Clerodendrum is a genus of flowering plants in the Lamiaceae family. It is a member of the subfamily Ajugoideae, one of four subfamilies transferred from Verbenaceae to Lamiaceae based on morphological and molecular phylogenetics.
Clerodendrum L. is
widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world,
with more the 500 species identified, with ethnomedical use in many
indigenous systems (Indian, Korean, Japanese, Thai, Chinese) for a variety
of disease: syphilis, typhoid, cancer, jaundice and hypertension.
Mañgoñgot is an erect or somewhat struggling shrub 1 to 4 meters high. Leaves are ovate, oblong-ovate or elliptic ovate, 4 to 8 centimeters long, 2 to 5 centimeters wide, shining, smooth, entire and pointed at the tip. Inflorescence (cyme) is usually composed of three flowers, borne in the axils of the leaves. Calyx is green, narrowly funnel-shaped, and furnished with 5 very short teeth. Corolla is about 3 centimeters long and comprises a slender, white tube spreading, purple-tinged lobes about 7 millimeters long. Stamens are long-exserted, and purple. Fruit is obovoid, about 1.5 centimeters long, and splitting into 4 pyrenes. Calyx in the fruit is about 1 centimeter in diameter.
- Along the seashore and beside tidal streams throughout the Philippines.
- Occasional cultivation as hedge plant or ornamental.
- Widely distributed throughout India, South and Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands.
- Phytochemical studies reveal the presence of flavanoids, sterols, flavones, triterpenes, diterpenes, quinone and neolignans.
Leaves yield a bitter principle that is entirely removed by ether; and treatment with alcohol and water yields extracts free from bitterness. The bitter principle shows a resemblance to Chiretta (Swertia chirata), a gentianaceous plant.
- Leaves also yield a fragrant stearoptin with an apple-like odor; resin; gum; brown coloring matter; and ash containing a large amount of sodium chloride (24.01% of the ash).
- Study of hexane extract of the aerial parts isolated an aliphatic glucoside characterized as pentadecanoic acid-ß-D-glucoside. A butanol extract yielded acacetin and apigenin.
- Aerial parts yielded a new clerodane diterpenoid, cleroindermin, and a known flavonoid, apigenin.
- Phytochemical studies have yielded cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, proteins, phenolics, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, iridoids, diterpenes, triterpenes, sterols, steroids, carbohydrates, fixed oils, volatile oils, and lignin. (23)
- Leaves are mucilaginous, fragrant, resolvent.
- Considered alterative, analgesic, antimalarial, febrifuge, hepatoprotective, antifungal, resolvent.
- Roots considered febrifuge and alterative.
- Studies have shown antibacterial, antifungal, mosquito larvicidal, hepatoprotective, hypotensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenesis, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antipyretic, insecticidal properties.
- In the Philippines, root decoction is used as febrifuge and alterative.
- Leaves are used in poultices as resolvent.
- Elsewhere, the root, boiled in oil, is applied like a liniment for rheumatism.
- In Guam, the bitter root, leaves and wood are used by natives as a remedy for intermittent fevers.
- Poultices of leaves used for swellings to prevent suppuration.
- Leaves and roots, in tincture and decoction, used as substitute for quinine.
- Juice of leaves and root used as alterative in scrofulous and venereal diseases.
- Used for elephantiasis, asthma, topical burns.
- Poultices of leaves applied to resolve buboes.
- Leaf baths recommended for mania and for itches.
- At one time, sailors of Macassar were reported to take the fruit, seeds and roots to sea, and a decoction or pounded seeds were ingested when taken sick by ingestion of poisonous fish and crabs.
- Leaves, eaten with rice, used to increase the appetite.
- In Java, fruit used as medicine for dysentery.
- In Africa, used to treat hypertension.
- In traditional Indian medicine, leaves used for treating fever, cough, skin rashes, boils; also, for treating umbilical cord infection and cleaning the uterus.
- In Ayurveda, plant used as sources of Patha, used in the treatment of urinary and heart related disorders.
- In India, powdered leaves mixed with camphor, garlic, or pepper and used for edema, muscular and rheumatic pains. Roots used for venereal diseases.
