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Family Anacardiaceae
Mangifera indica Linn.

Mang guo

Scientific names  Common names 
Mangifera indica Linn. Mampalam (Sul.)
Mangifera anisodora Blanco   Mampalang (Sul.) 
Mangifera domestica Gaertn. Manga (Tag.) 
Mangifera fragrans F.-Vill. Mangachupadera (Span.) 
Mangifera rostrata  Blanco Mangang-kalabau (Tag.) 
Mangifera sylvatica  F.-Vill. Mangang-piko (Tag.) 
  Mango (Engl.) 
  Mangka (Ig.)
  Paho (P. bis) 
  Pao (Bon.) 
Mangifera indica L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Manja, Manga, Mangô, Mangu.
ARMENIAN: Mang, Mango.
ASSAMESE: Aam, Aamro, Ghariyam.
BENGALI: Aama, Amchur.
BURMESE: Thayeq dhì, Thayeq.
CHINESE: Mi wang, Wang guo, Guo, Ma meng, Mang guo.
CZECH: Amčur , Mangovník indický.
DANISH: Mango, Mangofrugt, Mangotræ.
DUTCH: Manga, Mangga, Manja, Mangoestanboom, Mangostanboom.
ESTONIAN: India mangopuu (tree), Mangopulber.
FINNISH: Mango, Mangopuu.
FRENCH: Mangue, Manguier.
GERMAN: Indischer Mangobaum, Mango , Mangofrucht, Mangobaum, Mangopalme.
GREEK: Magko, Mangko.
GUJARATI: Aambo, Ambodiya, Marvo.
HAUSA : Mangoro, Mangwaro.
HEBREW: Mango.
HINDI: Āma, Am chur, Āmacura, An̄cūra, Kaccā āma.
JAPANESE: Anchaa, Mangoo, Mangou.
KANNADA: Āmra, Maavu, Māvina haṇṇu, Mavinkai churu.
KHMER: Svaay.
KOREAN : Mang go.
LAOTIAN: Mak mouang, Mwàngx.
LITHUANIAN: Indinis mangas.
MALAY: Ampelam, Mangga, Mangga, Mempelam.
MALAYALAM: Amram, Choothaphalam, Manga, Maav, Maavu, Mampalam.
MARATHI: Amba, Amchuur, Aamchuur.
NEPALESE: Aanpa, Amacura.
ORIYA: Aamba, Amchura.
POLISH: Drzewo mangowe, Mango indyjskie.
PORTUGUESE: Manga, Mangueira.
RUSSIAN: Манго Mango
SANSKRIT: Aamra, Ambrah, Amra chuta, Madhuula Madhuulaka, Madhuuli, Madhuulii.
SINHALESE: Amba, Dumpara, Etamba, Amba gasa.
SLOVAKIAN: Mangovník indický.
TELUGU: Amramu, Māmiḍi, Māmiḍi kāya, Māmiḍi paṇḍu, Myāṅgō.
THAI: Mamuang.
URDU: Aam, Amba, Amchur, Amchur.

Manga is a large tree, with a dense and spreading crown. Leaves are oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 10 to 30 centimeters long. The flowers are yellow, small, 3 to 4 millimeters long, borne on erect and hairy panicles, which as as often as long as the leaves. The fruit is a drupe, of varying shades of yellow, fleshy, oblong-ovoid,10 to 15 centimeters long, and slightly compressed, the skin is thin, and in the center is a large flattened, fibrous seed, and when ripe, surrounded by an edible yellow pulp.

It is a widely cultivated tree for its fruit. It has several varieties in cultivation, the most popular are the "carabao" and "piko," and the former used to be the preferred export variety. The Guimaras mango is now considered the sweetest of mango varieties produced in the Philippines.

- Cultivated throughout the Philippines.
- Certainly introduced.
- In cultivation in the Indo-Malayan region.
- Now planted in all tropical countries.

- Mangiferin; mangin; piuri-yellow dye; benzoic acid; citric acid; tannin, 10%.
- The leaves contain 43-46 percent euxanthin acid and some euxanthon.
- Seed contains a fixed oil, oleostearin, starch, gallic acid, and tannin.
- The bark exudate yields a resin, gum, ash, and tannin.
- Study of fruit exudation, "chep" resin, isolated three products: a resin, mangiferene; a resinous acid, mangiferic acid; and a resinol (phenol), mangiferol .
- Mangostine, 29-hydroxymangiferonic acid, mangiferin and flavonoids have been isolated from the stem bark. Leaves and flowers yield an essential oil containing humulene, elemene, ocimene, linalool and nerol. (Source)
- Methanol extract of twigs yielded 4, 8­Bis­hydroxymethyl­7­(1­ hydroxy­1­methyl­ethyl)­1­(3,4,6­trihydroxy­5­
hydroxymethyl­tetrahydro­pyran­2yl)4­7­8­ trihydro­naphthalen­2­one. (25)
- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins.
- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded the presence of saponins, steroids, tannin, flavonoid, reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides, and anthraquinone. (38)
- Study of twigs yielded 4, 8-­Bis­hydroxymethyl­-7-­(1-­ hydroxy­-1-­methyl­-ethyl)­-1­-(3,4,6­trihydroxy-­5­-hydroxymethyl-­tetrahydro-­pyran­-2yl)4-­7-­8­-trihydro-­naphthalen-­2­-one. (39)
- Aqueous extracts of leaves yielded tannins, flavonoid, steroid, cardiac glycoside, alkaloids, and carbohydrates, and proteins. (see study below) (52)
- Study of essential oil of leaves from two Brazilian varieties yielded major compounds: variety Espada— sesquiterpenes such as ß-selinene (34.90%), cyperene (22.40%), (E)-caryophyllene (16.39%), α--humulene (10.84%), terpinolene (2.31%) and α--selinene (2.31%); variety coracao-de-boi—cyperene (32.62%), (E)-caryophyllene (26.91%), α--humulene (17.21%), terpinolene (2.32%), ß-selinene (5.70%) and mycene (2.80%). (see study below) (63)

