significant diuretic and laxative activity at dose of 400 mg/kg. Standard drugs were furosemide and agar-agar. Phytochemical screening yielded carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, gums, flavonoids, tannins, and steroids. (23)
• Peh-Hue-Juwa-Chi-Cao as Antitumor Agent: Study evaluated three different crude drugs that take the same name "Peh-Hue-Juwa-Chi-Cao viz. Mollugo pentaphylla (MP), Hedyotis diffusa (HD), and Hedyotis corymbosa (HC) for antitumor activity against implanted malignant subcutaneous tumors. All three sowed similar antitumor effects on the implanted subcutaneous tumors and also showed significant effects on promoting recovery of leukocytes from radiation damage. (25)
• Antioxidant / Whole Plant: Study of M. pentaphylla by DPPH and H2O2 assays showed antioxidant properties. (see constituents above) (26)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Osteoarthritis: Study has previously reported ant-inflammatory effect of MP n MSU-induced gouty arthritis in a mouse model. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of MPE in vitro and anti-osteoarthritis effects on monosodium iodoacetate IMIA) induced osteoarthritis in vivo. The extract exhibited anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of production of NO, PGE2, IL-6 in LPE-treated RAW264.7 cells. MPE also suppressed IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 production and suppressed synthesis of MMP-2, MMP-9, and COX-2 in MIA-induced OA rat model. (27)
• Anti-Gouty Arthritis: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of an extract of M. pentaphylla on MSU (monsodium urate)-induced gouty arthritis in a mouse model. Results showed suppression of pain in the MSU-induced mice. The effect may be via inhibition of production of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, NLRP3 inflammasome, and NF-kB. (28)


Revised April 2024
January 2020 / May 2017 / May 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Trigastrotheca stricta / © M P Zhou / CC BY-NC 4.0 / Click on image or link to go to source page / iNaturalistUK
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Trigastrotheca stricta / © Lijin Huang / CC BY-NC / Non-commercial use / Click on image or link to go to source page / iNaturalistUK
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Trigastrotheca stricta (L.) Thulin / © Alchemiset@ZZ / Non-commercial use / Two images modified: Click on image or link to go to source page / NATURE LIBRARY: A Librarian's Nature Journal

