Mani-manian is a prostrate, stoloniferous, perennial tropical legume, growing about 8 inches high. Stems grow along the ground and root at the nodes. Leaflets are oval, four on each petiole. Flowers are yellow, borne on short axillary racemes. Flower stalks elongate and grow down into the soil. Fruit is a terminal one-seeded underground pod, light brown, 1 to 1.5 centimeters long, 6 to 8 millimeters in diameter.
- Native of central Brazil.
- Spread to Argentina, Australia, and the U.S., later on to the Pacific, Southeast Asia and Central America. (7)
- Planted as ornamental landscaping ground cover.
- Used as alternative cover crop for perennial crops: mango, avocado, coffee, banana, palm oil, pineapple, etc.
- Leaf consists of 60-70% dry matter digestibility, 13-25% crude protein, and low levels of condensed tannins.
- As forage, yields high nutritional value with 13.-25% crude protein content, 60-70% dry matter digestibility and low levels of condensed tannins.
- Seedlings develop quickly, reaching ground cover spread by 6 months through its system of stolons.
- Persistence is attributed to the rooted stolons.
- Little biomass, lacks deep penetrating roots, and takes 4-6 months to establish a ground cover.
- Tolerant of heavy grazing because of persistent stolons.
- Flowers are edible; a color ingredient to soups and salads.
- In the Bikol area, leaves crushed and rubbed over insect and centipede bites.
- Fodder: Studies suggest potential as forage plant.
Its stoloniferous growth habit, subterranean seed production, high forage quality, and acceptability to grazing cattle are of particular value. (8)
- In Caqueta, Columbia, used by livestock farmers to improve milk yield in cows. In Brazil, valued by farmers as a herbaceous pasture and cover legume. (6)
Potential for erosion control
along the exposed benches of city and country roads.
- Used as permanent pasture for intensive grazing systems.
- In the Philippines, used for free range kabir chickens, horses, pigs, tilapia, cat-fish, goats and cows.
• Feeding System Intensifying Dairy Production:
In Costa Rica's Pacific coastal region, the pasture association Brachiaria decumbens and Arachis pintoi increased daily milk production of Jersey cows.
Although the Jersey cows used in the trial received as supplement a feed concentrate of 14% CP and 2.4 Mcal ME, the beneficial effect of Arachis on milk production could still be observed.
The persistence of A. pintoi during the four years of the evaluation contributed to maintaining production and pasture quality, (4)
• Contribution to Animal Productivity: The perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) in association with stoloniferous grasses has resulted in productivity increases of 15% milk and 20% beef in experimental plots, with the additional benefit of increasing soil biological activity, notably in the form of higher earthworm populations. It also reduces soil erosion problems and allows the release of on-farm land not suited for grazing for other uses such as reforestation.
• Anthelmintic / Haemonchus contortus Infective Larvae / Role of Tannins: Study investigated the in vitro anthelmintic activity of five tropical legume plants against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae. At highest concentration, A. pintoi completely inhibited the exsheathment process of H. contortus. The
anthelmintic effect was blocked by the removal of tannin by the addition of polyethylene glycol. (9)
• Phytoremediation / Arsenic Contamination in Coal Ash Dumping Site: Coal ash is a hazardous waste product from coal thermal power plant for electricity generation. CA contains heavy metals which pose an impact on human health and environment. Study investigated the remediation ability of A. pinto. Accumulation of Arsenic was found in root tissue higher than upper parts and remediated up to 11.992%. Results showed the plant had capability to grow and potential to remove As from coal dumping site. (10)