• Root, diuretic; bark, astringent; seeds, astringent and vermifuge; leaves, pectoral.
• Considered antiseptic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, diaphoretic, stomachic, vermifuge, cardiotonic and laxative.
Seed kernel considered antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antioxidant, antiviral against uropathogens.
• Ripe fruit considered invigorating, refreshing, fattening, slightly laxative, and diuretic.
Rind, fiber, and unripe fruit considered astringent and acid. The pickled unripe fruit is considered stomachic and appetizing.

Parts used and preparation
Leaves, kernel, bark and fruit.

Edibility / Nutritional
- Good source of iron (deficient in calcium); excellent source of vitamins A, B, and C.
- Fruit contains citric, tartaric and mallic acids.
- Food: As fruit or mango-ade. Makes a delicious ice cream. Slice and served with cream and sugar, taste has slightly similarity to peaches. Mangoes are canned with syrup, dried and candied, jammed. Unripe mangoes are chutneyed, or pickled in brine.
- Young, fresh leaves are used in native dishes like "kasui." Also, prepared as tea.
- In the Philippines, decoction of root is considered diuretic.
- Bark and seeds are astringent. In Cambodia, used in hot lotions for rheumatism and leucorrhea.
- In India and Cambodia, solution of the gum from the bark is swallowed for dysentery.
- Resin is used for aphthous stomatitis.
- Cough: Drink infusion of young leaves as needed.
- Diarrhea: Take decoction of bark or kernel as tea.
- Fluid extract, or infusion, used in menorrhagia, leucorrhea, hemorrhoidal bleeding, and hemorrhage from the lungs, nasal catarrh, and for lumbrici.
- Gum resin from the bark and fruit is used as sudorific; also as antisyphilitic.
- Root bark is a bitter aromatic, and in Sind, used for diarrhea and leucorrhea.
- Decoction of leaves with a little honey used for loss of voice.
- Gum resin from bark, mixed with coconut oil, used for scabies and other parasitic skin diseases.
- Juice of leaves used for dysentery.
- Tea of leaves with a little honey used for hoarseness and aphonia, 4 glasses daily.
- Powdered dried leaves, 1 tbsp to a cup of warm water, 4 times daily, used for diabetes. Also, decoction of 10-15 fresh mango leaves used for the same purpose.
- Ashes of burned leaves used for scalds and burns.
- Infusion of young leaves used in asthma and cough.
- Tea of powdered dried flowers, 4 times daily for diarrhea, urethritis.
- Juice of peel of unripe mangoes used for skin diseases.
- Seed is vermifuge and astringent.
- Seed is considered astringent, vermifuge; given in obstinate diarrhea and for bleeding piles.
- Kernel or stone from the green mango considered an anthelmintic.
- For asthma, bleeding piles, chronic dysentery, hematemesis, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, and round worms, powdered seed is given, with or without honey.
- In Indian traditional medicine, seeds used for vomiting, dysentery, diarrhea. Paste is made from seed, honey and camphor and applied over the vagina to make the vagina contracted and firm.
- Dye: Yellow coloring produced from the leaves, bark, and fruit, called "peori dye" in India.

