Mangosteen is a smooth, conical tree growing up
to 10 meters high, outer bark smooth, dark brown, inner bark yellowish,
branches nearly horizontal; leaves opposite, thick, leathery,
15 to 25 centimeters long, 6 to 11 centimeters wide, lanceolate, base tapering,
apex acuminate, upper surface glossy, under surface dull, lighter
color, petioles about 1 centimeter long; fruit a berry, dark purple,
globose, 5 to 7 centimeters in diameter, smooth; rind firm, spongy, thick,
resinous; seeds 4 to 8, dark brown, flattened, each surrounded
by white or pinkish-white, juicy, sweet, edible pulp.
- Usually planted in parts of Mindanao and in the Sulu Archipelago, occasionally in other regions, as far as Sorsogon.
- Probably introduced from Malaya.
Propagated by seeds which are immediately sown after extraction to obtain
a high percentage of germination. Grows well in high rainfall area like
Mindanao, with deep, fertile, and well-drained, slightly acidic soils.
Under optimal conditions, maximum fruit yield ranges from 200 to 800
fruits per tree per cropping season.
• Rind contains 5.5% tannin, and
• Also from the rind, a bitter principle, mangostin.
• Fruit flesh (aril) contains saccharose 10.8%; dextrose, 1%;
and kerrelose 1.2 %.
• Acidity of fruit due to malic acid.
• Xanthones isolated from from peel, whole fruit, bark and leaves. y• Recent studies have isolated a new xanthone from the pericarp,
mangostinone, and a new polyoxygenated xanthone, mangostanol, from the
• From the green fruit hulls, 3 new xanthones: mangostenol, mangostenone
A and mangostenone B.
• Bark yielded a new xanthone, mangosharin (2,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-5-(3- methylbut-2-eny1)-xanthone) together with six other xanthones, a-mangostin, Pmangostin, garcinone D, xanthone 1, 1,6-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-2-(3-methylbut-2- eny1)-xanthone and mangostanol and one triterpenoid, friedelin.
• Nutrient analysis of mangosteen per 25 g edible part yields: calories 17 (67calories/100g), total dietary fiber 0.35g,
carbohydrates 4.38g, protein 0.15g, fat 0.05g; (vitamins) vitamin E-alpha tocopehrol 0.15mg, vitamin B1 0.03mg, vitamin B2 0.01mg, niacin 0.13mg, folate 5µg, pantothenic acid 0.08mg, biotin 0.15µg, vitamin C 0.75mg; (minerals) sodium 0.25mg, potassium 25mg, calcium 1.5mg, magnesium 4.5mg, phosphorus 3mg, iron 0.03mg, zinc 0.05mg, copper 0.02mg, manganese 0.09mg, selenium 0.5µg. (33)
• A least 68 distinct xanthones have been identified from different parts of the mangosteen plant, fifty of which are present in the fruit's pericarp at higher concentrations than the aril or edible fruit portion. The most abundant pericarp xanthones are α- and y-mangostin; others are -mangostin, gartanin, 8-deoxygartanin, garcinones A, B, C, D, and E, mangostinone, 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone, and isomangostin, among others. (47)
- Numerous studies have shown that xanthones possess antibacterial, immunomodulatory, antiproliferative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic activities.
- Pericarp (peel) and seeds.
- Pericarp which is used as medicine is separated from the edible
portion and is sliced into desired sizes immediately after the
fruit is opened. The pericarp pieces are strung and dried (air-drying,
sun-drying, and "tapahan" method where the pericarp
is dried by smoking) immediately to avoid fungi infestation.
Sun-dried pericarp yield the highest tannin concentration of
- Abdominal pain and diarrhea.
- Decoction of roots used for dysmenorrhea and genitourinary ailments.
- Bark and young seeds used in diarrhea, dysentery, and GI problems; also,
a wash for stomatitis.
- Decoction of leaves and bark used as febrifuge and to treat thrush.
- Decoction of powdered rind used for external astringent application.
- In Cambodia, the bark and fruit rind are
used for diarrhea and dysentery.
- In Malaya, infusion of leaves mixed with unripe banana and benzoin used
for the circumcision wound.
- Used for cystitis and gonorrhea.
Dye: (1) In Malaya, a black dye is obtained
from the shell. (2) Aqueous extract of pericarp of Garcinia extracted a camel brown to dark chocolate brown dye for dyeing cotton silk and wool yarn.
