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Family Euphorbiaceae
Malatinta
Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir.

POTATO BUSH
Xiao guo ye xia zhu

Scientific names  Common names 
Anisonema dubium   Blume Malatinta (Tag.) 
Anisonema intermedium Decne. Matang-buiud (Bik.) 
Anisonema reticulatum (Poir.) A.Juss. Nipin (Sul.) 
Cicca decandra Blanco Suñgot-olang (Bis.) 
Cicca reticulata (Poir.) Kurz Tinatinaan (Tag.) 
Cicca decandra Blanco Tintatintahan (Tag., Bik.) 
Diasperus multiflorus (Baill.) Kuntze Potato plant (Engl.)
Diasperus reticulatus (Poir.) Kuntze Potato bush (Engl.)
Kirganelia reticulata (Poir.) Baill. Reticulated leaf-flower (Engl.)
Kirganelia sinensis Baill.  
Phyllanthus chamissonis Klotzsch  
Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir.  
Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Panjulil.
CHINESE: Xiao guo ye xia zhu (Hong Kong).
HINDI: Panjuli.
INDIA: Krishna kamboji.
KANNADA: Pulaverii, Anamsule.
MALAYALAM: Niruri, Nireli.
MARATHI: Pavana.
SANSKRIT: Pulika, Krishna-kamboji.
TAMIL: Karuvilangi, Abaranji, Karunelli, Kattukilanelli.

Botany
Malatinta is an erect or somewhat climbing and many-branched shrub, 1.5 to 5 meters high, or a small tree growing up to 5 meters high. Leaves are alternate along slender branches, pale beneath, oblong to elliptic-oblong, 1.5 to 4 centimeters long. Flowers are solitary or few in each axil, 2 to 3 millimeters long, green and tinged with purple. Fruit is depressed-globose, 5 to 7 millimeters in diameter, soft, fleshy, smooth and purple-black when mature.

Distribution
- Common in thickets at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.
- Occurs in India to southern China and in Taiwan, southward through Malaya to Timor and Celebes.

Constituents
- Leaves contain a tannic acid, but no alkaloid.
- Studies have yielded tannin acid, octocosanol, teraxerol, friedeline, teraxerone, betulin, sitosterol, scopoletin, stigmasterol, lupeol.
- Phytochemical studies isolated three compounds: lupeol acetate, stigmasterol and lupeol.

- A methanol extract study yielded 3 triterpenoids: glochidonol, stigmast-22-en-3-ol, and stigmast-5-en-3-ol. (15)
- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded tannins, phenols, and quinone. (19)
- Study of essential oil constituents of leaves yielded monoterpenes (64.9%) as dominant compound, followed by sesquiterpenes (23.0%), with major monoterpene constituents of α-pinene (6.0%), sabinene (7.6%), β-pinene (18.1%), linalool (6.9%) and camphor (7.7%) and sesquiterpene constituents of β-caryophyllene (11.9%) and germacrene D (8.6%). (22)
- Phytochemical screening of P. reticulatus leaf (L), stem bark (SB) and root bark (RB) yielded: alkaloids (L, SB, RB), anthocyanins ( L, SB, RB), anthraceneglycosides (trace RB), carotenoids (L), catacholic compounds (L), coumarins (L), dihydrochalcones (L), emodins (L), flavonoids, (L, SB, RB), flavonols ( SB, RB), flavones (L, STtr, RB), glycosides (L), lignans (L), phenols (L, SB, RB), polyoses (L), saponins (L, RB, SB), steoids (L), triterpenoids (L, SB, RB). (28)

Properties
- Bark is astringent, diuretic, alterative and attenuant.
- Studies have shown anti-diabetic, anti-plasmodial, hypolipidemic, antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities.

Parts utilized
Leaves, roots, fruit.