Review article updating info on phytochemical and pharmacological activities indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, and anti-inflammatory properties. Other studies suggest other effects: antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, anti-bone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrheal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, and gastroprotective.
Antibacterial / Phytochemicals:
Study showed that leaf extracts of M. indica possess some antibacterial activity against S aureus, E coli, P aeruginosa and provides a basis for its medical use in Uganda. Phytochemical study showed saponins, steroids and triterpenoids, alkaloids, coumarins, anthracenocides, flavonones, tannins and reducing sugars.
Effects on Hematologic Parameters/ Stem Bark: Study evaluated crude aqueous extract of stem bark extracts of MI on body weight and hematologic parameters in normal albino rats. Results showed positive effects on the haemopoietic system of test rats evidenced by an increase in levels of hematocrit, RBC, WBC and platelet counts. There was also an increase in the weight of rats.
-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Hypoglycemic / Stem Bark: Results of the study support the folkloric use of the plant for painful arthritic and other inflammatory conditions, as well as T2DM.
Anti-Clostridium tetany activity:
Study showed both the ethereal and ethanolic fractions of leaf extracts showed anti-clostridium tetani activity.
Mangifera indica stem bark effect on the rat trachea contracted by acetylcholine and histamine: Study showed MI blockage of histaminic and muscarinic receptors, supporting the traditional use of MI stem back in the treatment of asthma.
Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice: Study showed increased humoral antibody titer and delayed type hypersensitivity in mice suggesting a potential for a drug with immunostimulant properties.
Study showed leaf extract of MI possess hypoglycemic activity, possibly due to reduction in intestinal absorption of glucose.
Flavonoids / Antihyperlipidemic Effect: Flavonoids from M indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats with induced-hyperlipidemia. Degradation and elimination of cholesterol were enhanced.
Antioxidant: Oral administration of flavonoids showed significant antioxidant action in cholesterol-fed experimental rats. The activities of free radical-scavenging enzymes were significantly elevated and lipid peroxide content was significantly reduced in flavonoid-treated hypercholesterolemic rats.
Anti-diarrheal Activity / Seeds: Study of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of seeds of M indica showed significant anti-diarrhea activity, the effect partly attributed to the effect on intestinal transit.
Anti-Diabetic Activity / Stem Bark: Study showed all extracts had significant antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 model rats. The ethanol extracts of stem-barks reduced glucose absorption gradually during the whole perfusion period in type 2 rats.
Ethnopharmacology / Mangiferin: Mangiferin is a major C-glucosylxanthone from the stem bark, leaves, heartwood, roots and fruits of M indica and has been reported to have a variety of pharmacologic activities including antioxidant, radioprotective, antitumor, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antibacterial, among others, supporting the numerous traditional uses of the plant.
Polyphenols / Antiulcerogenic Activity: Study showed oral pretreatment with mangifera leaf decoction decreased the severity of gastric damage in induced-gastric lesions. Two main phenolic compounds isolated were mangiferin and C-glucosyl-benzophenone. The findings show the potential gastroprotective properties of the aqueous decoction from M indica leaves.
Anti-Cancer / Polyphenols: A Texas Agrilife Research study by food scientists Dr. Susanne Talcott and Dr Steve Talcott found that polyphenol extracts from mango promote anticancer activity in certain colon and breast cancer cells in lab. The polyphenols also showed some effects on lung, leukemia and prostate cancers. Polyphenolics, more specifically gallotannins, belong to a class of bioactive compounds that can prevent of stop cancer cells. Further studies will look into efficacy and clinical relevance.
Antibacterial / Seeds: Bioactive studies of Mangifera indica against bacterial isolated from urine samples showed the aqueous and ethanolic seed kernel extract good antibacterial activity against E coli, S aureus and S pyogenes. The antibacterial activity may be due to specific phytochemical components. Toxic components were not detected in the seed kernel and also appear to be a safe source of antioxidants.
Anti-Diabetic / Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV
Inhibitory Activity: The insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a recent addition to diabetes therapy, is metabolized by dipeptidyl peptidase IV, and inhibition of DDP IV enhance GLP-1 which improved insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. Study on the methanolic extract of Mangifera indica leaves show the inhibitory effect on DPPIV and present a potential novel approach to diabetes therapy.
Toxicological Studies / No Lethality : Study of stem-bark aqueous extract (MSBE), by oral or dermal administration, showed no lethality at the limit doses, with no adverse effects. it was non-irritating on skin, ocular, or rectal mucosa. It also had minimal irritancy following vaginal application.
Antidiabetic / Seed Kernels : Study evaluated the hypoglycemic potency of seed kernels of Mangifera indica ethanol extract in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed potent hypoglycemic activity. Possible mechanism of hypoglycemic action may be through potentiation of plasma insulin effect by increasing pancreatic insulin secretion from regenerated ß-cells or its discharge from bound insulin.
Mangiferin / Leaves :
Studies on mangiferin have shown antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, anti-HIV, antipyretic, anticancer, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective properties. The study isolated the pharmacologically active mangiferin using an uncomplicated method, with ethanol as solvent to obtain a crude extract. (23)
Memory-Enhancing / Fruit :
Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of fruit on cognitive performances in step down passive avoidance task and elevated plus maze task in mice. Treatment reversed the aging and scopolamine-induced memory deficits. Results showed effects that are memory-enhancing in nature. (24)
Leaves as Functional Food:
Study showed aqueous extract of mango leaves to be rich in total phenols and total flavonoids, and as powerful antioxidants should be used in manufacture processes of the natural products as function foods or as dietary supplement with antidiabetic activity and hypoglycemic effect. (26)
Cytotoxic Effect on Human Breast Cancer Cell Line:
Study evaluated the potential anticancer effects of an ethanolic kernel extract on breast cancer cell (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). Results showed the extract to be more cytotoxic to both estrogen positive and negative breast cancer cell lines than to normal breast cells. (27)
Antimicrobial / Leaves:
Study evaluated various leaf extracts for antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogenic bacteria. The hexane-ethyl acetate extract showed significant inhibition of almost all tested pathogenic organisms. (28)
Combination Mangifera Extract and Methotrexate (MTX) in Rheumatoid Arthritis:
Study evaluated the possible therapeutic effects and safety of Mangifera indica extract (Vimang tablets, 300 mg) combined with methotrexate (MTX) on reducing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Only patients of MTX-Vimang group showed statistically significant improvement in DAS (disease activity score) 28 parameters. In the same group, 100% of patients decreased NSAIDs use. (29)
Antihyperglycemic / Leaves:
Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed decreased alloxan effect and improvement in the laboratory parameters, suggesting a potential benefit for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. (30)
Antioxidant / Protective Against Lipofundin-Induced Oxidative Stress:
Lipofundin is a lipid rich emulsion used in parenteral nutrition, known to induce an oxidative stress state characterized by increase lipid peroxidation and depletion of antioxidants. Study showed Vimang protects against Lipofundin-induced oxidative stress, reinforcing the antioxidant properties of the natural product. (31)
Antihyperglycemic / Leaves: The insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a recent treatment for type 2 diabetes, is metabolized by DDP-IV (dipeptidyl peptidase IV). Inhibitors of DPP-IV enhance the level of GLP-1, which improve glucose tolerance and increase insulin secretion. Study showed a methanolic leaf extract to have potent in-vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity, and may present a novel addition to the treatment of diabetes.