Chewstick: In Ghana, mangosteen twigs used as chewsticks.
an ingredient in the mangosteen fruit that is being touted as the new
"miracle" supplement-drink. See: Xanthones.html
- Aggressive marketing of health-promoting benefits
has earned it a "superfruit status" with 2008 sales in the USA exceeding $200 million despite limited animal and human studies. (47)
- Products marketed as mangosteen juice are often blends of numerous fruit juices with mangosteen being one of the less abundant components. Xango®, a bestselling mangosteen product contains mangosteen puree, and a blend of juices from grape, pear, apple, blueberry, strawberry, raspberry, cranberry, and cherry. (47)
- The claims and testimonials being made on benefits of mangosteen and xanthones are quite extraordinary, many unsupported by scientific studies.
- In the Philippines xanthones/herbal supplements are marketed as MX3 and Guyasteen (guyabano and mangosteen).
• Xanthones: Mangosteen has been shown to be an abundant source of a class of polyphenols known as xanthones, reported to have a variety of health-promoting properties i.e. anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer. Based on subtituents, xanthones are classified into several groups including simple oxygenated xanthones, prenylated xanthones, xanthone glycosides, and xanthonolignoids. To date, more than 60 different xanthones have been isolated from mangosteen pericarp, bark, and roots. including α-Mangostin (most abundant), y-mangostin, gartanin, 8-deoxygartanin, and 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone. Studies have suggested that many mangosteen xanthones, including α-Mangostin, possess anticancer properties via initiation of apoptosis through regulation of cell death pathways, suppression of cancer cell proliferation and metastasis through inhibition of anti-apoptotic molecules, and cell cycle arrest. (see study below) (27)
• Antifungal activity: Xanthones isolated from the fruit hulls of GM showed antifungal activity.
• Antibacterial: Extracts of GM showed inhibitory effects against
• Antioxidant / Fruit Hull: The methanol extract
of fruit hulls was found to possess potent radical scavenging effect.
• Acne vulgaris: Effect of Garcinia
mangostana on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acne: Study
showed that G mangostana possess significant antioxidant activity –
highly effective in scavenging free radicals and suppressing the production
of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It suggests a potential source of an
agent for the treatment of acne vulgaris. (2)
• Geranylated Biphenyl Derivative:
Extracts of root bark, stem bark and latex yielded compounds with antibacterial,
anti-inflammatory and antifungal activities supporting its use in indigenous
• Antiproliferative / Antioxidant / Apoptosis Inducing: Study on human breast cancer cell line showed the methanolic extract from the pericarp of G mangostana had strong antiproliferation, potent antioxidation and induction of apoptosis and suggests a potential use for cancer chemoprevention. (4)
• Tuberculosis: Antimycobacterial
Activity of Prenylated Xanthones from the Fruits of Garcinia mangostana:
Prenylated xanthones, alpha- and beta- mangostins and garcinone B showed
strong inhibitory activity against M tuberculosis. (6)
• Antioxidant / Cytoprotective: Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Activities of Methanolic
Extract from Garcinia mangostana Hulls: Study suggests GM extract
possess antioxidant and chemoprotective activities through a reducing
mechanism and inhibition of intracellular oxidative stress.
• Antimicrobial / Anti-Acne: In a study of Thai medicinal plants against the etiologic agents of acne vulgaris, Garcinia mangostana was one of the plants with strong inhibitory effects against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermis. One of the active compounds in G mangostana could be mangostin, a xanthone derivative. (7)
• Free Radical Scavenging / Cytokine Reducing: Study showed G mangostana possessed significant antioxidant activity and reduced reactive oxygen species production. It was able to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
• Panaxanthone / Anti-Tumor / Antimetastatic: Study showed the antitumor effects of panaxanthone were associated with elevation of apoptotic cell death, antiproliferation and antiangiogenesis. The antimetastatic activity of panaxanthone may be of clinical significance as adjuvant therapy in metastatic breast cancer and also useful as a chemopreventive of breast cancer development. (8)
• Antioxidant / Cytoprotective: Study showed the methanolic extract of the hulls of G mangostana possessed antioxidant and chemopreventive activities via a reducing mechanism and inhibition of intracellular oxidative stress. (9)
• Anti-Inflammatory: In a study of extracts from G. mangostana, N. arbortristis, C. rotundus and C. nutans, the G. mangostana showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity in mice using carrageenan induced paw edema model. The dose response was dose-dependent. (10)
• Antiproliferative / Anti-Cancer: Study showed EtOAc extract with strong antiproliferative activity and induced apoptosis in human ovarian SKOV3 cells, suggesting a possible important role in cancer chemotherapy. Results indicate cancer in-vitro and in-vivo antiproliferation from active components of mangosteen. (11)
• Topical Treatment for Acne vulgaris: Study concludes that the aqueous extract of Garcinia mangostana and Aloe vera can be formulated in an aqueous based gel system for the topical treatment of mild acne vulgaris. The microbial assay of the formulations demonstrated better inhibitory activity against Propionibacterium acne and Staph epidermis. (12)
• Cytotoxicity / Anti-Cancer: The crude hexane extract of G. mangostana showed activity against the CEM-SS cell-line with an IC50 value of 17 pg/ml. The pure compounds a-mangostin, mangostanol and garcinone D also exhibited significant activities with ICso values of 5.5,9.6 and 3.2 pg/ml against CEM-SS cell line, respectively.