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antioxidant activity of extracts of peh-hue-juwa-chi-cao in a cell free system
/ Lin CC, Ng LT, and Yang JJ / Am J Chin Med. 2004;32(3):339-49.
Mollugo pentaphylla L. - AIZOACEAE - Dicotyledon / OswaldAsia
Study of hypoglycemic potential of aqueous extract of aerial parts of Mollugo pentaphylla Linn / Laxmidhar Maharana, Snigdha Pattnaik et al / Annals of Biological Research, 2010, 1 (2) :155-165
Study on Antipyretic Activity of a Mollugo pentaphylla Linn in Albino Mice / R Valarmathi, A Rajendran et al / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.2, No.4, pp 2388-2390, Oct-Dec 2010
In vitro Anthelmintic activity of Mollugo pentaphylla L. / Sundeep Kumar H K, Sahu S K, Mohanty S, Bose A / International Journal of PharmTech Research, April-June 2010; Vol 2, No 2: pp 1187-1189
Analgesic Activity of Mollugo pentaphylla Linn. by Tail Immersion Method / Jena Prabhat Kumar and Nayak Bhabani Shankar / Asian Journ of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, January- March 2009; Volume 2, Issue 1: pp 61-63
Anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activity of peh-hue-juwa-chi-cao in male rats / Lin CC, Ng LT, Yang JJ, Hsu YF / Am J Chin Med. 2002;30(2-3):225-34.
Spermicidal activity of an antifungal saponin obtained from the tropical herb Mollugo pentaphylla
/ M Rajasekaran, A G R Nair et al / Contraception, April 1993; Volume 47, Issue 4: pp 401-412
Protective Effcet of the whole plant of Mollugo pentaphylla Linn. against Carbon Tetrachloride- induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats / R. Valarmathi, A.Rajendran, V. Gopal, R. Senthamarai, S. Akilandeswari
and B.Srileka / International Journal of PharmTech Research CODEN (USA): International Journal of PharmaTech Research, IJPRIF, July-Sept 2010; Vol 2, No 3, pp 1658-1661
/ ISSN : 0974-4304
An antifungal triterpenoid from mollugo pentaphylla / Matthias Hamburger, Guy Dudan et al / Phytochemistry, Volume 28, Issue 6, 1989, Pages 1767-1768 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)97844-0
Mollugo stricta L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF MOLLUGO PENTAPHYLLA AND GLINUS OPPOSITIFOLIUS (L) / S. K. Sahu*, D. Das, N. K. Tripathy, S. C. Dinda and H. K. Sundeep Kumar / Rasayan J. Chem, Vol. 5, No.1, pp 57-62, January - March 2012.
Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory activity and dose selection of Mollugo pentaphylla by using cotton pellet induced granuloma in rat. / Mishra N.K*, Panda R.K, Rajakumar V, Saroj kumar, K Tejonidhi, Gitanjali Mishra / Int.J.Pharm.& Health Sci. Vol. 1 (3), 2010, 155-162
Study on Antipyretic Activity of a Mollugo pentaphylla Linn in Albino Mice / R.Valarmathi,* A.Rajendran, S.Akilandeswari, R.Senthamarai / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.2, No.4, pp 2388-2390, Oct-Dec 2010
Study the Effect of Mollugo Pentaphylla on the Proliferation and Migration and Collagen Synthesis of SD Rat Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells in Vitro / China Papers
S.K.Sahu*, D.Das, N.K.Tripathy, H. K. Sundeep Kumar and M.Banerjee / Rasayan J Chem, 2011; Vol 4, No 3: pp 533-538
Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria / Kim SS, Kim JY, Lee NH, Hyun CG. / J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2008 Apr;54(2):101-6.
Effect of Methanolic Extract of Mollugo pentaphylla on Blood Glucose Levels in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats / R. Valarmathi, A. Rajendran, R. Senthamarai, S. Shakila Banu, P. Punitha, and S. Priyadharshini / Int. J. Pharm. Phytopharmacol. Res. 2013; 3 (1): pp 42-43
Screening of anti-inflammatory activity and dose selection of Mollugo pentaphylla by using cotton pellet induced granuloma in rat / N.K. Mishra*, R.K1Panda, Gitanjali Mishra, V. Rajakumar, Saroj Kumar and K. Tejonidhi / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY & LIFE SCIENCES, 2(6): June 2011
Diuretic and laxative activity of ethanolic extract of Mollugo pentaphylla Linn. / Sahu S.K.*, Das D., Tripathy N.K., Kumar H.K. Sundeep / Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics, 2012, Vol 4, Issue 5
The possible use of Peh-Hue-Juwa-Chi-Cao as an antitumour agent and radioprotector after therapeutic irradiation / Jenq-Jer Yang, Chun-Ching Lin, Hsue-Yin Hsu / Phytotherapy Research, 11: 6–10./ DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199702)11:1<6::AID-PTR938>3.0.CO;2-L

Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of a edible, medicinally important plant taxa Mollugo pentaphylla L. (Molluginaceae) / Debasree Ghosh, Prarthita Samanta, Amal Kumar Mondal and Sanjukta Mondal (Parui) / Internatonal Journal of Bioassays, 2016; 5(7): pp 4707-4710 / http://dx.doi.org/10.21746/ijbio.2016.07.009
Anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoarthritis effect of Mollugo pentaphylla extract. / Lee Y M, Son E, Jim S H, Kim Q S, Kim D S,/Pharm Sci., Dec 2019; 57(1): pp 74-81 / doi: 10.1080/13880209.2018.1557700.
Effects of Mollugo pentaphylla extract on monosodium urate crystal-induced gouty arthritis in mice / Yun Mi Lee, Sun-Jung Shon, Ohn Soon Kim, Donu Seon Kim / BMC Complementary Medicine and Alternative Medicine, 2017; 17, Article No 447
Trigastrotheca stricta / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Trigastrotheca / Wikipedia
Trigastrotheca stricta / Flora of Australia
Trigastrotheca stricta / Last edited by Pieter B Pelser, 2019 / Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines
Diversity and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by Shui people in Southwest China / Sizhao Liu, Beixi Zhang, Qiyi Lei et al / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2023; 19: 20 / PMID: 37254191 / DOI: 10.1186/s13002-023-00594-4
A REVIEW ON ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN HUMAN HEALTH CARE BY THE PEOPLE OF ASSAM, INDIA / Bichitra Gohain, Pinki Gogoi, Pallavi Sharma, Jyotima Nath / International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts (IJCRT), 2022; 10(3) / ISSN: 2320-2882

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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