Anthelmintic / Leaves:
Various extracts of M. indica var. Thotapuri and M. indica var. Neelam were evaluated for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Results showed dose-dependent anthelmintic activity. (33)
Cationic Biosorbent / Leaves:
Study evaluated the efficacy of unfertilizable fruiting buds of the mango plant as biomass for biosorbent for the removal of lead, copper, zinc, and nickel metal ions. Results showed the non-living biomass of Mangifera indica present comparable biosorption capacity for lead, copper, zinc, and nickel metal ions and is effective in removing metal ions from single metal solutions. (also see 63 below)  (34)
Immunostimulatory / Stem Bark:
Study evaluated the immunostimulatory effect of an ethanolic extract of M. indica stem bark in dexamethasone induced immunosuppressed male albino rats relative to immunoboosting effect of levamisole. Results showed a hepato-protective effect, a cholesterol lowering effect, and a stabilizing tendency on the alanine aminotransferase concentrations. (35)
Anti-Inflammatory / Colitis Model:
Study evaluated an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in rats. Results showed anti-inflammatory properties with improvement of clinical signs, reduction of ulceration, and reduced MPO activity when administered before DSS. (36)
Anti-Gouty Arthritis:
Study evaluated the therapeutic effects of ethanol extract of M. indica in rat with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals-induced gouty arthritis. Treatment revered pretreatment ankle swelling, TNF-a, IL-1ß mRNA and protein levels. The beneficial anti-gouty effect may be mediated, at least in part, by the inhibition of TNF-a and IL-1ß expression in synovial tissue. (37)
Activated Carbon from Pyrolysis of Seed:
Study reports of the preparation of activated carbons (ACs) by pyrolysis of mango seeds in presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide (chemical activities). Variable adsorption capacities and porosity distributions can be achieved depending on the activating agent selected. KOH produces AC with narrower micropore distributions than those prepared by NaOH. (40)
Acute Toxicity Study / Seed Kernel:
Study reports the seed kernel of Mangifera indica is practically non-toxic drug and reports on its safety. SKMI powders in dose up to 5 g/kg did not show any variations in mice, so 500 mg/kg body weight (1/10th part of 5 g/kg) can be used for experimental study for longer duration. (41)
Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Study / Mangiferin / Stem Bark:
Study evaluated acute and 28-day subchronic studies on mangiferin, a glucosyl xanthone isolated from M. indica stem bark. Results showed a low level of toxicity for orally administered mangiferin to rodents in acute and subchronic studies. Although there were some toxicity signs in repetitive dose assay, there is a wide margin of safety for oral administration under the experimental conditions. (42)
Hypoglycemic / Leaves / Type 2 Diabetes: Clinical study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of leaves of M. indica in type-2 diabetes mellitus. Results showed significant hypoglycemic activity in high dose and can be successfully combined with oral hypoglycemic agents in type-2 diabetic patients not controlled by these agents. (43)
Antibacterial / Fruit and Seed: Study evaluated the difference in antimicrobial activity of ripe and unripe seed and fruit extracts against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference. Ripe fruit extracts showed no activity against P. aeruginosa while ripe and unripe seed extracts showed antibacterial activity, with the ripe seed extract showing highest inhibitory action. (44)
• Herbal Finish / Prevention of Bed Sore: Study evaluated the development of a functional herbal finish to produce a bedsore preventing fabric using two herbal extracts viz. mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruits in 1:2 and 2:1 ratios with and without binder (chitosan). Results showed fabric dyed with Mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruits in 2:1 rations with chitosan was the most promising candidate. (45)
• Hypoglycemic Potential / In-Vitro Enzyme Inhibition / Leaves: Study evaluated the comparative hypoglycemic properties of aqueous methanolic extracts of mature and tender leaves of M. indica var. Totapuri in glucose loaded Wistar albino rats and in-vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition bioassays. Significant hypoglycemic activity was observed with both extracts. Extracts showed inhibition of rat intestinal α-glucosidase, as well as porcine pancreatic α-amylase. Activity may be due to inhibition of carbohydrate digesting enzymes by polyphenols, flavonoids and saponins in the extracts. (46)
• Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the wound healing property of M. indica leaf crude extract on Rattus norvegicus (Sprague-Dawley). Results showed significant wound healing activity (p<0.05) . The wound healing property was attributed to phytochemical constituents, mainly tannins, which can facilitate healing by increasing collagen formation and epithelization. (47)
• Effect on Liver Function / Hepatoprotective / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extract of M. indica dried leaves against CCl4 induced acute liver damage on albino rats. Results showed potential therapeutic values in CCl4 induced hepatic damage attributed to antioxidant principles. (48)
• Comparative Study / Leaf Mouthwash on Plaque, Gingival Inflammation and Salivary Streptococcal Growth: Study compared the efficacy of mango leaf mouthwash with chlorhexidine on plaque status, gingival inflammation, and salivary Streptococcus mutans count. Results showed significant reduction in microbial count, improved plaque control and gingival health in both groups. There was higher reduction in microbial count, better plaque control and gingival health in the chlorhexidine group. Results suggest a safe and alternative mode of treatment. (49)
• Antimicrobial in Cream and Ointment Formulations / Seeds: Study evaluated the seed ointment and cream formulation for antimicrobial activity. Formulated ointments containing oleaginous-base showed the best formulation compared to emulsion water in oil type. The formulation of MI were found to be safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity. (50)
• Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the pancreatic lipase inhibitory ingredients of mango leaves. A methanolic extract of old dark green mango leaves showed porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity. Activity was attributed to 3-C-ß-D-glucosyl-2,4,4',6-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (1) and mangiferin (2). While the pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of young mango leaf extract was superior to old leaf extract, the amount of leaves obtained from pruning old dark green leaves may be a reasonable natural source for the preparation of ingredients with lipase inhibitory activity. (51)