Uses
Edibility
· Fruit reported to be eaten in times of scarcity in East Africa.
Folkloric
· Decoction or infusion of dried bark used for dysentery.
· Powdered leaf used for sores, burns, suppurations.
· Fruit is astringent to the bowels; used for diarrhea in infants.
· Leaves and roots used for fractures and traumatic injuries.
· Astringent, used in treatment of liver and splenic diseases; also used for rheumatism.
· In Zambia, the plant is used as a remedy for anemia and intestinal hemorrhages; the roots and fruit have been used for criminal poisoning.
· European farmers have used the powdered leaf as application for sores, burns and venereal sores. Bark and leaf used as diuretic.
· In Ashanti, leaves mixed with palm nuts (Elaeis guineensis) and made into a broth and given to new delivered women.
· In the Konkan, juice of leaves made into pills with camphor and cubebs, and allowed to dissolve in the mouth as a remedy for bleeding gums.
· In Bangladesh, used for treatment of gastric problems, colic, constipation.
· In the Gold Coast, stems used for sore eyes, the juice blown into the eyes.
· In India, leaves and stems used as antidiarrheal, astringent, diuretic, anti-inflammatory; used for anemia, bleeding gums and burns.
(13)
· In Andhra Pradesh, leaf decoction used daily for piles. Leaf juice used for dysentery in cattle. Leaves crushed with Celosia argentea and applied externally for skin diseases.
(17)
· In Zululand, root bark infusions used as emetic.
· Frayed twig used as toothbrush.
· In Sudan, used as diuretic and refrigerant. In South Africa, powder of leaves applied to sores, burns, suppurations and chafed areas. In West Africa, juice of stem used for sore eyes and twigs as chew sticks. (24)
Other
· Dye: Filipinos use the juice of ripe fruit as ink. The Zulus use the root in making a dark brown or black dye, for coloring fishing lines to make them less conspicuous in water. • In East Africa, roots and bark used as red to black dye. In Kenya, bark used as dye for tanning fishing lines. (24)
· Toothbrush: Frayed twig used as toothbrush.
· Wood and plant parts: Stems used in Northern Nigeria as roof-binders in conical huts. Wood is very hard and used by tribes in East Africa for threshing flail.

Studies
Antiplasmodial Activity:
In a study of 16 extracts of four Kenyan medicinal plants being screened for phytochemicals and antiplasmodial activity, P reticulatus and S zanzibariensis showed the most activity against the tested strains. (1)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory Activity: Study showed extracts of P reticulatus using acetic acid-induced writhing test and carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model, showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. (2)
Antidiabetic Activity: Study of petroleum and ethanolic extracts of P reticulatus showed antidiabetic activity at dose of 1000 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening revealed terpenoids glycosides, protein, carbohydrates and absence of alkaloids and steroids.
Hepatoprotective Activity: Study of fat free ethanol extract of the aerial parts of P reticulatus showed promising hepatoprotective activity evidenced by changes in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, changes in liver enzymes and histopathologic changes.
(5)
Cytotoxic Activity: In a study screening the cytotoxicity of some medicinal plants, Phyllanthus reticulatus exhibited strong brine shrimp lethality.
(6)
Hypocholesterolemic / Oxidative Stress Effect: Study evaluated the effect of P. reticulatus aqueous extract on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. It was effective in controlling total cholesterol, lipid profile and oxidative stress in the animals. Results suggest a preventive potential for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients.
(8)
Antinociceptive / Hypoglycemic: Methanol extract exhibited beneficial effects as a pain reliever and in reducing the elevated blood glucose level of hyperglycemic mice.
(9)
Antioxidant / Hypoglycemic: Methanol extract exhibited potent antioxidant activity. Its natural origin and potent free radical scavenging activity presents a potential preventive intervention for free radical mediated diseases.
Anti-Hepatitis B Viral Activity: Study of two organic fractions of a fat free ethanolic extract showed anti-HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen) activity at high concentrations. The activity may be due to binding of the agents with the antibody binding sites on HBsAg.
(11)
Anti-Inflammatory / Fruit: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of ripe fruit for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with significant (P<0.01) reduction of paw volume when compared to diclofenac sodium.
(12)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of leaves of P. reticulatus for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Results showed the PE extract to have significant and higher activity than the methanolic extract.
(13)
Radical Scavenging Activity: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of the plant for free radical scavenging activity in different in vitro models. Results showed antioxidant activity attributed to the presence of methanol extractable phenolic compounds and other constituents.
(14)
Hypoglycemic / Roots: Study evaluated petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of roots for hypoglycemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed good hypoglycemic activity at 1000 mg/kg dose. Phytochemical screening yielded terpenoids glycosides, protein, carbohydrates, with an absence of alkaloids and steroids.
(16)
Antidiabetic / Antidiarrheal / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-diabetic and antidiarrheal activity of a methanol extract of leaves in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Results showed significant hypoglycemic activity in OGTT. There was significant effect in controlling diarrhea in castor oil and magnesium induced diarrheal tests.
(20)
Antimicrobial / Cytotoxicity / Scopoletin / Stem Bark: Study isolated scopoletin from the chloroform fraction of methanol extract of stem bark. All partitionates tested showed moderate to strong inhibitory activity to microbial growth while the chloroform soluble fraction showed strongest cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality assay.
(21)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antinociceptive / CNS Depressant / Leaves: Study of methanol extract of leaves showed significant dose dependent CNS depressant activity (hole cross test and open field test), anti-inflammatory (carrageenan induced paw edema), and analgesic (acetic acid induced writhing) properties.
(23)
• Natural Indicator in Acid Base Titration: Study showed the fruit extract can be useful, economical, simple, and accurate for acid base titration. (25)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of various (ethanol, PE, and choloroform) extracts of P. reticulatus leaves against four gram negative (S. dysenteriae, S. typhi, P. aeuriginosa, and S. sonnei) and six gram positive bacteria (Sarcina lutea, Bacillus megaterium, B. subtilis, B. cereus, S. aureus, and Streptococcus ß-hemolyticus). All the extracts produced various zones of inhibition against all tested bacteria with the ethanol extract showing better potency. (26)
• Nootropic Effect / Fruit: Study evaluated the nootropic effect of ethanolic extract of P. reticulatus on cognitive functions, brain antioxidant enzymes, and acetylcholinesterase activity in aluminum-induced impairment and oxidative stress in Swiss albino rats. Results showed the fruit extract at 100 and 200 mg/kbw markedly (p<0.01 and p<0.01) decreased the level of AChE activity and showed excellent nootropic effect on cognitive performance and brain antioxidant markers. Results suggest a potential for the management of neurodegenerative diseases especially Alzheimer's disease. (27)
• Anti-Cancer Activity / Colon Cancer Cell Line: Study evaluated the anti-cancer properties of P. reticulatus by MIT assay of in-vitro colon cancer cel lines-HT-29. Results showed an anti-cancer effect with the aqueous extract showing 50% cell viability at 15.6 mg/ml, while an ethanol extract showed 31.2 mg/ml. (29)
• Antiarthritic / Polyprenol: Study evaluated the in vitro, in vivo, and in silico antiarthritic activity of polyprenol, a phytoconstituent isolated from the leaves of Kirganelia reticulata. The isolated polyprenol showed potent dose-dependent antiarthritic effect possibly through maintenance of synovial membrane and vascular permeability with subsequent inhibition of cytokines and leukotrine infiltration inhibition.   (30)

