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Family Celastraceae
Euonymus indicus B.Heyne ex Wall.

Scientific names Common names
Euonymus alatus Elmer            Malasangki (Tag.)
Euonymus bancanus Miq.            Talangutingon (C. Bis.)
Euonymus coriaceus Ridl.            Indian spindle wood (Engl.)
Euonymus elmeri Merr.             
Euonymus goughii Wight             
Euonymus horsfieldii Turcz.             
Euonymus indicus B.Heyne ex Wall.             
Euonymus javanicus Blume             
Euonymus javanicus var. coriaceus (Ridl.) Blakelock             
Euonymus javanicus var. elmeri (Merr.) Blakelock             
Euonymus javanicus var. sphaerocarpus Hassk             
Euonymus javanicus var. talungensis Pierre             
Euonymus javanicus var. timorensis (Zipp. ex Span.) Miq.             
Euonymus micropetalus Ridl.             
Euonymus sphaerocarpus Hassk             
Euonymus sumatranus Merr.             
Euonymus timorensis Zipp. ex Span.             
Euonymus javanicus is a synonym of Euonymus indicus.
Euonymus indicus is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
FRANCE: Bonnet de pretre.
INDIA: Vini (Tamil), Inkauol, Ravong.
INDONESIA: Ki keuyeup, Jerukan, Awa kundang-kudang.
MALAYSIA: Kemuning ayer, Belungkkas, Belimbing hutan.
THAILAND: Kraduuk kai, Khao kwang.

Gen info
- Euonymus is a genus of flowering plants in the staff vine family, Celastraceae. It comprises about 130 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs, small trees and lianas.

Euonymus javanicus is an evergreen, small to medium-sized tree up to 25 m tall; bole up to 50 cm in diameter, without buttresses; bark surface smooth, grey-brown, inner bark pinkish. Leaves opposite, often decussate, simple, entire or crenate; stipules lanceolate, caducous. Flowers bisexual, in an axillary fascicle or a simple cyme, 5-merous; calyx deeply lobed; petals imbricate, fimbriate, pale green or yellowish; disk 5-angular; stamens inserted on or near the margin of the disk; ovary superior, partly sunken in the disk, 5-locular with 2 ovules in each cell, style short. Fruit a usually clavate or broadly obovoid capsule, red, splitting into valves. Seed black, partly covered by an orange aril. Seedling with epigeal germination; cotyledons emergent; hypocotyl elongated.

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to  Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam. (1)
- In primary and secondary lowland to montane forests, up to 2400 m altitude.

- Seeds are emetic and purgative.

Parts used
Leaves, seeds, bark.


- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In India, bark used for treatment of liver disorders that follow or accompany fevers.
- Seeds are strongly emetic and purgative.
- Fresh leaves and dried fruit and seeds used externally to treat scabies, lice (head, body or pubic), ticks and other skin parasites. (2)
- Used for eye diseases, dyspepsia, constipation. Aqueous extract of leaves used to treat spermatorrhea. (3)
- Wood: Fairly strong, moderately durable when in contact with the ground; considered resistant to weathering and insects. (2)
- Crafts and Construction: Used for house building, temporary construction, bridges, small furniture, carving, and turnery. Also for making spindles, pegs, spoons, and toothpicks. (2)

No studies found.


August 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Euonymus indicus / Inflorescence / © The Biotik Team, French Institute of Pondicherry / Non-commercial use / Image modified / click on image or link to go to source page / IndiaBiodiversity
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo : Celastraceae - Euonymus indicus / Fruits / Copyright © 2011 by Leonardo L Co [ref. DOL27053] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Euonymus indicus / KEW: Plants of the World Online

An Ethnomedicinal Study of Important Medicinal Plants in Kudermukh National Park of Karnataka: A Review /  Rahul Pradhan, T N Manohara, H S Suresh, Amit Prakash Nayak / International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 2020; 9(9): pp 3477-3490 / ISSN: 2319-7706 /
DOI: 10.20546/ijcmas.2020.909.432
Euonymus javanicus / Umberto Quattrocchi / CRC World Dictionary of Medicina and Poisonous Plants

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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