• Antibacterial Against Gastrointestinal Diseases Caused by Gram Negative Bacteria / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of aqueous extracts of young leaves against different gram negative organisms (E. coli, S. typhi, V. cholera, S. sonnei) causing gastrointestinal disorders. Results showed dose dependent inhibition of all tested organisms. (see constituents above) (52)
• Immunostimulant / Bark Oil: Study evaluated M. indica bark oil for phytoconstituents and immunostimulant activity in rats and mice models by determining neutrophil adhesion to nylon threads and phagocytic index. Results showed significant increase in percent neutrophil adhesion (p<0.01). Haemagglutination antibody (HA) titer (p<0.01) and phagocytic index (p<0.001) were also significantly increased. Results suggest the bark oil has potent immunomodulatory activity and therapeutic potential for prevention of autoimmune and infectious diseases. (53)
• Antimicrobial / Antitubercular Activity / Flowers: GC-MS analysis of flower extracts of Mangifera indica identified seven constituents: Icosanedioic acid monomethyl ester (1), nonadec-16-enyl-benzene (2) 1, 9 diphenyl nonane (3), icosane (4), octadecane (5), dodecanoic acid butyl ester (6), and tetracosyl- benzene (7). On testing against human and plant pathogenic bacteria, an ethanol extract inhibited almost all tested pathogenic bacteria and showed antitubercular activities at various concentrations. (54
• Absorption Study / Cobalt / Bark: Co (II) in wastewater is highly toxic. Study reports on a very simple, eco-friendly, and cost-effective method for the removal of Co(II) by M. indica bark substrate. Absorption increased with increasing doses of the substrate. (55)
• Primary Metabolites in Unripe Mango: Study evaluated the nutrients present in unripe mango and seed and compared it with ripe mango. Results showed protein and vitamin C were found high in the unripe fruit, while water, ash, total sugar, lipid, vitamin A, vitamin B-complex were less. (56)
• Renomodulatory / Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity / Stem-Bark: Study evaluated the renomodulatory effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica against CCl4-induced renal damage. The extract significantly (p<0.05) attenuated the increase in serum electrolytes, urea, and creatinine, and significantly (p<0.05) attenuated the decrease in SOD, CAT, and GSH. Results suggest M. indica has potential for drug development in the management of kidney diseases caused by lipid peroxidation. (57)
• Anxiolytic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of M. indica leaves using elevated plus maze (EPM) model in rat and staircase model in mice using 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses. Results significant anxiolytic activity at both dose levels comparable with standard anxiolytic diazepam (2mg/kg in rat and 4 mg/kg in mice, p.o.) (58)
• Effect on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters / Immunostimulatory / Stem Bark: Study evaluated an aqueous ethanolic extract of M. indica stem bark on biochemical and haematological indices of adult albino Wistar rats. Results suggest the stem bark may have immunostimulating properties and may also stimulate the haematopoietic system via increase rate of erythropoiesis and reduce oxidative damage of RBC membranes. (59)
• Alpha Amylase Inhibitory Activity / Lowering of Postprandial Hyperglycemia: In a study of ten plants for in vitro alpha amylase inhibitory activity, the ethanol extracts of Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica and petroleum ether extract of Murraya koenigii showed maximum percentage inhibition with IC50 values of 37.86±0.32 µg/ml, 62.99±1.20 µg/mL and 59.0±0.51 µg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with IC50 of 83.33±0.75µg/ml. Results suggest the three plants may be effective in lowering postprandial hyperglycemia. (60)
• Aqueous Extract of Leaves as Functional Food: Study evaluated the effect of aqueous mango leaves on alloxan-indced diabetic rats. Results showed significant improvement in biochemical parameters with best results seen with 70 mg extract. The extract was found rich in total phenols and total flavonoids suggesting use as antioxidant, neutraceutical, functional foods or dietary supplement with antidiabetic and hypoglycemic effect. (61)
• Analgesic / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties of ethanol leaves extract of M. indica. Results showed moderate activity against Gram positive bacteria and low activity against Gram negative bacteria. There was significant inhibition (p<0.01) of acetic acid writhing response of mice, suggesting potential analgesic activity. There was no significant anti-edematogenic effect in carrageenan induced paw edema testing, suggesting M. indica has no significant anti-inflammatory activity. (62)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Essential Oils / Leaves: GC-MS analysis of two Brazilian M. indica varieties (espada and coraccao-de-boi) yielded twenty-three volatile compounds in two essential oils from the leaves. Both varieties showed anti-edematogenic action against inflammatory agent carrageenan, in addition to reducing MPO activity in the experimental model of inflammation. The results may be attributed to the presence of major compounds, such as caryophyllene and α-humulene. (see constituents above) (63)
• Mangifera indica Gum as Tablet Binder: Study evaluated the gum of Mangifera indica as tablet binder with paracetamol as model drug. Results showed M. indica gum could be used as binding agent in the formulation of tablet-dosage forms. The binding efficacy is comparable with tablets prepared using 5%w/w gum acacia as tablet binder. (64)
• Effect on Reproductive Functions in Female Rats / Leaves: Study evaluated the reproductive impact of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract at dose of 500 mg/kg on gravid and non-gravid rat models. Results showed significant disruption of estrous cycling of matured female rats by alteration of hormonal profile responsible for synergy between phases of the estrous cycle and ovulation. There was also significant reduction of maternal weight and litter birth weight, with no significant effect on duration of pregnancy. (65)
• Biosorption of Zinc / Peel Powder:
Study showed mango peel was an effective biosorbent for removing zinc ions from aqueous solution. Results suggest it can be applied as a low cost material with potential biosorptive capacity in wastewater treatments of remediation of heavy metal contamination. (also see 34 above) (66)

