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Family Myrtaceae
Xanthostemon verdugonianus Naves ex Fern.-Vill.

Scientific names Common names
Xanthostemon verdugonianus Naves ex Fern.-.Vill. Magkuno (Surigao; Bis.)
  Makano (Surigao)
  Mancono (Tag.)
  Mangkono (Tag.)
  Mangkuno (Tag..)
  Tamaulauan (Bis.)
  Crimson penda (Engl.)
  Philippine ironwood (Engl.)
  Red penda (Engl.)
Xanthostemon verdugonianus is an accepted name, KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
SPANISH: Palo de hiero,

Gen info
- Xanthostemon comprises about 50 species. New Caledonia is the richest in species with about 35, Australia with about 8, Malesia with 11, 4 in the Philippines, 4 in New Guinea, 2 in Sulawesi, and 1 in the Moluccas. (5)

xanthostemon verdugonianus is a small evergreen tree growing to a height of up to 5 meters. Bole is about 115 cm in diameter, very irregular, fluted, and bent., with frequent branching. Bark is slate-white in color with a peeling appearance. Sapwood is pale-reddish while the heartwood is deep red to brown. Leaves are simple, relatively thick with a leathery texture, alternate, and obovate, 8-12 cm in length, about 5 cm in width, dark green on the upper side and pale green on the underside. Inflorescences are bright red and located at terminal branches, springing from the apex of the peduncles. Each inflorescence has multiple peduncles,each with 3-6 flowers. Fruits develop from the flowers. Fruits are 2- to 3-lobed, dehisce.nt, splitting into 2-3 sections when ripe. Seeds are small, half-moon shaped. (2)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Endemic to the islands of the Visayas, Palawan, and northeastern Mindanao. (2)
- IUCN status: Vulnerrable.
- Theatened by habitat loss.

- Study of leaves for essential oil revealed a-girjunene (32.3/19.5% w/w) as the major component. (4)

- Considered the hardest wood in the Philippines.

Parts used
Bark, sawdust..


- Sawdust and wood charcoal used to cure ulcers. (5)
- Bark used to treat diarrhea. (5)
- Timber: Considered a luxury timber in the Philippines.Considered the most durable wood in the Philippines—extreme
ly hard and heavy. While cutting a 70 cm tree using axes will take three hours, ax-cutting a Mangkono tree will take 2-4 days. Diamond-point saws are used, with volumes of water to counter overheating. Because of these qualities of hardness and density, it has been considered a substitute for the world-famous Guaicum officinale L. (3)
- Construction and crafts: An excelleent material as bearing or stern bushing of a steamship's propeller shaft. Used for house and bridge building, wharves, salt-water piling, rudders and anchors for boats. Used for posts, piles, tool handles, bowling balls, dumbbells, paper weights, pulleys, rollers, and other novelties. (2)
- Fuel: Wood makes excellent firewood.

Vapor Effect on Bioassays:
Study of ethanol showed a broad spectrum of biological effects. Due to its volatility, conventional microplate-based bioassays can be significantly affected  by the vapors. Study evaluated the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of three essential oils (Alpinia elegans, Cinnamomum iners, and Xanthostemon verdugonianus) one supercritical CO2 extract (Nigella sativa), and four plant-derived compounds (capsaicin,caryophyllene oxide, 8-hydroxyquinoline and thymoquinone). Results showed vapor transition to adjoining wells caused false-positive results of performed bioassays. (3)



April 2022

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Xanthostemon verdugonianus Inflorescence / Copyright @ 2013 by Peter G. Wilson (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL75498] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration: Plate from book Xanthostemon verdugonianus / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A.) - Flora de Filipinas / Public Domain / click on image go to source page / WIKIPEDIA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Xanthostemon verdugonianus / WikiMili
Vapors of Volatile Plant-Derived Products Significantly Affect the Results of Antimicrobial, Antioxidative and Cytotoxicity Microplate-Based Assays / Marketa Houdkova, Ladislav Kokoska et al / Molecules, Dec 2020; 25(24) / DOI: 10.3390/molecules25246004 / PMID: 33353127
PP-2: Chemical composition of essential oils from native plants of Philippines / Genesis Albarico, Ladislav Kokoska et al / International Symposium on Essential Oils
Lesser known timbers: Xanthostemon verdugonianus / PROSEA

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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