• Phytochemical and Pharmacologic Review: 2009 Review looked at the phytochemistry and pharmacology of mangosteen. Central to the biological activity of the species are xanthones which are reviewed in detail. Its potential for development of novel drug leads is assessed. The review acknowledges a weakness due to a lack of clinical data and how present knowledge relates to potential clinical relevance. (17)
• Xanthones / Antibacterial: y-Mangostin has shown antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MSSA, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus and VSE. The combination of C-6 and C-3 hydroxyl groups with tetraoxygenated xanthones from G. mangostana is essential for its high antibacterial activity. (18)
• Colorant / Antibacterial: Study evaluated the potential of fruit hulls as source of paint for use on paper or incorporated in cosmetics. Phytochemical analysis yielded tannins, carbohydrates and glycosides. Safety assessment showed zero rating for erythema and edema formation. Results showed promise as colorant for lip sheen and as paint on paper. (19)
• Antileptospiral Activity / Xanthones / Synergy with Penicillin: Study evaluated the inhibitory activity of purified xanthones and crude extracts from G. mangostana fruit pericarp against non-pathogenic and pathogenic leptospira. Results showed showed significant antibacterial activity. The combination with antibiotic enhances the antileptospiral activity. (20)
• Fruit Pericarp / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the effect of fruit pericarp ethanolic extract on markers of inflammation (NBF-kB), TNF-a levels, NO in an atherosclerotic rat model. Results suggests the extract inhibited inflammation in atherosclerotic rats via inhibition of distribution NF-kB p65/p50 into the nucleus and decreases TNF-a and NO levels. (21)
• Anticancer / MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line / Pericarp: Study evaluated the molecular mechanism of anticancer activity of mangosteen pericarp extract on ER-α. Estrogen receptor is one of the biomarker in breast cancer progression, more than 60% breast cancer overexpress ERa. Results showed anticancer activity which may be mediated by other gene involved in ER-α signaling pathway in breast cancer cells. (22)
• Antimicrobial / Pericarp: Study of G. mangostana extract of pericarp powder for antimicrobial activity. showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, and Micrococcus luteus. (23)
• Catechins / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of evaluated an ethanolic extract of fruit pericarp on several markers of inflammation. Results showed EE of fruit pericarp inhibits inflammation in atherosclerotic rats due to inhibition of distribution of NF-kB p65/p50 into the nucleus and decreases TNF-α and NO lesions. (24)
• Alpha-Mangostin / Nanoparticles: Study reports an easy biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from the rind extract of Garcinia mangostana. Silver nanoparticles of the rind extract of G. mangostana exhibited strong bactericidal and fungicidal activity. Results present of potential for wide application in medicine. (25)
• α-Mangostin / Antitumor and Antimetastatic: Study evaluated the antitumor growth and antimetastatic activities of α-mangostin in an immunocompetent xenograft model of mouse metastatic mammary cancer with a p53 mutation that induces a metastatic spectrum similar to that seen in human breast cancers. Results showed treatment with α-mangostin induces a significant increase in survival and suppression of tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in a mouse mammary cancer model with p53 mutation. (26)
• Anticancer / • α-Mangostin / Polyphenols: Fruit is an abundant source of xanthones, a class of polyphenolic compounds largely responsible for its biologic activities. Study describes the anticancer activity and mechanisms of mangosteen polyphenolic compounds including α-Mangostin against breast cancer and prostate cancer. Study suggests the polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. (27)
• Herbal Formulation for Weight Management / Sphaeranthus indicus and Garcinia mangostana: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 100 subjects evaluated the clinical effects and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation from two extracts
. Results suggest the herbal blend appears to be well-tolerated and effective ingredient for weight management. (28)
• Mangostan Peel Powder as Antioxidant in Natural Rubber Compound: Study showed the addition of MPP (Mangosteen peel powder) into SMR (standard Malaysian rubber) compounds improved the aging property of the compound (29)