- Wildcrafted.
- Small and large-scale planting for fruit production.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated September 2017 / April 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: File:The Botanical Magazine. Mango.jpg / Curtis's Botanical Magazine vol. 76 (ser. 3 no. 6) plate 4510. / Prior to 1870 / Walter Hood Fitch (1817-1892) del. et lith. / Description by John Smith, 1798 - 1888 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica (L.)
/ G S Bbosa et al / African Journal of Ecology • Volume 45 Issue s1, Pages 13 - 16 / DOI 0.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00731
Effects of Aqueous Extract of Mangifera indica L. (Mango) Stem Bark on Haematological Parameters of Normal Albino Rats /
Nwinuka, Nwibani M., Monanu, Michael O. and Nwiloh, Barine I. / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 7 (5): 663-666, 2008
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycaemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract
The activity of Mangifera indica L. leaf extracts against the tetanus causing bacterium, Clostridium tetani / Godfrey S Bbosa, Aloysium Lubega et al / African Journal of Ecology, Volume 45 Issue s3, Pages 54 - 58 / DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00858.x

Mangifera indica stem bark effect on the rat trachea contracted by acetylcholine and histamine
Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice / Neelam Makare et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 78, Issues 2-3, December 2001, Pages 133-137/ doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00326-9
Antihyperglycaemic effect of Mangifera indica in rat / Aderibigbe A O et al / Phytother Res. 1999 Sep;13(6):504-7.

Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica—effectiveness for dyslipidemia
/ L Anila and N R Vijayalakshmi / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 79, Issue 1, February 2002, Pages 81-87 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00361-0
Antioxidant action of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis in hypercholesterolemic rats / L Anila and N R Vijayalakshmi / Food Chemistry • Volume 83, Issue 4, December 2003, Pages 569-574 / doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00155-9
Evaluation of anti-diarrhoeal activity in seed extracts of Mangifera indica
/ K Sairam et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 84, Issue 1, January 2003, Pages 11-15 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00250-

Studies on the antidiabetic effects of Mangifera indica stem-barks and leaves on nondiabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetic model rats / Amrita Bhowmik et al / Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2009; 4: 110-114