- Roots boiled in oil used for rheumatic conditions. (23)
- In India, plant used to treat skin rashes, eye infection, umbilical cord infection. (29)
• Megastigmane / Iridoid Glucosides: Study of aerial parts of C. inerme yielded two megastimane glucosides (sammangaosides A and B) and an iridoid glucoside (sammangaoside C) with 15 known compounds. (1)
• Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Injury / Leaves: Study of ethanolic extract of C. inerme leaves in CCl4-induced liver damage in Swiss albino rats showed hepatoprotective activity with significant reduction of liver enzymes ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase, with significant increase in glutathione level. (2) Rats treated with an ethanolic extract of C. inerme showed a significant decrease in the level of markers. Results indicated C. inerme protects against the liver against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. (9)
• Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol-Induced Injury / Leaves: Study of an ethanolic extract of C. inerme leaves in paracetamol-induced liver damage in Swiss albino mice showed significant protective effect with no mortality up to 2000 g/kbw. (14)
• Hypotensive Activity: Study of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum inerme leaves showed a hypotensive effect attributed to the presence of chemical elements such as alkaloids and polyphenols. Results support its traditional use for its hypotensive effect. (3)
• Antifungal / Leaves: Study of the ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of leaves and stems of C. inerme and C. phlomidis showed both inhibited inhibition of all plant and human pathogenic fungi. The leaf extract of C. inerme inhibited plant pathogenic fungi better than the human dermatophytes. (4)
• Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Study of methanolic extract of leaves of C. inerme showed free radical scavenging activity increasing with concentration, with maximum activity at 2500 mg/mL. Antioxidant activity may be due to phenolic compounds. (5)
• Antibacterial / Wound Healing: Study of methanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts showed significant inhibition against 15 of 18 bacterial tested. Results clearly showed the leaves were effective in controlling bacterial pathogens, particular gram positive bacteria. Results also confirmed its utility as a wound-healing agent. (6)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of the methanol extract of C. inerme in animal models exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, it showed significant analgesic activity in acetic acid induced-writhing model. The effects were attributed largely to its antioxidant and lysosomal membrane stabilizing effects. (7)
• Anti-Carcinogenesis / DBMA-Induced Oral Carcinogenesis: Study investigated the protective effect of C. inerme on cellular integrity in DBMA-induced oral carcinogenesis. Oral administration of an aqueous leaf extract C. significantly prevented tumor formation and histopathological abnormalities. (10)
• DBMA-Induced Oral Carcinogenesis / RBC Membrane Integrity: Study investigated the modifying effects of an ethanol extract of C. inerme leaves on membrane integrity on DBMA-induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Results showed a protective effect on red blood cell membrane integrity. (11)
• Acute Toxicity Studies / Diuretic: Study investigated the diuretic activity of ethanolic and chloroform extracts. Results showed dose-dependent diuretic activity, with increased urinary excretion of Na+ and K+. (12)
• Chemopreventive / Antilipidperoxidative Effects: Study demonstrated the chemopreventive and anti-lipidperoxidative efficacy of an ethanol extract in DMBA-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis. (13)
• Analgesic / Antipyretic / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of leaves for analgesic and antipyretic effects in albino rats. Results showed significant antipyretic activity in milk-induced hyperpyrexia and significant analgesic activity in hot plate, tail flick, and tail immersion models. (16)
• Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity / Stem: Study of stem extracts of C. inerme showed a methanol extract with better antioxidant activity. DPPH scavenging activity correlated with total phenolic contents. Cytotoxicity studies by hemolytic activity of plant extracts against human erythrocytes (RBCs) in vitro showed minor cytotoxicity, less than 6%, concluding that the extracts are not cytotoxic. (17)
• Anti-Diabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of various extracts of C. inerme air-dried leaves using in-vivo and in-vitro methods in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Results showed significant and progressive reduction in blood glucose levels. Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids, phenolics and steroidal glycosides to which the anti-diabetic activity was attributed. (18)
• Inhibition of Methamphetamine Hyperlocomotion : Study of an ethanol extract of leaves inhibited methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion and PPI disruptions induced by meth, ketamine, and MK-801 without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity, rotarod performance and grip force in mice. Some of the effects may be helpful in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, ADHD and OCD. (19)
• Toxicity Studies: Study evaluated the acute and subacute toxicity studies of C. inerme, J. mesnyi, and C. citrinus in Wistar rats. In acute toxicity study, all three plants were tolerated up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg. Likewise, in subacute toxicity study, all three plants of LD50 dose level did not produce any significant alteration in hematological and biochemical parameters. (22)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Leaves: Study reports on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts (fresh leaves, sun-dried leaves, and hot-air oven dried leaves) of C. inerme. Nanoparticles synthesized using fresh leaves possessed the smallest size. (24)
• Antidiabetic / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic activity of aerial parts of C. inerme. Results showed good antihyperglycemic activity. A dose of 400 mg/kbw of methanol extract produced a significant 54.32% decrease in FBS. (25)
• Insecticidal / Helicoverpa armigera: / Leaves: Study evaluated a crude aqueous leaf extract for its effect on total haemocyte count of sixth instar larva of H. armigera. Results showed reduction in haemocyte count and increased percent mortality of larvae, pupal and adult deformity, diseased larval-pupal intermittants, among others. (26)
• Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of leaves of C. inerme for anthelmintic activity against earthworm Pheretima posthuma, roundworms Ascaridia galli, and tapeworms Raillietina spiralis. Piperazine citrate was used as control. Results showed significant vermicidal activity at 30 mg/ml. (27)
• Mosquitocidal / Larvicidal: Study investigated the larvicidal activity of organic solvent extracts of C. inerme plant against third and fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. A hexane extract showed promising larvicidal properties against fresh water breeding Ae. aegypti and polluted water-breeding Cx. quinquefasciatus. (28)
• Antibacterial / Antifungal / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of shade-dried leaves of plant against bacteria E. coli, S. aureus and fungi A. niger. All extracts showed inhibitory activity against test microorganisms; the ethanolic extract showed highest activity. (29)
• Mosquito Larvicidal / Synergism with P. glabra: Study evaluated the larvicidal efficacy of C. inerme, V. negundo, and G. sepium individually and in synergism with Pongamia glabra seed extract against early fourth instar dengue vector mosquito Ae. aegypti. Results showed C. inerme and V. negundo leaves individually and/or in combination with extracts of P. glabra can be a potent source of natural mosquito larvicidal agent. (30)