Availability
Wild-crafted. 


Last Update February 2017
June 2015

© Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Phyllanthus reticulatus Blanco2.239-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Phyllanthus reticulatus Poiret / Indian medicinal plants, vol. 5: t. 857 / Illustration contributed by the library of the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A. / PlantIllustrations.org

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antiplasmodial activity of four Kenyan medicinal plants / E Omulokoli et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume 56, Issue 2, April 1997, Pages 133-137 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(97)01521-3
(2)
The Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Extracts of Phyllanthus reticulatus. in Mice Model / Achinta Saha et al / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology / 2007, Vol. 45, No. 5, Pages 355-359
(3)
A Chemical Study on Phyllanthus reticulatus / A.K. Jamal*, W.A. Yaacob and Laily B. Din / Journal of Physical Science, Vol. 19(2), 45–50, 2008 45

(4)
Antidiabetic potential of Phyllanthus reticulatus in alloxan-induced diabetic mice / S et al / Fitoterapia • Volume 79, Issue 1, January 2008, Pages 21-23
/ doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2007.06.012
(5)
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF PHYLLANTHUS RETICULATUS / Biplab K et al / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.21, No.4, October 2008, pp.333-337

(6)
Preliminary Cytotoxicity Screening of Some Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh / Mohammad S Rahman et al / Dhaka Univ. J. Pharm. Sci. 7(1): 47-52, 2008 (June)