Ethnopharmacology of Mangifera indica L. Bark andPharmacological Studies of its Main C-Glucosylxanthone,Mangiferin / Nathalie Wauthoz et al / International Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Polyphenols with Antiulcerogenic Action from Aqueous Decoction of Mango Leaves (Mangifera indica L.) / Juliana Aparecida Severi et al / Molecules 2009, 14, 1098-1110 / doi:10.3390/molecules14031098
Mango effective in preventing, stopping certain colon, breast cancer cells /
AgriLife News / January 11, 2010
Bioactive Studies of Mangifera indica aganist Bacteria Isolated from Urine Samples / S Sowmiya, P Soundarapandian and S Rajan / Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 1(3): 139-143, 2009
Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica / Shivanna Yogisha, Koteshwara Anandarao Raveesha / Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 3(2010):76-79
In vivo acute toxicological studies of an antioxidant extract from Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) / Gabino Garrido, Idania Rodeiro et al / Drug and Chemical Toxicology. January 2009, Vol. 32, No. 1 , Pages 53-58
Spray Drying of Aqueous Extract of Mangifera indica L (Vimang): Scale up for the Process / J Acosta-Esquijarosa et al / World Applied Sciences Journal 6 (3): 408-412, 2009
Mangifera Indica (Mango) / A Review Article / Pharmacognosy Review, 2010, Vol 4, No 7, Pp 42-48.
Mangifera names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Mangifera indica L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
ISOLATION OF MANGIFERIN FROM LEAVES OF MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR ALPHONSO / K. BHUVANESWARI / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 6, Suppl 2, 2013
Effects of Mangifera indica fruit extract on cognitive deficits in mice / Sokindra Kumar, Kamal Kishore Maheshwari and Vijender Singh / Journal of Environmental Biology, July 2009, 30(4) 563-566.
Effect of Aqueous Extract Mangifera Indica Leaves, as Functional Foods / Morsi, Reda M. Y.; EL-Tahan, N. R.; El-Hadad, Adel M. A. / Journal of Applied Sciences Research;Jun2010, Vol. 6 Issue 6, p71
Cytotoxic effects of Mangifera indica L. kernel extract on human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines) and bioactive constituents in the crude extract / Al-Shwyeh Hussah Abdullah, Abdulkarim Sabo Mohammed*, Rasedee Abdullah, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed Mirghani and Mothanna Al-Qubaisi / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 14:199 / doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-199
Studies on Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Profile of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extract / Rajendra Prasad Bharti / IOSR Journal Of Environmental Science, Toxicology And Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT), Volume 7, Issue 3 (Nov. - Dec. 2013), PP 74-78
Combination of Mangifera indica L. Extract Supplementation Plus Methotrexate in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Pilot Study / Ana M. López Mantecón, Gabino Garrido*, René Delgado-Hernández andBárbara B. Garrido-Suárez / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 28, Issue 8, pages 1163–1172, August 2014 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5108
Antihyperglycemic activity of Mangifera indica Linn. in alloxan induced diabetic rats
/ P. Kemasari, S. Sangeetha and P. Venkatalakshmi* / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2011, 3(5):653-659
Protective Effects of Mangifera indica L. Extract Against Lipofundin- induced Oxidative Stress in Rats
Livan Delgado Roche* and Ángela Fraga Pérez / Pharmaceutical Crops, 2012, 3, 94-98
Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica / Shivanna Yogisha*, Koteshwara Anandarao Raveesha / Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 3(2010):76-79
Study of mango biomass (Mangifera indica L) as a cationic biosorbent / *M. A. Ashraf; M. J. Maah; I. Yusoff / Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 7 (3), 581-590, Summer 2010
Anti-inflammatory effects of Mangifera indica L. extract in a model of colitis / Lucía Márquez, Beatriz G Pérez-Nievas, Icíar Gárate, Borja García-Bueno, José LM Madrigal, Luis Menchén, Gabino Garrido, Juan C Leza / World J Gastroenterol 2010 October 21; 16(39): 4922-4931 / doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i39.4922
Effects of Extract from Mangifera indica Leaf on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats / Yan Jiang, Xiao-Ying You, Kong-Long Fu, and Wan-Le Yin / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 (2012) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/967573
Study of Activated Carbons by Pyrolysis of Mangifera Indica Seed (Mango) in Presence of Sodium and Potassium Hydroxide / J. C. Moreno-Piraján and L. Giraldo / E-Journal of Chemistry, Volume 9 (2012), Issue 2, pp 780-785 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/909747
/ Ashalatha M , Shivakumar , Suresh janadri , Shyla RJB yoganand / IAMJ: Volume 3; Issue 9; September- 2015
Acute and 28-day subchronic toxicity studies of mangiferin, a glucosyl xanthone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark / Yalena Prado, Nelson Merino, Jhoany Acosta, José A. Herrera, Yilian Luque, Ivones Hernández, Elisa Prado, Gabino Garrido, René Delgado, Idania Rodeiro* / Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research, 3 (1), 13-23 (2015)
Antimicrobial Activity of Mangifera indica (Carabao Mango) Fruit and Seed Extract / Ace Ronald Sarabia, Christylene Mae Acanto, Christine Elizalde, Ellen Mae Merosa / Optima, Vol 1, No 1 (2013)