• Toxicity Study / Pericarp: Study evaluated the toxicity of G. mangostana methanolic extract of pericarp powder in rats using 1, 2, and 3 g/kg orally for 7 and 14 days in Wistar rats. Results showed no mortality nor alterations in body weight, organ weight, cytoarchitecture of organs, clinical biochemistry, serum marker enzymes and hematological parameters in the treatment group. (30) (see study below:14)
• Herb-Drug Interactions: (1) Chemotherapy: Mangosteen products have antioxidant effects and may interfere with the action of anthracyclines, platinum compound, and alkylating agents. (2) Calcineurin Inhibitors: Isogarcinol isolated from mangosteen inhibits calcineurin. It may have additive immunosuppressant effects when used with related drugs. (3) Cytochrome P450: Mangosteen inhibits CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A11 and can affect the intracellular concentration of drugs metabolized by these enzymes. (31)
• Acute Supplementation Showed No Effect on Alleviating Physical Fatigue: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study on 12 healthy adults evaluated the effect of acute oral administration of mangosteen-based juice (305 mg of a-mangostin and 278 mg of hydroxycitric acid) vs a placebo control 1 hour before cycle ergometer exercise. Study showed acute mangosteen supplementation had no impact on alleviating physical fatigue during exercise. (34)
• α-Mangostin / Regulatory Effect on High-Fat Diet Induced Hepatic Steatosis: Study evaluated the regulatory effect of α-MG on high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Results showed α-MG attenuated hepatic steatosis through enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity and improved mitochondrial functions as well as suppressed apoptosis of hepatocytes. Results suggest a potential use of α-MG as a novel nutritional approach in the management of non-alcohoic fatty liver disease. (35)
• Antioxidant / Pericarp: Study evaluated percarp extracts for antioxidant properties via FRAP, ABTS, DPPH, reducing power and chelating ability assays. The extraction of mangosteen pericarp in acetone and EA extract showed maximum and free radical scavenging activity in in vitro conditions. The higher yield in solvent extract with aqueous fraction may be due to the extraction of carbohydrates and flavanoids which occur mostly as glycosylated derivatives. (36)
• α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity: α-Amylase inhibitor (α-AI) activity of mangosteen pericarp extracts was evaluated by assay guided fractionations. The fraction that showed very high inhibitory activity contains primarily polyphennols and absorbed on Amberlite XAD2. The IC50 of 5.4 µg/ml was comparable to acarbose, an α-AI used in T2 diabetes. Both tannic acid and G. mangostana OPCs (oligomeric proanthocyanidins) precipitate BSA equally well but G. mangostana OPCs were 56 times more effective i inhibiting α-amylase. (37)
• Anti-Adipogenesis / Peels: Anti-adipogenesis is one of the important mechanism for anti-obesity. Study evaluated the anti-adipogenesis potential of G. mangostana peel extract compared to xanthones in HepB2 cells line model. Results showed GMPE possesses anti-adipogenesis potential through inhibition of triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells much better than any other xanthone (α-mangostin, y-mangostin, garcinone C and garcinone D). (38)
• Antitumoral / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antitumor and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of fruit and leaf. The leaf extract induced genotoxicity and apoptosis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The ethanolic extract obtained from resin, leaf and fruit showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with MIC of 0.1 mg/ml. (39)
• Absorption and Conjugation of Xanthones in Mangosteen Juice: Study evaluated the bioavailability of xanthones from 100% mangosteen juice in healthy adult participants. Pericarp particles accounted for 1% of the mass and 99% of the xanthone concentration in the juice. The juice provided 5.3±0.1 mmol/L total xanthones with α-mangostin, garcinones (C,D, and E), y-mangostin, gartanins, and other identified xanthones in amounts of 58, 2, 6, 4, and 5%, respectively. 60 cc of the mangosteen juice was taken with a high fat breakfast. Free and conjugated (glucorinated/suflated) xanthones were detected in the urine. There was marked variation. α-Mangostin was the only xanthone detected in the serum, indicating the concentration of the other xanthones was less than 12.2 nmol/L. Results suggest low bioavailability might be due to inefficient release of xanthones from pericarp materials. Study also suggests the presence of compounds in tea and aloe vera present in the juice blend may have attenuated the bioaccessibility and absorption of xanthones. Results clearly indicate xanthones are absorbed and can be transformed to phase 2 metabolites and suggests further studies on bioactivities. (40)