(7)
Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. / Mandisa Kondlo, Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden / June 2010
(8)
Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats / V Maruthappan, K Sakthi Shree / Indian Journ of Pharmacology, 2010, Vol 42, No 6, Pp 388-391 /
(9)
A Pharmacological Study on Antinociceptive and Anti-hyperglycemic Effects of Methanol Extract of Leaves of Phyllanthus Reticulatus Poir. In Swiss Albino Mice / Mohammed Rahmatullah, Khokon Chandra Ghosh, Abdullah Al Mamun et al / Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4(3): 229-232, 2010
(10)
Sorting Phyllanthus names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(11)
Anti Hepatitis B Viral Activity of Phyllanthus reticulatus / Biplab Das*, Mohammad Shohel, Adit Muktadir Pavel, Rajib Bhattacharjee, Banibrata Das, Tahmina Yasmin, Nasrin Akhter and JMA Hannan / Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, January 2011
(12)
Pharmacognostic study and anti - inflammatory activity of Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. fruit / Sunil *, Shalini Sharma, Dinesh , Tarun , Renu Arya and Karunesh / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)S332-S335
(13)
Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory activity of Petroleum ether and Methanolic extract of Phyllanthus reticulatus leaves / Patel Jaya*, Gaudani Rashmi / Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research 1(6) 266-270 (2011) ISSN 2249-3379
(14)
In Vitro Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Methanol Extract of Entire Plant of Phyllanthus Reticulatus Poir /
Aswatha Ram H. N.*, Shreedhara C.S., Falguni P. Gajera and Sachin B. Zanwar / Pharmacologyonline 2: 440-451 (2008)
(15)
Triterpenoids from Phyllanthus Reticulatus / Jamal A. Nasser, W.A.Yaacob, and Laily B.Din / International Conference on Applied Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences (ICACPS'2012) May 19-20, 2012 Penang (Malaysia)
(16)
Hypoglycemic activity of roots of Phyllanthus reticulatus in alloxan induced diabetic mice / S. KUMAR*, D. KUMAR, R.R. DESMUKH AND V.D. RANGARI / Internat. J. Plant Sci. Vol.2 No.1 January 2007 : 184-187
(17)
Medicinal plants used by ethnic people of Medak district, Andhra Pradesh / K N Reddy, G Trimurthulu, & Ch Sudhakar Reddy / Indian Journ of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 9(11), Jan 2010, pp 184-190.
(18)
Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(19)
Preliminary phytochemical evaluation of leaf extracts of Gymnema sylvestre, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus reticulatus of Siddarabetta, Tumkur district, Karnataka / *S. M. Gopinath, C. K. Rakesh, T. P. Narasimha Murthy, K. S. Dayananda / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2012; 4(3); 109-111
(20)
Antidiabetic and antidiarrheal effects of the methanolic extract of Phyllanthus reticulatus leaves in mice / Mst. Hajera Khatun, Mst. Luthfun Nesa, Rafikul Islam, Farhana Alam Ripa, Al mamum, Shahin Kadirf / Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2014, Pages 121–127 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2305-0500(14)60015-4
(21)
Phytochemical and Biological Investigations of Phyllanthus reticulatus / Taslima Begum, Mohammad S. Rahman and Mohammad A. Rashid / Dhaka Univ. J. Pharm. Sci. 5(1-2): 21-23, 2006 (June-December)

(22)
Essential Oil of Phyllanthus reticulatus Poiret from Nigeria* / Akintayo L. Ogundajo, Afusat M. Aruna, Ayo O. Owolabi, Isiaka A. Ogunwande*, Guido Flamini / AJPS, Vol.6 No.1, January 2015 / DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.61002 506
(23)
Anti-Inflammatory, Antinociceptive and CNS Depressant Activities of the Methanolic Extract of Phyllanthus reticulatus Leaves / Hajera Khatun, Luthfun Nesa, Badrul Alam, Laizuman Nahar, Shirajum Munira and Al Imran Hosen / Global Journal of Pharmacology 7 (2): 172-178, 2013 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.gjp.2013.7.2.74116
(24)
PHYLLANTHUS RETICULATUS POIR. – AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT: A REVIEW OF ITS PHYTOCHEMISTRY, TRADITIONAL USES AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
/ Shalini Sharma* and Sunil Kumar / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES AND RESEARCH
(25)
USE OF PHYLLANTHUS RETICULATUS FRUIT EXTRACT AS A NATURAL INDICATOR IN ACID BASE TITRATION / PATIL M. V.*, JADHAV R.L / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 4, Suppl 1, 2012
(26)
Antibacterial potential of leaf extracts from Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir / Md Soriful Islam, Most Mauluda Akhtar, Shamima Akhtar Sharmin, M. Firoz Alam / IJPRD, 2013; Vol 5(04): June-2013 (088 – 095)
(27)
Analyzing Nootropic Effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. on Cognitive Functions, Brain Antioxidant Enzymes and Acetylcholinesterase Activity against Aluminium-Induced Alzheimer’s Model in Rats: Applicable for Controlling the Risk Factors of Alzheimer’s Disease / Md. Sahab Uddin*, Abdullah Al Mamun, Mohammed Ashraful Iqbal, Ariful Islam, Md. Farhad Hossain, Sayema Khanum, Mamunur Rashid / Advances in Alzheimer’s Disease, 2016, 5, 87-102 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/aad.2016.53007
(28)
Phytochemical Constituents of Phyllanthus Species (Euphorbiaceae) from Eastern Bhats of Andhra Pradesh, India / R.R.Venkata Raju et al / International Research Journal of Pharmacy 2012, 3(5)
(29)
ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY OF PHYLLANTHUS RETICULATUS ON COLON CANCER CELL LINE / C. Aarthi and Dr. P.B. Ramesh Babu / International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2017, pp. 943–947
(30)
In vitro, in vivo and in silico antiarthritic studies of polyprenol from Kirganelia reticulata Baill. / Shruthi SD*, Sujan Ganapathy PS, Padmalatha Rai S, Ramachandra YL / J Biochem Tech (2012) 3(5)

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