A Study on Herbal Finish to Prevent Bed Sore Using Mangifera indica and Triphala Dried Fruit / Kiruthika Deivasigamani,  Siva Kumar Kolandaivel, and Kavitha Krishnamoorthi / Journal of Textiles, Volume 2014  (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/368929
In-vitro Enzyme Inhibition Studies for Antidiabetic Activity of Mature and Tender Leaves of Mangifera indica var. Totapuri / Bhuvaneshwari J, Salma Khanam, and Kshama Devi / Research & Reviews: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
The effect of Mangifera indica (Mango) leaf crude extract in the wound of healing properties of Rattus norvegicus (Sprague dawley). / Jose Jurel M. Nuevo, Emerson Ronald K. Bernardino / Fatima University Research Journal, Issue 5, 2012-2013
Mangifera Indica Leaves Extract Effect on Liver Function in Experimental Animal Studies / Siva Kumar Nadella and Raveendra Kumar N / Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal (2016); 9(3)
Comparative evaluation of Mangifera indica leaf mouthwash with chlorhexidine on plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation, and salivary streptococcal growth / Sham S. Bhat, K. Sundeep Hegde, Chinchu Mathew, S. Vidya Bhat, M. Shyamjith / Indian Journal of Dental Research (2017) Vol 28, Issue 2; Pp 151-155
Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract / Amgad A Awad El-Gied,  Abdelkareem M Abdelkareem,  Elnazeer I Hamedelniel / Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research (2015) Vol 6, Issue 2; pp 53-57
A Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity by Mango (Mangifera indica) Leaf Methanolic Extract / Kimihisa Itoh, Kazuya Murata, Yuta Nakagaki, Ayaka Shimizu, Yusuke Takata, Kohsuke Shimizu, Tetsuya Matsukawa, Shin'ichiro Kajiyama, Masahiko Fumuro, Morio Iijima, Hideaki Matsuda / Journal of Plant Studies, Vol 5, No 2 (2016)
Effects of aqueous young leaves extract of Mangifera indica on gm (-) microorganisms causing gastro-intestinal disorders / Pintu K. De and Arna Pal / Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 2014, 4(1): pp 23-27
Immunomostimulant phytoconstituents from Mangifera indica L. bark oil / Chetan Savant*, Anand Rao Kulkarni, Basheerahmed Abdulaziz Mannasaheb, Rahul Gajare / The Journal of Phytopharmacology 2014; 3(2): 139-148
Adsorption Studies of Co (II) from Aqueous Solution using Mangifera indica Bark Substrate / A. B. Sahare, B. D. Gharde / Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry, Vol 10, Issue 3 (2017) 
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY METABOLITES IN MANGIFERA INDICA (UNRIPE MANGO) / V.Shobana and K.Rajalakshmi* / Rasayan J. Chem, Vol 3, No 3 (2010); pp 597-599
Modulatory effect of Mangifera indica against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney damage in rats / Olufunsho Awodele, Adejuwon Adewale Adeneye, Sheriff Aboyade Aiyeola, Adokiye Senibo Benebo / The Journal of Institute of Experimental Pharmacology of Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vol 8, Issue 4, Dec 2015
Assessment of Anxiolytic Activity of Aqueous Extract of Mangifera indica L. Leaves in Rodents Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress / Nitinkumar B. Patel, Shankul Kumar, A. K. Prasad, Jatin A. Patel, Hitesh A. Patel / International Research Journal of Pharmacy (2013), 4(1)
Aqueous Ethanolic Extract of Mangifera indica Stem Bark Effect on the Biochemical and Haematological Parameters of Albino Rats / Ogbe Raphael John, Adenkola Adeshina Yahaya and Anefu Emmanuel / Archives of Applied Science Research, 2012, 4 (4):1618-1622
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ALPHA AMYLASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITIES OF COMMON ANTI-DIABETIC PLANTS AT KHARAGPUR 1 BLOCK / B. Dineshkumar, Analava Mitra, M. Manjunatha / International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Vol 4, No 2 (2010)
Effect of Aqueous Extract Mangifera Indica Leaves, as Functional Foods. / Reda M.Y. Morsi, N.R.EL-Tahan and Adel M.A. El-Hadad / Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 6(6): 712-721, 2010 © 2010, INSInet Publication / Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 6(6): 712-721, 2010
Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of ethanol extracts of mango leaves
/ M. R. Islam, M. A. Mannan, M. H. B. Kabir, A. Islam and K. J. Olival / J. Bangladesh Agril. Univ. 8(2): 239–244, 2010
Anti-infammatory effects of essential oils from Mangifera indica
/ R.M. Oliveira, T.S. Dutra, E. Simionatto, N. Ré, C.A.L. Kassuya and C.A.L. Cardoso / Genet. Mol. Res. 16 (1): gmr16019227 / DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.4238/gmr16019227
Evaluation of mangifera indica gum as tablet binder / Anoop Kumar Singh, Vipul Kumar Shingala, R. Panner Selvam, T. Sivakumar* / Int.J. PharmTech Res.2010, 2(3)
Reproductive impact of aqueous leaf extract of Mangifera indica (Mango) on some reproductive functions in female Sprague-Dawley rats / Funmileyi O. Awobajo*, Ibiyemi I. Olatunji-Bello, Loretta I. Ogbewey / Biology and Medicine, 5: 58–64, 2013
Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Biosorption of Zinc by Mango (Mangifera indica) Peel Powder from Metal Bearing Aqueous Solution / Sudipa Saha, Sanchita Bhattacharjee, Tapan Kumar Pal and Sauryya Bhattacharyya* / Journal of Academia and Industrial Research (JAIR) Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2015

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