α-Mangostin / Cell Cycle Arrest in Prostate Cancer: Study evaluated the anticancer effect of α-mangostin derived from the mangosteen fruit, in human PCa cells and its role in targeting cell cycle-related proteins involved in prostate carcinogensis. At the end of the study, mice in the control group had a tumor volume of 1190 mm compared to 410 mm (p<0.01) tumor volume in the treatment group. The in vitro and in vivo inhibition of PCa suggest a potential for α-mangostin as a novel agent for the management of PCa. (42)
• Toxicity Study of Xanthone from Mangosteen on Zebrafish Embryos: Study investigated the toxicity level of different concentrations of xanthone in zebrafish embryo as future reference on other animal model. The extract showed toxicity on embryo at concentrations of 250, 125, and 62.5 µg/mL while concentrations of 15.63, 7.81, and 3.91 µg/mL did not harm the embryos and showed 100% survival. (43)
• Anti-Alzheimer Potential of Xanthone Derivatives: Study evaluated the potential of xanthone derivatives as new anti-Alzheimer agents. Study reports on xanthones with anticholinesterase, monoamine oxidase and amyloid ß aggregation activities as well as antioxidant properties emphasizing xanthone derivatives with dual/multitarget activity as potential agent to treat AD. (44)
• Anti-Colon Cancer Effect / α-Mangostin and Mangostana Xanthones: Study evaluated a xanthones extract (81% α-mangostin and 16% y-mangostin) prepared from a toluene extract of fruit rinds for anti-colon cancer effect in HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, anti-tumorigenicity, and effect on cell signaling pathways in a model of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. Results showed potent cytotoxicity due to induction of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, together with inhibition of three steps in tumor metastasis including cell migration, cell invasion and clonogenicity. (45)
• Biologic Activities and Bioavailability of Mangosteen Xanthones / 2013 Review: While anti-tumorigenic and anti-inflammatory activities have been demonstrated in laboratory rodents, controlled intervention trials of efficacy in human volunteers remain quite limited. Despite numerous in vitro and in vivo studies on bioactivities of mangosteen xanthones, more research is needed to evaluate safety and health benefits before they can be recommended for prevented or therapeutic use. (47)
• Despite claims
by marketeers, the efficacy and safety of mangosteen products for cancer
treatment in humans have not been established. Studies have shown anti-inflammatory,
cytotoxic, aromatase-inhibitory, antioxidant, antiproliferative and
apoptotic effects. However, there is no data from clinical trials to
verify these effects in humans. Caution is given that mangosteen products
may interfere with certain chemotherapeutic drugs. For diabetics, the caution
is because of its high sugar content. (July 2008) (31)
• Exacerbation of Colitis: Patients with ulcerative colitis are advised to avoid products high in alpha-mangostin as animal studies suggest this constituent may exacerbate symptoms. (31)
• Case Report of Severe Lactic Acidosis: Study reports a case of severe lactic acidosis associated
with the use of mangosteen juice as a dietary supplement. (Mar 2008)
• Toxicity Study / Pericarp Extract: Ethanolic extracts from the fruit pericarp have been shown to possess many biological and pharmacological activities. A six-month study in Wistar rats showed of high dose mangosteen pericarp extract affected both liver and kidney. Although the MPE did not produce overt pharmacotoxic signs and hematologic abnormalities, higher doses affected hepatic and renal laboratory parameters. There was also hepatocellular degeneration after higher dose withdrawal which may suggest persistence in liver pathology. Safety constituents in the extract should be further investigated before use for health promotion. (also read: toxicity study above 30) (14)
Cultivated for its fruit.
Extracts, pills, and liquid botanical supplements in the cybermarket.